info@celp.org.uk

Iringa Region:Udzungwa Mountains

View/Download PDF version

There are 14 official and two proposed catchment forest reserves on the Udzungwa plateau in Iringa and Mufindi districts. In addition there are a number of small, local authority forest reserves and small patches of forest on public land. IMAGE covers Mt. Selebu, a northern outlier of the Udzungwa mountains. South of IMAGE, the proposed KITONGA reserve covers the Kitonga mountain North and South of Kitonga Gorge. East of Iringa KISINGA RUGARO covers rocky hills south of the main Iringa to Morogoro road. Southeast of Iringa and North of Kidabaga, NEW DABAGA and ULANGAMBI cover hilly country in a continuous north running belt of forest. Toward the East facing Udzungwa escarpment North and East of Idete three reserves cover forest patches surrounded by cultivation. These are, KITEMELE which covers a ridge and east facing slope. KAWEMBA which covers an isolated hill; and KIRANZI KITUNGURU which covers a series of peaks and valleys. South of these three reserves, the UZUNGWA SCARP covers an extensive area of the Udzungwa escarpment from Idete, South to where the Kihanzi river drops into the Kilombero valley. WEST KILOMBERO SCARP covers a huge area of the northeastern part of the Udzungwa plateau. The southern boundary is the Mngeta River which begins about 55 km southeast of Iringa. The reserve extends along the Iringa/Morogoro Regional boundary all the way to Lake Kidatu on the Great Ruaha River. Most of West Kilombero Scarp covers remote steep hilly country and is rather inaccessible. The northern half of this reserve has been annexed into the Udzungwa National Park. The proposed KIMALA is north of KIRANZI KITUNGURU and on the southwestern boundary of West Kilombero Scarp. Southwest of Uzungwa Scarp there is a 35 km gap of unprotected escarpment. This area is mostly rolling grassland with little natural forest. There are three small patches of forest at Lulanda village midway between Uzungwa Scarp and the forests of the Mufindi escarpment to the southwest. This forest is Eastern Arc type and has a very high biodiversity value but it is not officially protected. MUFINDI SCARP EAST begins a few kilometres southeast of Lulanda. It extends along the escarpment for about 45 km mostly protecting steep escarpment slopes and rolling hilly areas covered in grassland with scattered Protea trees. There is a patch of scrubby secondary montane forest along the Kipanga ridge. KIGOGO and MUFINDI SCARP WEST cover hilly areas along the top of the escarpment and parts of the steep escarpment face. The eastern boundary of Kigogo is contiguous with Mufindi Scarp East on the escarpment edge while Mufindi Scarp West extends to the bottom of the escarpment.

Image Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN No. 392 of 1954
Border map : JB 186 (1:50,000) 1953
Topographic maps : 216/1, 198/3
Special map : JB 1171 (vegetation cover type map, 1961)
: Image Forest Reserve Cover Type Map HIMA/DANIDA 1990 Forest Inventory Project. One sheet (1:25,000) 1990
Gazetted area : 22,040 acres (8920 ha)
Measured area : 8800 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 151,850 ft (46,284 m)
LOCATION: – 07°22’15” – 07°33’15″S; 36°08’15” – 36°12’25″E.

Seventy km from Iringa. The reserve covers a huge ridge, called Mt. Selebu, running north and south. Selebu is at the northern end of the Udzungwa range just North of the Kitonga gorge and South of the Great Ruaha River. Access is along a track from Ilula (_ 45 km from Iringa on the road to Morogoro) to Ibumu village. Beyond Ibumu a rough logging track continues to the top of the ridge and enters the reserve at the extreme North end. The reserve has an elevational range of 1640 – 2440 m, and is adjacent villages are Lyasa, Kilala, and Ibumu.

SOILS:

Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss with extensive areas of rock faces.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: _ 1500 mm/yr. Mist is important at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The western slopes are woodland, giving way to grassland patches at 2200 m and moist forest on the wetter eastern slopes and rivers draining eastwards into the Ruaha. The forest is upper montane at high altitudes with montane forest below. There are large areas of secondary forest following logging. There are extensive areas of rock outcrops which are covered in lithophytic lichens and orchids. Buffalo occur and occasionally elephants. Measured areas of vegetation types (from HIMA/DANIDA, 1990) are: Grassland: Mbuga grassland 160.6 ha, Rocky, Grassland, Mbuga 1490.7 ha, bushed grassland rocky, 146.9 ha. (NB There are no extensive mbuga in the form of waterlogged grassland on Mt. Selebu as it is too steep, the term Mbuga grassland presumably refers to montane grassland). Woodland: open woodland miombo, 2104.6 ha. Forest: Moist forest (open), 62.6 ha, moist forest (closed) 4834.6 ha.

Woodland: Open canopy with trees to 10 m tall, becoming lower with altitude. At lower altitudes trees include: Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphyllum, B. spiciformis, Protea spp., Uapaca kirkiana. At higher altitudes Myrica and Phillipia also occur.

Grassland: Short species rich montane grassland includes: Crytanthus breviflorus, Dierama pendulum, Disa nyikensis, Eulophia clavicornis, E. rara, Impatiens gomphophylla, Justicia uncinulata, Lobelia goetzei, Moraea iringensis, Oldenlandia rupicola.

Upper montane forest: Canopy to 15 – 20 m, lower in forest patches in montane grassland. Trees include: Acokanthera laevigata, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cassipourea malosana, Cussonia spicata, Ekebergia capensis, Hagenia abyssinica, Maesa lanceolata, Myrica salicifolia, Nuxia congesta, Podocarpus latifolius, Prunus africana, Rapanea melanophloeos, Syzygium cordatum. Shrubs include: Coffea mufindensis, Lasianthus kilimandscharicus, Pavetta kyimbilensis.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 – 30 m. Trees include: Aningeria adolfi-fredericii, Casearia battiscombei, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Croton macrostachyus, Ixora scheffleri, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Rawsonia reticulata

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is surrounded by dry country and although there are no major rivers issuing from Image, there are many small streams which supply water to local villages. Irrigation around the reserve enables dry season cultivation of onions, tomatoes and beans. Streams from the reserve also supply fish ponds in Lyasa village.

TIMBER VALUES:

The main species exploited in Image FR has been Mdobole (Hagenia abyssinica), though other species used for timber include: Mvembanyigo/Podo (Podocarpus sp.), Mlembelembe (Aningeria adolfi-fredericii and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum), Msengela (Cassipourea malosana and Cassipourea gummiflua), Mpalala (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Mwiluti (Prunus africana), Mdegepa (Casearia battiscombei), Muhenyi (Faurea saligna). Most of the timber has now been exhausted, and there are extensive secondary areas.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve has a high biodiversity value largely because of the many different vegetation types it contains. The moist forests are part of the Eastern Arc, but are too dry to contain many species of restricted distribution. Rare trees include Acokanthera laevigata and Ixora scheffleri which follow a Tanganyika-Nyasa montane chain distribution southwards into Malawi. The shrub Coffea mufindensis occurs in some quantity and has important gene pool values. The montane grassland is species rich, and the high altitude rock outcrops are rich in lithophytes because of frequent mists. Similarly the woodland is rich in epiphytes with some endemics such as Aerangis lovettii and unusual species such as the shrub Myrothamnus flabellifolius.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

In the last 10-15 years there has been extensive extraction of timber resulting in large areas of disturbed forest. Medicinal plants are collected and a famous herbalist who cures bone fractures lives in Ibumu. Before recent clearing of the border, there was some cultivation inside the reserve. Poles and firewood are taken from the reserve, especially near Lyasa village where forest on public land has already been cut. There is stock grazing and honey collection in the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary has been cleared and planted. Follow-up clearing and planting are needed, with some surveying in a few areas. Inventory data collected in 1990 has been processed, but reprocessing may be necessary.. Regeneration and enrichment planting of Mdobole and Mvembanyigo is needed. A system of grazing licenses needs to be introduced. Boundary planting of fuelwood and building poles needs to be carried out in areas close to villages. The scenic beauty of the area offers the potential for small scale tourism.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of Mdobole and Mvembayigo. Border planting of fuelwood and building poles in areas near villages.

Biodiversity zone: Suitable areas of forest, rock outcrops, woodland and montane grassland, for example a band over the centre of the reserve.

Amenity zone: Areas of local cultural importance. Suitable route to the peaks for small scale tourism.

LITERATURE:

Lovett, J.C. & T.C.E. Congdon. 1990. Some notes on a visit to Selegu mountain, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 20: 4-5.

Minja, T.R.A. 1991. A visit report on Image Catchment Forest Reserve. Catchment Forestry files.

Ruffo, C.K. 1991. A report on the identification of species for Image Forest Inventory, Iringa Region. Tanzania Forestry Institute.

Back to Top

Kawemba Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District
Year of establishment : No data
Declaration : Sch.
Border map : not seen
Topographic map : 234/1
Gazetted area : 142 acres (57.5 ha)
Measured area : 59.5 ha (from 1978 aerial photography)
Gazetted boundary length : not available
LOCATION: – 8°08’10”, 8°08’50″S; 36°00’50” – 36°01’15″E.

Access is from the road between Idete and Kiwalamo village which passes the reserve 87.5 km SE of Iringa. Kawemba covers a hill with the Mkangasa and Lukosi rivers to the North and South. The elevational range is 1520 to 1700 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest which appears to be of a lower canopy and more scrubby nature on the northern slopes.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 – 30 m. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Aphloia theiformis, Anthocleista grandiflora, Canthium oligocarpum, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Isolona hexaloba, Ixora scheffleri, Leptonychia usambarensis, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Milletia oblata, Myrianthus holstii, Ocotea usambarensis, Parinari excelsa, Rapanea melanophloeos, Rawsonia reticulata, Sapium ellipticum, Syzygium guineense, Xymalos monospora, Zanthoxylon gilletii.

Shrubs include: Alsodeiopsis schummannii, Coffea, Draceana laxissima, Lasianthus peduncularis, Maytenus acuminata, Oxyanthus, Pauridiantha paucinervis, Psychotria, Rauvolfia mannii, Rytigynia lichenoxenos, Trichilia lovettii. Herbs include: Aframomum spp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the Lukosi and Mkangasa catchments.

TIMBER VALUES:

Valuable timber such as Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis), is now exhausted, though there is some regeneration. Less value timber includes: Albizia and Syzygium guineense.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and is relatively wet and so contains a number of species of restricted distribution. For example: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Alsodeiopsis schumannii and Lasianthus peduncularis are typical of the Eastern Arc. Birds include: Prodotiscus zambesiae, Dicrurus ludwigii, Andropadus masukuensis, Phyllastrephus flavostriatus, Phyllastrephus placidis, Modulatrix stictigula, Apalis chariessa, Apalis melanocephala, Apalis chapini, Bradypterus cinnamomeus, Orthotomus metopias, Batis mixta, Dryoscopus cubla, Malaconotus multicolor, Laniarius fuelleborni, Peoptera kenricki, Nectarinia mediocris, Zosterops senegalensis, Ploceus bicolor.. Despite its small size and the short amount of time spent there, this forest produced some very interesting bird distribution records. This is only the second known locality in the Uzungwas where Eastern Green-backed Honeybird, Prodotiscus zambesiae, has been found and the third locality for White-winged Apalis, Apalis chariessa.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is an isolated forest island surrounded by cultivation. Villagers in Kiwalamo say that it was formerly connected to Mgungu (Kitungulu) forest. Medicine is taken from the forest, as are building poles, and fuelwood. Formerly timber was extracted, but stocks are now exhausted. Small animals are trapped.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be surveyed, cleared and planted. Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood are needed. Logged areas need to be regenerated and enriched with valuable species. The reserve is of high biodiversity value, and requires protection.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Productive zone: Boundary plantations.

Biodiversity zone: To cover most of the reserve.

Amenity zone: Areas of cultural importance and places where medicinal plants can be gathered for local use..

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

Kiranzi-Kitunguru Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District
Year of establishment : no data
Declaration : Sch.
Border map : not seen
Topographic map : 234/1
Gazetted area : 2,717 acres (1099.5 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : not available
LOCATION: – 8°06’00”, 8°08’35″S; 36°02’50” – 36°04’30″E

Ninety one km from Iringa via Idete village. Access is from Kiwalamo and Idunda villages on the road from Idete to Kimala and Mhanga to Kimala. Locally the forest is called Mgungu. The reserve covers a range of hills above the Lukosi and Mngeta valleys and elevation varies from 1520 to 1800 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest with a drier eastern and wetter western side.

Montane forest: The area near the boundary on the eastern side of the forest is dominated by Albizia gummifera and is disturbed in some places. Trees include: Allophylus, Anthocleista grandiflora, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Canthium oligocarpum, Ensete, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Milletia oblata, Myrianthus holstii, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Trema, Xymalos monospora..

Shrubs include: Psychotria, Rauvolfia mannii, Tecomaria capense.

Herbs include: Aframomum spp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is the source of many small streams which feed into the Lukosi and Mngeta rivers and are of importance for local water supply.

TIMBER VALUES:

Stocks of valuable timber such as Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis) are exhausted. Less valuable species such as Mpalala (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Mtanga (Albizia gummifera), Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum), Mnyalati (Rapanea melanophloeos), are now being exploited.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is Eastern Arc type, and species of restricted distribution will be found on the wetter eastern side and upper ridges. Animals include: Black-and-White Colobus (Mbega), Red Colobus (Ng’uluba), Blue Monkey (Nyabu), Red-legged Sun Squirrel, (Kaindi), Red Duiker (Nfuno), Abbot’s Duiker (Vinde), Livingstone’s Suni (Swangala), Bushpig (Ngubi), and formerly Bushbuck (Mato) in the forest. Birds include: Buteo oreophilus, Stephanoaetus coronatus, Turtur tympanistria, Apalis (alticola) cinerea , Apalis melanocephala, Apalis chapini, Orthotomus metopias, Bradypterus mariae, Bradypterus cinnamomeus, C. chubbi nigriloris, Nectarinia mediocris, and Ploceus baglefecht.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The eastern edge of the forest has been heavily disturbed by former cultivation, logging, and collection of building poles and fuelwood. The forest was not reported to be of cultural significance. Timber extraction has depleted stocks of valuable timber.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The borders need to be cleared and planted, the beacon mounds are reported to still be present which would mean that resurveying is not required. A short section of boundary where the forest reaches the road has been planted with Cupressus in order to prevent encroachment. Regeneration and enrichment of valuable timber species needs to be carried out. Border plantations to supply fuelwood and building poles need to be planted near areas of population density. A survey needs to be conducted to identify areas of high biodiversity for protection in a biodiversity zone.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable timber species. Boundary plantations for of fuelwood and building poles.

Biodiversity zone: In a suitable area following a survey.

Amenity zone: Areas of local cultural importance. Traditional footpaths.

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

Kisinga-Rugaro Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District

Year of establishment : 1934 (Incorporating-Waka forest reserve, Ngombesi forest reserve, North and South Kifueni forest reserves.)
Declaration : GN No. 31 of 1934
Border map : JB 31 (1:25,000), 1933. JB 26/2813.
Topographic maps : 215/2, 215/4, 216/1, 216/3
Special map : Kisinga Rugaro Cover Type Map – HIMA/DANIDA 1990 Forest Inventory Project. One sheet (1:25,000) 1990.
Gazetted area : 35,000 acres (14,164 ha)
Measured area : 14,154 ha (14,163.7 ha from addition of vegetation types) (HIMA/DANIDA 1990 from 1957 aerial photography)
Gazetted boundary length : 63 kms
LOCATION: – 07°44’25” – 07°53’00″S; 35°53’52” – 36°03’40″E

Forty km from Iringa. Access to the south-west corner is through Lundamatwe village 12 km East of Iringa on the main Iringa – Morogoro road. Follow the track to Kitelewasi village for 1 km, bear right and continue 23 km to Lutwina. Access from the North is through the village of Imalutwa. Turn right at the large fig tree (standi ya Mbuzi) and then southwards for 13.2 km up a rough track to the edge of the forest. The track enters the forest at about 2100 m and continues for 2 km to Ihangana stream (07°45’09″S, 36°00’14″E, 2040 m). Access from the South is through the village of Kising’a. Turn left from the Iringa-Kidabaga road shortly after crossing the bridge over the Little Ruaha at Ndwili village and follow the track to Kising’a passing through Ihimbo and Itimbo villages. Alternatively, continue on the Iringa-Kidabaga road to Kilolo village and turn left on the track passing through Lulanzi and Isele to Kising’a. The reserve covers an extensive area of undulating plateau with an elevational range of 1700 – 2332 m. Although the legally gazetted name is Rugaro, the forest is known locally as Lugalo locally.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss with extensive areas of rock faces, and areas of clay with stones.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr, higher on the eastern side and lower on the western side. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is a mosaic of montane and upper montane forest with areas of edaphic grassland (over clay and stone soils of low fertility), fire maintained grassland (over areas formerly occupied by forest) and rock outcrop. Measured areas of vegetation cover (from HIMA/DANIDA, 1990) are: moist closed forest with bamboo, 9016.2 ha; moist open forest with bamboo, 344.0 ha; bush grassland, 683.1 ha; scrub grassland, 3360.0 ha; mbuga grassland: 683.1 ha; outcrop rock: 77.3 ha.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 metres with the trees: Casearia battiscombei, Craibia brevicaudata, Ochna holstii, Podocarpus, Polyscias fulva, Rawsonia reticulata, Vepris stolzii, and Zanthoxylon gilletii.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 10 – 15 metres with the trees: Acokanthera laevigata, Bersama abyssinica, Cassipourea malosana, Diospyros natalense , Diospyros whyteana, Dombeya torrida, Dovyalis, Ekebergia capensis, Euphorbia sp., Halleria lucida, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maytenus acuminata, Myrica salicifolia, Podocarpus sp., Polyscias fulva, Rapanea, Schefflera umbellifera, Turrea holstii. Shrubs include: Clausena anisata, Coffea mufindensis,.

Forest patches in edaphic grassland include: Allophylus africana, Bersama abyssinica, Carissa edulis, Clutia abyssinica, Dombeya torrida, Heteromorpha, Maesa lancelota, Myrsine africana, Rapanea melanophloeos, Schrebera alata, Tecomaria capensis.

Open areas on the forest edge covered by bracken or Kotschya sp., (with occasional Myrica and Cussonia spicata) were probably formerly forest that has been cultivated and is now maintained by fire.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Many streams originate from the reserve and are used locally for irrigation and general use.

TIMBER VALUES:

Species that have been harvested include: Podo (Podocarpus), Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum), Mpalala (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Msengela (Cassipourea gummiflua), Mlelulelu (Casearia battiscombei) Munyakisaki, Miwengi (Syzigium sp.), Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis). Of these, the most valuable are Podo and Muheti. The Muheti was harvested in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Stocks of valuable timber are now low.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve appears to be plateau type forest with relatively few species of restricted distribution. Animals include: Black-and-White and Iringa Red Colobus (Mbega and Ng’uluba), Sykes Monkey (Nyabu), Red Duiker (Nfuno), Abbots Duiker (Vinde), Livingstone’s Suni (Swangala), Bushbuck (Mato), and Bushpig (Ngubi) are found in many areas of the forest. Buffalo occur in low numbers in the Western parts of the reserve. Birds include: Stephanoaetus coronatus, Pogoniulus leucomystax, Psalidoprocne pristoptera, Dicrurus ludwigii, Andropadus tephrolaemus, Cossypha caffra, Cossypha anomala, Modulatrix stictigula, Turdus abyssinicus, Apalis alticola, Apalis chapini, Apalis thoracica, Bradypterus mariae, Bradypterus cinnamomeus, Orthotomus metopias, Melaenornis chocolatina, Batis mixta, Trochocercus albonotatus, Laniarius fuelleborni, Nectarinia mediocris, Zosterops senegalensis, Ploceus bicolor, Serinus canicollis, Serinus citrinelloides, and Serinus striolatus whytii.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Areas of the reserve appear to be old secondary growth following cultivation in the historical past. Other areas are fire maintained grassland or bracken thicket following more recent cultivation. There is extensive cutting of bamboo along the north-east side of the reserve to make baskets for the thriving tomato trade centred in Imalutwa, Mazombe, and Ilula villages. Honey hunting has resulted in tree felling and fires. Forest soil has been removed for use in nurseries. In the past logging has caused considerable disturbance, and there is an old logging track going deep into the reserve. There is hunting for small game. Fire entering the reserve from outside has caused loss of boundary markers. In the southwest portion cattle and sheep are grazed on the grassland in the reserve and fuelwood is removed. Medicinal plants are taken for local use.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be maintained by regular clearing (which will help with fire control) and by completing boundary planting activities begun in 1989. An inventory was carried out in 1991, but the data are not yet analysed.

The reserve is important for the production of Tenga baskets (made from bamboo) which are used to transport agricultural produce. The sustainability of this exploitation needs to be investigated. If it is found to be unsustainable then alternatives, such as bamboo plantations should be implemented. Because the heavy use of bamboo is for commercial rather than local use, the possibility of raising revenue from its exploitation should be investigated. Grazing should be controlled by a system of licenses.

Logged areas need to be replanted with suitable species such as Muheti and Podo. Trials plantings of Mkangazi were unsuccessful because the trees were planted at high elevation in an exposed position in poor soils on edaphic grassland. Mkangazi prefers good soils in valleys with forest cover. Natural regeneration of Podocarpus needs to be encouraged.

Proximity to the main road and beautiful scenery offers potential for small scale tourism in an suitably located amenity zone. Developments needed would be planting of wattle or Eucalyptus for firewood (to prevent cutting of indigenous forest), some cement fireplaces to prevent fires being lit in places where they could burn out of control, and a few picnic tables.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment Zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Amenity zone: Selected suitable areas for small scale tourism.

Areas of local cultural importance, which will need to be located through a survey.

Biodiversity Zone: To be established after surveys but to include seepage zones, areas of edaphic grassland and at least one forested valley on the eastern side.

Productive zone: Regeneration of Muheti and Podo. Regeneration of forest on fire climax bracken swards. Bamboo stands for commercial and non-commercial exploitation. Border planting of fuelwood and building poles in areas near villages.

LITERATURE:

Minja, T.R.A. 1991. A visit report on Kising’a Lugalo Forest Reserve. Catchment Forest Office files.

Inventory Section FBD. 1991. Preliminary list of trees and shrubs in Kising’a – Lugalo Forest Reserve. Catchment Forest Office files.

Back to Top

Kitemele Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District
Year of establishment: : no data
Declaration: : not seen
Border map: : not seen
Topographic maps: : 234/1
Gazetted area: : not available
Measured area: : 304.96 ha (from 1978 air photos)
Gazetted boundary length: : no data
LOCATION: – 8°9’15” – 8°10’25″S; 36°01’30” – 36°02’45″E

One km West of Idete Village and 78 km southeast of Iringa. Access is from the village of Idete on the road from Idete to Itonya. The reserve covers a ridge and east facing slope above the Mhanga river and ranges in elevation from 1440 to 1820 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest, which has been disturbed in many places by logging, but which also has extensive areas of intact canopy.

Montane Forest: Canopy to 20 – 30 m, open in many places following disturbance from logging. Trees include: Alangium, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Canthium oligocarpum, Casearia battiscoombei, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cola greenwayi, Craibia brevicaudata, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Dombeya torrida, Ixora scheffleri, Leptonychia, Macaranga capense, Maesa lanceolata, Milletia oblata, Myrianthus holstii, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Ochna holstii, Ocotea usambarensis, Odyendea zimmermannii, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea melanophloeos, Strombosia scheffleri, Tabernaemontana, Vepris stolzii, and Zanthoxylon gilletii.

Shrubs include: Coffea, Cyathea, Diospyros troupinii, Draceana laxissima, Drypetes gerrardiniodes, Dissotis, Draceana deremense, Memecylon, Pauridiantha paucinervis, Peddiea subcordata, Psychotria, Rytigynia lichenoxenos, Tricalysia, and Trichilia lovettii.

Herbs include: Aframomum, Culcasia, Dorstenia, Impatiens, Mimulopsis, Piper capense, Piper umbellatum.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is part of the Mhanga river catchment and many small streams flow from it which are used locally.

TIMBER VALUES:

Valuable timber, such as Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis), has been exhausted, but there is some regeneration. Less valuable species include Mtanga (Albizia gummifera) which is currently being extracted, Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum) Casearia battiscoombei and Strombosia scheffleri.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve is composed of wet Eastern Arc type forest and is rich in species of restricted distribution. Rare and Eastern Arc plants include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Diospyros troupinii, Drypetes gerrardiniodes, Peddiea subcordata, Trichilia lovettii. Forest dependant birds include: Buteo oreophilus, Apaloderma vittatum, Pogoniulus bilineatus, Dicrurus ludwigii, Coracina caesia, Andropadus masukuensis, Phyllastrephus flavostriatus, Apalis alticola, Apalis melanocephala, Apalis chapini, Bradypterus mariae, Laniarius fuelleborni, Nectarinia mediocris, Zosterops senegalensis, and Ploceus bicolor. Animals include: Red-legged Sun Squirrel (Kaindi), one remaining Bushpig (Ngubi), Bushbuck (Mato), Red Duiker (Nfuno), Livingstone’s Suni (Swangala), and African Civet.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Cultivation extends up to the edges of the reserve. There is general firewood collection, and Cyathea and other species such as Ocotea are cut for building poles (though building poles and firewood are also taken from wattle plantations near the village). There has been extensive disturbance for logging, but many areas still remain intact. Timber extraction is continuing. Medicinal plants are collected in the reserve for local use. Hunting has nearly eliminated larger animals such as Bushpigs and antelopes. The reserve was not identified has having particular cultural importance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be surveyed, cleared and planted. Logged areas need to be regenerated and enriched. Boundary plantation for fuel wood and building poles need to be established. Regeneration of Cyathea, which is a preferred building pole species, needs to be investigated and an area selected for production. Biodiversity surveys need to be carried out to identify areas of importance.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Productive zone: Regeneration of logged areas, Cyathea regeneration, border plantation for fuelwood and building poles.

Biodiversity zone: Areas of high biodiversity to be selected following a survey.

Amenity zone: Traditionally used footpaths and areas of cultural importance.

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

Kitonga Catchment Forest Reserve (planned)

Administrative location: : Iringa Region, Iringa District
Year of establishment: : planned
Border map: : Not yet prepared
Topographic maps: : 216/1
Gazetted area:
Measured area: : 108.3 ha (Ikokoto = Iholoto), 520.6 ha (Kitonga)
Gazetted boundary length:
LOCATION: – 07°35′ – 07°43’S; 37°07′ – 37°10’E

About 45 km from Iringa on the North and South sides of the Iringa/Morogoro road. Access to Iholoto forest on Chadembela hill is via a track from Ilula to Ikokoto village South of the main road. Access to the ridge on the northern side of the road (Kitonga or Image ridge) is by foot from Image village (northwest of Ilula) or from a point along the road itself. The proposed reserve covers the Kitonga mountains, either side of the main Iringa to Morogoro road which passes through Kitonga gorge dropping from an elevation of 2120 m on the Udzungwa Plateau to 800 m in the Lukosi River Valley.

SOILS:

Forest soils are sandy brown loams over gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: _ 1500 mm/yr. Mist is important at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The Kitonga mountains on both sides of the main road are capped by montane and upper montane forest. The forest is surrounded by a belt of fire-maintained secondary or cultivated grassland and below this there is Zambesian woodland. The area of montane forest on Chadembela Hill is _ 110 ha and on Kitonga (Image) ridge is _ 520 ha.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 – 30 m. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Canthium oligocarpum, Casearia battiscombei, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cassipourea malosana, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Ficus thonningii, Macaranga, Maesa lanceolata, Myrianthus holstii, Ochna holstii, Pheonix reclinata, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea melanophloeos, Rauvolfia caffra, Rawsonia reticulata, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum, Trema, Vitex, and Xymalos monospora. Shrubs include: Clausena anisata, Coffea mufindensis, Deinbollia, Draceana laxissima, Galiniera coffeoides, Lobelia gibberroa, Maytenus acuminata, Oxyanthus speciosus, and Rytigynia lichenxenos. Climbers include: Agelaea heterophylla, Dalbergia lactea, and Schefflera myrianthus.

Grassland: Grassland surrounds the forest patches and is maintained by cultivation and fire. Those areas not currently cultivated were formerly under cultivation as evidenced by cultivation ridges.

Woodland: Dominated by Brachystegia spp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The proposed reserve covers part of the Lukosi river catchment and supplies water to the villages of Ikokoto, Image, Mdahila, Ilindi and the growing settlement at the bottom of Kitonga gorge. The reserve will also protect the alignment of the main road from erosion (rock falls onto the road are already a problem).

TIMBER VALUES:

There are no stocks of high value timber, though a number of lower value timbers are present, for example Syzygium is cut on Chadembela Hill, and Chrysophyllum and Aningeria occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, though are too dry to contain many species of restricted distribution. The wild coffee Coffea mufindensis occurs.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

On Chadembela Hill cultivation is close to the convoluted boundary of the moist forest with some fields within the forest. The forest is heavily utilised for building poles and firewood. On Kitonga (Image) ridge there are some fields in the woodland, and in the grassland belt below the forest. The forest on Kitonga (Image) peak is of cultural significance whereas as that on Chadembela hill is not.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Forested areas on both Kitonga (Image) and Chadembela peaks.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of Mdobole and Mvembayigo. Border planting of fuelwood and building poles near Ikokoto village.

Biodiversity zone: Suitable areas of forest, rock outcrops, woodland and montane grassland, for example a band over the centre of the reserve.

Amenity zone: Areas of local cultural importance. Suitable route to the peaks for small scale tourism.

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

New Dabaga Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region; Iringa District
Year of establishment: – 1932
Declaration: – GN 210 of 1932
Border map: – JB 22 (1:25,000) traced 1953
Topographic map: – 233/2
Special map: – New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve Cover Type Map HIMA/DANIDA 1990 Forest Inventory Project. One sheet (1:25,000) 1990
Gazetted area: – New Dabaga: 4140 acres (1673 ha)
Measured area: – 3700 ha (New Dabaga/Ulangambi combined)
Gazetted boundary length: – 56,049 ft (17 km) plus some areas of curvilinear boundary.
LOCATION: – 08°03’15” – 08°06’46″S; 35°54’07” – 35°56’52” E .

45 km from Iringa immediately adjacent to Kidabaga village. The reserve covers hilly country on the Uhehe plateau 25 km west of the Udzungwa escarpment New Dabaga is continuous with Ulangambi Forest Reserve in the North. Access is by road from Kidabaga to the southern side of New Dabaga FR and from Lulanzi to the western side and northern side. The elevational range of the reserve is 1760 – 2060 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss with areas of clay with stones and seasonally inundated grassland.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

Montane to upper montane forest with patches of bamboo. Wattle is invading open areas near the forest edge following disturbance in some parts of the forest. The forest has been disturbed by logging in many areas, resulting a broken canopy, often with climber tangles. Air photo interpretation (HIMA/DANIDA 1990 (New Dabaga and Ulangambi combined)) gave the following areas: forest, 3296 ha; bush heathland, 308 ha; and mbuga grassland, 96 ha. A list of trees and shrubs is in the Catchment Office files.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 m in valleys and 10-15 m on upper slopes. Species more typical of montane forest occur in the valleys with upper montane species on upper slopes. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Bridelia micrantha, Canthium oligocarpum, Casearia battiscombei, Cassipourea gummifera, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cussonia spicata, Ixora scheffleri, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Maytenus acuminata, Myrianthus holstii, Nuxia congesta, Ochna holstii, Ocotea usambarensis, Phoenix, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea, Rawsonia reticulata, Schrebera alata, Strombosia scheffleri, Syzygium guineense, Syzygium masukuense, Vepris stolzii, and Zanthoxylon gilletii.

Shrubs: Carvalhoa campanulata, Draceana laxissima, Grewia, Lasianthus kilimandscharicus, Pauridiantha brideliifolia, Pauridiantha paucinervis, Piper capense, Psychotria spp.

Climbers: Dalbergia lactea, Embelia schimperi, Schefflera myriantha.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 10-15 m with: Albizia gummifera, Agauria salicifolia, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Diospyros whyteana, Kiggelaria africana, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Myrica, Prunus africana.

Forest edges and secondary thicket: Thicket 2-3 m tall with bracken in secondary areas. Shrubs and trees include: Buddleja salviifolia, Dodonea, Kotschya, Myrica, Syzygium masukuense, Tecomaria capensis, Trema orientalis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The rainfall is not particularly high and there are no major rivers issuing from the reserve. However, there are many small streams which are used locally for small scale irrigation and general water supply. The schedule for Ulangambi mentions 13 streams crossing the boundary.

TIMBER VALUES:

Many species have been extracted for timber, including: Mlelulelu (Casearia battiscombei), Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum), Mpalala (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Msengela (Cassipourea gummiflua), Mtanga (Albizia gummifera), Muhenye (Faurea saligna), Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis), Mvenge (Syzygium guineense and S. masukuense), Nlungulungu (Zanthoxylon gilletii), Nyalate (Rapanea melanophloeos). The preferred species is Muheti, which has quite good regeneration in parts of the reserve.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserves are of the Eastern Arc type, but are too dry to be particularly rich in endemic species. However a number of species occur which are of restricted distribution, notably Psydrax uzungwensis and a possible new species of Scadoxus.

Animals include: Black-and-White Colobus, (Mbega), Iringa Red Colobus (Ng’uluba), Red Duiker (Nfuno), Abbot’s Duiker (Vinde), and Bushpig (Ngubi). Birds include: Stephanoaetus coronatus (Ng’ungule, or Kiwikiwi), Accipiter tachiro, Francolinus afer, Tauraco livingstonii, Apaloderma vittatum, Smithornis capensis, Cercococcyx montanus, Psalidoprocne pristoptera, Dicrurus ludwigii, Alcippe abyssinica, Andropadus masukuensis, Andropadus milanjensis, Andropadus tephrolaemus, Andropadus virens, Phyllastrephus placidis, Cossypha anomala, Apalis alticola, Apalis melanocephala, Apalis chapini, Apalis thoracica, Bradypterus mariae, B. cinnamomeus, Orthotomus metopias, Muscicapa adusta, Trochocercus albonotatus, Malaconotus multicolor, Laniarius fuelleborni, Nectarinia mediocris, Zosterops senegalensis, Ploceus bicolor, Cryptospiza reichenovii.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The main cause of recent disturbance has been logging. There is continued gathering of building poles and bamboo for basket making. Likweta (Phoenix reclinata) leaves are used for baskets and kunuto (sieves). Pimbe (Hyrax), Nfuno (Red Duiker) and Ngubi (Bushpigs) are hunted. Forest soil has been removed in some areas, resulting in invasion of wattle. In many places cultivated fields are immediately adjacent to the boundary, and fires can enter the reserve. Few areas of cultural importance were reported.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary has been cleared and planted. Follow up clearing and replacement of lost seedlings is needed. An inventory was carried out in 1991, but the data have not yet been processed. The reserve could be an important source of valuable hardwoods in the future and an important management need is to encourage natural regeneration and to carry out enrichment planting of valuable species, notably Muheti. A survey is needed to locate important areas for biodiversity in order to combine biodiversity protection with production of indigenous hardwoods.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Amenity zone: Access through the forest on footpaths along the southern and western boundaries. Areas of local cultural importance.

Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but to include areas inhabited by Red Colobus.

Productive zone: Non-mechanised extraction following regeneration of Muheti. Boundary plantations to supply local needs for firewood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

Inventory Section FBD. 1991. A list of trees and shrubs of New Kidabaga Forest Reserve. Catchment Forest Office files.

Minja, T.R.A. 1991. A visit report on New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve (F.R.) Catchment Forest Office files.

Ripley, S. D., & Heinrich, G. H. (1966). Comments on the avifauna of Tanzania, 1. Postilla, 96 : 1-45.

Ripley, S. D., & Heinrich, G. H. (1969). Comments on the avifauna of Tanzania, 2. Postilla, 13: 1-21.

Loveridge, A. (1933). Reports on the scientific results of an expedition to the southwestern highlands of Tanganyika Territory: I, Introduction and Zoogeography. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 75: 1-43.

Back to Top

Ulangambi Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region; Iringa District
Year of establishment : 1930
Declaration : GN 204 of 1930
Border map : JB 22 (1:25,000) traced 1953
Topographic map : 233/2
Special map : New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve Cover Type Map HIMA/DANIDA 1990 Forest Inventory Project. One sheet (1:25,000) 1990
Gazetted area : 5085 acres (2055 ha).
Measured area : 3700 ha (New Dabaga/Ulangambi combined)
Gazetted boundary length : 65,681 ft (20 km).
LOCATION: 08°00’07” – 08°03’50″S; 35°54’04” – 35°56’48” E .

The reserve covers hilly country on the Uhehe plateau 25 km west of the Udzungwa escarpment and about 45 km southeast of Iringa. Ulangambi is contiguous with New Dabaga in the South. Access is by road from Lulanzi to the western and southern side of Ulangambi FR. The altitudinal range of the reserve is 1780 – 2060 m. A 490 acre (198 ha) farm was excised from the north west side of Ulangambi.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss with areas of clay with stones and seasonally inundated grassland.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Iringa. Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

Montane to upper montane forest with patches of bamboo. Wattle is invading open areas near the forest edge following disturbance in some parts of the forest. The forest has been disturbed by logging in many areas, resulting a broken canopy, often with climber tangles. Air photo interpretation (HIMA/DANIDA 1990 (New Dabaga and Ulangambi combined)) gave the following areas: forest, 3296 ha; bush heathland, 308 ha; and mbuga grassland, 96 ha. A list of trees and shrubs is in the Catchment Office files.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 m in valleys and 10-15 m on upper slopes. Species more typical of montane forest occur in the valleys with upper montane species on upper slopes. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Bridelia micrantha, Canthium oligocarpum, Casearia battiscombei, Cassipourea gummifera, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cussonia spicata, Ixora scheffleri, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Maytenus acuminata, Myrianthus holstii, Nuxia congesta, Ochna holstii, Ocotea usambarensis Phoenix, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea, Rawsonia reticulata, Schrebera alata, Strombosia scheffleri, Syzygium guineense, Syzygium masukuense, Vepris stolzii, and Zanthoxylon gilletii.

Shrubs: Carvalhoa campanulata, Draceana laxissima, Grewia, Lasianthus kilimandscharicus, Pauridiantha brideliifolia, Pauridiantha paucinervis, Piper capense, Psychotria spp.

Climbers: Dalbergia lactea, Embelia schimperi, Schefflera myriantha.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 10-15 m with: Albizia gummifera, Agauria salicifolia, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Diospyros whyteana, Kiggelaria africana, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Myrica, Prunus africana.

Forest edges and secondary thicket: Thicket 2-3 m tall with bracken in secondary areas. Shrubs and trees include: Buddleja salviifolia, Dodonea, Kotschya, Myrica, Syzygium masukuense, Tecomaria capensis, Trema orientalis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The rainfall is not particularly high and there are no major rivers issuing from the reserve. However, there are many small streams which are used locally for small scale irrigation and general water supply. The schedule for Ulangambi mentions 13 streams crossing the boundary.

TIMBER VALUES:

Many species have been extracted for timber, including: Mlelulelu (Casearia battiscombei), Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum), Mpalala (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Msengela (Cassipourea gummiflua), Mtanga (Albizia gummifera), Muhenye (Faurea saligna), Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis), Mvenge (Syzygium guineense and S. masukuense), Nlungulungu (Zanthoxylon gilletii), Nyalate (Rapanea melanophloeos). The preferred species is Muheti, which has quite good regeneration in parts of the reserve.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserves are of the Eastern Arc type, but are too dry to be particularly rich in endemic species. However a number of species occur which are of restricted distribution, such as Psydrax uzungwensis and a potentially new species of Scadoxus.

Animals include: Black-and-White Colobus, (Mbega), Iringa Red Colobus (Ng’uluba), Red Duiker (Nfuno), Abbot’s Duiker (Vinde), and Bushpig (Ngubi). Birds include: Stephanoaetus coronatus (Ng’ungule, or Kiwikiwi), Accipiter tachiro, Francolinus afer, Tauraco livingstonii, Apaloderma vittatum, Smithornis capensis, Cercococcyx montanus, Psalidoprocne pristoptera, Dicrurus ludwigii, Alcippe abyssinica, Andropadus masukuensis, Andropadus milanjensis, Andropadus tephrolaemus, Andropadus virens, Phyllastrephus placidis, Cossypha anomala, Apalis alticola, Apalis melanocephala, Apalis chapini, Apalis thoracica, Bradypterus mariae, B. cinnamomeus, Orthotomus metopias, Muscicapa adusta, Trochocercus albonotatus, Malaconotus multicolor, Laniarius fuelleborni, Nectarinia mediocris, Zosterops senegalensis, Ploceus bicolor, Cryptospiza reichenovii.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The main cause of recent disturbance has been logging. There is continued gathering of building poles and bamboo for basket making. Likweta (Phoenix reclinata) leaves are used for baskets and kunuto (sieves). Pimbe (Hyrax), Nfuno (Red Duiker) and Ngubi (Bushpigs) are hunted. In many places cultivated fields are immediately adjacent to the boundary, and fires can enter the reserve. On the western side of Ulangambi a tea estate has recently been planted, and this is likely to lead to increased pressure on the reserve through an influx of migrant labour.

Few areas of cultural importance were reported, indicating that the forest was probably not formerly inhabited.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary has been cleared and planted. Follow up clearing and replacement of lost seedlings is needed. An inventory was carried out in 1991, but the data is not yet processed. The reserve could be an important source of valuable hardwoods in the future and an important management need is to encourage natural regeneration and to carry out enrichment planting of valuable species, notably Muheti. A survey is needed to locate important areas for biodiversity in order to combine biodiversity protection with production of indigenous hardwoods.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Amenity zone: Access through the forest on footpaths along the southern and western boundaries. Areas of local cultural importance.

Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but to include areas inhabited by Red Colobus.

Productive zone: Non-mechanised extraction following regeneration of Muheti. Boundary plantations to supply local needs for firewood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

Inventory Section FBD. 1991. A list of trees and shrubs of New Kidabaga Forest Reserve. Catchment Forest Office files.

Minja, T.R.A. 1991. A visit report on New Dabaga/Ulangambi Forest Reserve (F.R.) Catchment Forest Office files.

Ripley, S. D., & Heinrich, G. H. (1966). Comments on the avifauna of Tanzania, 1. Postilla, 96 : 1-45.

Ripley, S. D., & Heinrich, G. H. (1969). Comments on the avifauna of Tanzania, 2. Postilla, 13: 1-21.

Back to Top

Uzungwa Scarp Catchment Forest Reserve

Mufindi and Iringa Districts, Iringa Region, Kilombero District, Morogoro Region.
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : GN 198 of 1929
Variation order : There should be a variation order relating to establishment of an army camp on the eastern boundary.
Border map : JB 24 – 2740 (1:100,000) 1931; (JB 68 (1:100,000) 1952 covers the eastern boundary).
Topographical map : 233/2, 233/4, 234/1, 234/3, 249/2
Special map : Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve Cover Type Map HIMA/DANIDA 1990 Forest Inventory Project. Two sheets (1:25,000) 1990.
Gazetted area : 51,200 acres (20,720 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 130 km
Measured area : 20,735 ha (HIMA/DANIDA 1990 from 1957 aerial photography)
LOCATION: 8° 14′ – 8° 32′ S 35° 51′ – 36° 02′ E.

120 km from Ifakara, 2 km from Chita. Access to the lower eastern side is from the Ifakara to Chita road which runs along the eastern boundary, or by rail to Chita station. Access to the upper western side is from Uhafiwa, which is reached via Kibengu through Ihangana Forest Reserve, or from Idegenda, Masisiwe, Kipanga or Ihimbo villages. Access to the northern end is from Idete village. The reserve covers the steep east facing Udzungwa escarpment and part of the undulating upland plateau from an altitude of 300 to 2068 m. The southern boundary is the Chita river, the northern boundary the Kidete river and the western boundary the Ruaha, Iwolo and Lukosi rivers. The reserve is incorrectly marked on sheet 234/3 as Luhega Forest Reserve, 233/4 as Luhega Forest Reserve and Mefi Forest Reserve, and 234/1 as Makweta Forest Reserve.

SOILS:

Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss with extensive areas of rock faces.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mchombero Mission and Brooke Bond Tea Estates. Estimated rainfall: 2000 mm/year with mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – October. Temperatures: on lower edge: _ 27_C max. (November), _ 22_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve contains lowland, submontane and montane forests, with areas of seasonally inundated mbuga grassland and grassland with bushes. The lowland forests are relatively dry and have a low, often broken canopy with woodland species except in areas near streams. The submontane forests are well developed, though have dry forest species on the ridges. Much of the montane forest on the plateau above the scarp is secondary, and may have been cultivated in the historical past. Extensive stands of bamboo are reported from the western side. Aerial photography interpretation of vegetation cover (by HIMA/DANIDA 1990 from 1957 aerial photographs) gives figures of 238 ha of Mbuga grassland, 1113 ha of bushed grassland, 18463 ha of closed moist forest and 921 ha of open moist forest. There is some doubt as to the accuracy of these figures because of the difficulty of locating the original boundary of the reserve

Lowland forest: Canopy 10 – 15 m, taller along streams, with emergents to 20 – 30 m. Much disturbed in the lower parts with tangled thicket following extraction of Milicia excelsa. Trees include: Afzelia, Anthocleista, Funtumia, Garcinia buchananii, Khaya nyasica, Malacantha, Milicia, Newtonia, Porterandia, Sorindeia, Terculia. Woodland species occurring in the forest include: Annona, Kigelia africana, Sterculia quinqueloba.

Submontane forest: Canopy 20 – 30 m in the valleys, lower on the ridge tops. Trees include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Bombax, Ixora scheffleri, Newtonia buchananii, Octoknema, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum.

Montane forest: Canopy 15 – 20 (25) m. The forest is apparently in an early successional stage with many small poles and large moribund Agauria salicifolia. Trees include: Agauria salicifolia, Aningeria adolfii-freidericii, Aphloia, Bersama abyssininca, Cassipourea malosana, Drypetes gerrardii, Ensete, ventricosa Macaranga kilimandscharica, Measa lanceolata, Parinari excelsa, Phoenix reclinata, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Rapanea melanophloeos, Schrebera alata, Tabernaemontana, Trichoscypha ulugurensis, and Xymalos monospora.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mkangazi (Khaya nyasica) and Afzelia are being extracted from the lowland forest and are exhausted in many areas. Mninga maji (Pterocarpus mildbraedii) and Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) are reported to be taken. Mkangazi is also being extracted from submontane forest. Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis) was reported to have occurred in the montane forest but is now exhausted. Many other species of lower grade timber occur, including: Albizia, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cassipourea gummiflua and Macaranga.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in species of restricted distribution, for example: Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Octoknema orientalis. Animals found here include: Crested Mangabey, Iringa Red Colobus, Blue Monkey, Black-and-White Colobus, Thick-tailed Galago, Tree Hyrax, Red Duiker, Blue Duiker, Livingstone’s Suni, Bushbuck, Bushpig, and Chequered Elephant Shrew. Eastern Arc Endemic birds and birds of restricted range include: Buccanodon olivaceum howelli, Andropadus milanjensis striifacies, Alethe fuelleborni usambarae, Dryocichloides anomalus, D. lowei, Modulatrix orostruthus sanjei, M. stictigula, Sheppardia sharpei sharpei, Swynnertonia swynnertoni rodgersi, Apalis chapini, A. chariessa macphersoni, Orthotomus metopias.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment with many rivers flowing down the eastern escarpment to the KOTACO Kilombero rice scheme and Kilombero river. On the western side rivers flow onto the Uhehe plateau to the Kihansi (Kihanji) river, which is planned to be used for a hydro-electric scheme. On both eastern and western sides the reserve is an important source of water to local communities.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The upper parts of the forest are secondary, probably resulting from cultivation in the past. The lower parts of the forest are either disturbed by logging in the recent past, or are currently being extracted. Stems of Phoenix were being taken for building poles. An area of reserve along the lower eastern edge was excised for use by the army and includes a camp and cultivation. A planned hydroelectric scheme on the Ruaha and Kihansi rivers on the southern boundary will cause the flooding of at least 4 km2 of forest reserve. A more serious threat is the anticipated influx of labourers and their families causing a huge increase in demand for forest products (fuelwood and building materials) during the construction phase. A well used footpath traverses the southern part of the reserve from Chita to Uhafiwa. Medicinal plants are collected for local use. Encroachment is reported from Ilutila and Idete. Bamboo is extracted. Hunting is carried out and their is some honey collection. Forest soil is being collected from the northern end for Idete village nursery. The northern end of the reserve was identified as being of particular cultural importance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border is mostly well demarcated by features such as rivers, the road or railway, however a resurvey is needed to clarify the boundary and draw an accurate border map. Some notices or boundary planting will show which natural features are the reserve boundary and in areas without natural features boundary clearing and planting is necessary. At the northern end there is still a Tanganyika Forest Department sign. Following exploitation, timber stocks are probably low. Enrichment and regeneration of Mkangazi and Mvule in the lower parts; and Muheti and Mkangazi in the upper parts is needed. Building pole and firewood plantations need to be established in areas adjacent to population centres.

Because of difficulties of communication this reserve should be administered from Iringa Region. Management plans need to be co-ordinated between Iringa and Mufindi District.

The reserve has many areas of scenic beauty, such as waterfalls over the Muhongolo ridge rock faces. It is of considerable biological interest with the occurrence of two species of rare monkey and several species of Eastern Arc endemic birds, among the rarest in Tanzania. The reserve is close to the Kilombero Game Controlled area which has elephants and buffaloes. It can easily be reached by train. Because of these biological values it was originally proposed that the reserve be included in the Udzungwa National Park. This proposal was later dropped from consideration, but has recently been proposed again in the Kihansi Hydroelectric Project Environmental Assessment Report.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Amenity zone: Access through the forest from the lower eastern parts and upper western parts to suitable points on top of the Muhongolo rock faces. Areas of local cultural importance.

Biodiversity zone: Covering a wide altitudinal range along a suitable river valley.

Productive zone: Following regeneration of Mvule and Mkangazi in the lower eastern part of the reserve, and regeneration of Mkangazi and Muheti in the upper western parts of the reserve. Boundary plantations to supply local needs for firewood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

EKONO ENERGY. 1991. Kihansi Hydroelectric Project Environmental Assessment. Report EP – 13624Q – 01, Nordic Development Fund.

LOVETT, J.C. & T.C.E. CONGDON. 1989. Notes on the Ihangana forest and Luhega forest near Uhafiwa, Uzungwa mountains, Tanzania. East African Natural History Society Bulletin. 19: 30-31.

LOVETT, J.C. & T.C.E. CONGDON. 1989. Further notes on Luhega forest near Uhafiwa, Uzungwa mountains, Tanzania. East African Natural History Society Bulletin 19: 53 -54.

MINJA, T.R.A. 1991. A visit report on Udzungwa Forest Reserve. Catchment Forestry files.

MOYER, D.C. & J.C. LOVETT. in press. Notes on the conservation status, relative abundance, foraging ecology, and habitat use of birds in Nzelela forest, southern Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania. Scopus.

JENSEN, F.P. & S. BRØGGER-JENSEN. 1992. The forest avifauna of the Uzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Scopus 15: 65-83.

RODGERS, W.A. & K.M. HOMEWOOD. 1982. Biological values and conservation prospects for the forests and primate populations of the Uzungwa mountains, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 24: 285 – 304.

TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC. 1990. Feasibility study on Kihansi Hydroelectric Power Development Project. Final Report Summary, October 1990. Japan International Co-operation Agency.

Back to Top

West Kilombero Scarp Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Iringa District; Morogoro Region, Kilombero District.
Year of establishment: – 1957
Declaration: – GN No. 152 of 1957
Variation order: – ca 91,000 ha excised into Udzungwa National Park
Border map: – JB 312A (1:125,000)
Topographic maps: 216/2, 216/3, 216/4, 217/1, 217/2, 217/3, 217/4, 234/1, 234/3
Gazetted area: – 482,481 acres (195,253 ha). 104,253 ha remaining following excision of Udzungwa National Park
Gazetted boundary length: – 392,444 feet (119.6 km), rest curvilinear. Boundary remaining after excision of Udzungwa National Park is 263,496 feet (80.3 km), rest curvilinear.
LOCATION: – 07°38’30” – 08°17’S; 36°05’45” – 36°58’30”

To the North access is from Udekwa village which is reached from Ilula. The reserve covers an extensive area of hilly country west of the Udzungwa escarpment face from the Mngeta River to the Great Ruaha River. Around Nyumbanitu near Udekwa village there are extensive areas of rock faces and sheer rock surfaces. In the northeast the reserve reaches the bridge over the Great Ruaha on the Mikumi-Ifakara road. The eastern and southern boundary is the border between Iringa and Morogoro Regions, where it is bordered by Lyondo, Matundu, Iwonde, Nyanganje, and Mwanihana Forest Reserves in remote uninhabited country. The reserve ranges in altitude from 300 – 2320 m, and after excision of the Udzungwa NP it will range from 320 to 2320 m and cover 07°38’30” – 08°17’S; 36°05’45” – 36°33’15”. The reserve does not extend into map sheet 234/2 but part of this sheet is labelled West Kilombero Scarp Forest Reserve in error.

SOILS:

Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss with extensive areas of rock faces.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Plateau Areas: Nearest rainfall station: Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall (plateau areas) : 1500 – 2000 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: (Estimated mean temperatures) _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July). Lowland Areas: Nearest rainfall station: Lumemo W.D.I.D. and Kilombero. Estimated rainfall: 1350 mm/year with permanent riverine groundwater. Dry season: June – October Temperatures: 27_C max. (December), 19_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is moist and dry montane and upper montane forest with extensive areas of bamboo and upland grassland with forest patches. In lower and drier areas, forest gives way to woodland. Elephant and buffalo occur.

Montane forest: At higher altitudes trees include: Afrocrania volkensii, Cassipourea gummiflua, Craibia brevicaudata, Maesa lanceolata, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Polyscias fulva, Zanthoxylon gillettii. At lower altitudes trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Bequaertiodendron magalismontanum, Caloncoba welwitschii, Cleistanthus polystachyus, Cola greenwayi, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Drypetes usambarica, Myrianthus holstii, Ochna holstii, Parinari excelsa, Strombosia scheffleri, Trichilia dregeana. Along streams in grassland or woodland riverine forests are dominated by Syzygium cordatum with: Bridelia micrantha, Faurea saligna, Rauvolfia caffra.

Upper montane forest: Dominated by Hagenia abyssinica and Ocotea usambarensis. Drier types are almost pure Hagenia, and bamboo also covering large areas above 2000 m on the drier side. Other trees include: Apodytes dimidiata, Canthium oligocarpum, Casearia battiscombei, Cassipourea malosana, Ehretia cymosa, Halleria lucida, Kiggelaria africana, Lepidotrichilia volkensii, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Olea capensis, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Podocarpus falcatus, Psychotria, Prunus africana, Syzygium Xymalos monospora with Dombeya torrida and Nuxia on forest edges. Trees on ridge tops near to the escarpment include: Allanblackia ulugurensis, Faurea, Olinia rochetiana, Ternstroemia polypetala, Trichocladus goetzei. Scrub separates forest from grassland with: Buddleja, Dodonea, Vernonia.

Grassland: Montane grassland is in well drained sites, 0.5 – 1 m tall, with the grasses: Eragrostis homblei, Exotheca abyssinica, Festuca camusiana, Poa leptoclada, together with Lamiaceae and species of Helichrysum. Large areas are covered by Mbuga grassland where there is impeded drainage. These areas are important large mammal habitats. Mbuga grassland of low stature (20 cm tall) includes: Coelachne africana, Lindernia, Scirpus, Utricularia. Slightly taller grassland (50 – 60 cm) includes: Aeschynomene, Chlorophytum, Cynorchis anacamptoides, Eriocaulon schimperi, Fuirena stricta. Locally taller vegetation (1 – 1.5 m) includes: Carex papillosissima, Cyperus, Juncus dregeanus, Rumex. Stands of the shrub Kotschya platyphylla occur in exposed well drained areas and can reach 6 m tall. Lobelia sticta occurs near rock outcrops.

Woodland: It is thought that, on level ground, the woodland and associated grassland is secondary following former cultivation, or repeated burning resulting from hunting and honey gathering. Early maps show villages within the reserve area prior to gazettement. Higher altitude woodland includes the trees: Faurea, Myrica salicifolia, Phillipia, Protea, Uapaca kirkiana. At lower altitudes the trees include: Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla, B. spiciformis, Parinari curatellifolia.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

As it covers a large area of land under relatively high rainfall, a number of catchments are included within it. Outside the area to be excised by the Udzungwa NP a number of rivers flow South into the Mgeta Catchment which feeds into the Kilombero River, and others flow North into the Lukosi Catchment which feeds into the Great Ruaha. Inside the area to be excised, rivers flowing south are in the Ruipa and Lumemo catchments (the Lumemo causes annual flooding in Ifakara) and on into the Kilombero. Rivers flowing North are in the Ludapo and Lofia catchments which feed into the Great Ruaha. Those rivers flowing into the Great Ruaha are of importance for supply of hydroelectric power from Kidatu dam, and those flowing in the Kilombero are important for supplying the rapidly developing agricultural area of the Kilombero valley.

TIMBER VALUES:

The timber values are high as there has been little exploitation in this remote area. There are extensive stands of Ocotea usambarensis and Hagenia abyssinica. Podocarpus also occurs as do many other trees of lesser timber importance.

BIODIVERSITY:

This reserve is rich in endemic Eastern Arc plants and animals. A new species of francolin was recently discovered in the Ndundulu mountains a few kilometres East of Udekwa village. At least six species of primates, elephant, buffalo, leopard, and all species of forest antelope found on the Udzungwas are also found here. In addition to the many endemic species found in the area, the wide range of habitats from swamp to rock outcrops, woodland and grassland, increase the area’s biodiversity. The large area of West Kilombero FR and adjacent forest reserves in Kilombero District makes them one of the world’s wildernesses with about 325,000 ha (3250 km2) covered by forest reserve and national park uninhabited and accessible only by foot.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Areas of the reserve were formerly inhabited as evidenced by the presence of villages scattered through the area on old maps. Following the attack by the Germans on Ilinga Kalenga (headquarters of the Wahehe at that time) in the latter part of the last century, Chief Mkwawa escaped to Nyumbanito which is now in the reserve. Currently the area is remote and difficult to access, with the southern and eastern boundaries bordering onto further extensive areas of forest. Nyumbanito is of significant cultural importance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Most of the boundary of West Kilombero Catchment Forest Reserve is marked by rivers or is in remote uninhabited areas and does not need management imputs. The western boundary is the Mgeta River and the eastern boundary was the Great Ruaha River. The new eastern boundary will abut the Udzungwa National Park. However, parts of the northern boundary, which are nearest to inhabited areas, need resurveying, clearing and planting. There may be a discrepancy between the official boundary and a cut-line South of Udekwa village (topographical map sheet 216/4).

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridges and stream banks.

Productive zone: Suitable areas, to be located by remote sensing survey and inventory, for non-mechanised selective extraction of valuable species such as Ocotea followed by management for regeneration Border plantation for fuelwood and building poles in areas near villages.

Biodiversity zone: Area to be excised for the Udzungwa National Park. Additional key areas to be located following survey.

Amenity zone: Nyumbanitu Mountain and other areas of cultural value to be located following a survey. Areas for ecotourism.

LITERATURE:

Hall, John B. 1986. Luhomero Massif, Iringa Region, Tanzania. Reconnaissance Vegetation Survey in August 1985. Department of Forestry and Wood Science, University College of North Wales, Bangor, U.K.

Back to Top

Idewa Catchment Forest Reserve

Administrative location : Iringa Region; Mufindi District
Year of establishment : 1931
Declaration : GN 105 of 1931
Border map : JB 21/2819
Topographic map : 233/4
Gazetted area : 720 acres (291.4 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : not available
LOCATION: – 08°16’07” – 08°17’15″S; 35°46’40” – 35°48’00″E

2.5 km South of Mwatasi village Access is from the Mwatasi to Ilogombe road. The reserve covers hilly country with an elevational range of 1840 – 2000 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: _ 1500 – 1600 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 20°C max. (December), _ 15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is montane forest with areas of scrub and grassland on the periphery. Overall the appearance is very similar to Ihangana forest

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Several streams originating in the forest provide water for general use by Mwatasi and Ilongombe villages.

TIMBER VALUES:

Stocks of valuable species, such as Podocarpus have been exhausted and Mvenge (Syzygium guineense subsp afromontanum) is currently being extracted.

BIODIVERSITY:

Few species of restricted distribution are found in the forest.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is used extensively for fuel wood, poles, and lianas.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary should be cleared and planted. Enrichment planting with indigenous species should be carried out in heavily damaged parts of the reserve. Border planting of fast-growing, species to meet the demand for fuel wood and poles is needed.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and stream sides.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable indigenous timber species. Boundary planting with building pole and fuelwood species.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths.

Biodiversity zone: Not needed.

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

Ihangana Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Mufindi District.
Year of establishment : 1931
Declaration : GN 105 of 1931
Border map : JB 21/2819 (not seen)
Topographic maps : 233/3
Gazetted area : 2982 acres (1206.8 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : Not tabulated
LOCATION: – 08°16’45” – 08°18’38″S; 35°42’20” – 35°44’50″E

7 km southeast of Usokami mission. Access is from the road to Mapanda village which bisects the reserve. The reserve is bordered by Kibengu on the North and Igeleke on the southeast. The reserve covers undulating plateau from 1860 – 2078 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Nearest stations with comparable rainfall are at the Brooke Bond Tea Estates to the South. Estimated rainfall: 1500 – 1600 mm/yr. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 20°C max. (December), _15_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is montane forest with areas of grassland with scrubby tree clumps.

Montane forest (broken 20 – 30 m canopy with the following trees): Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Apholia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Buddleja salviifolia, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cassipourea malosana, Croton macrostachys, Cussonia spicata, Dias cotinifolia, Diospyros whyteana, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Maytenus acuminata, Ochna holstii, Olea capensis, Polyscias fulva, Rawsonia lucida, Scolopia rhamniphylla, Syzygium masukuense , Tecomaria capensis. Climbers include: Dalbergia lactea, Toddalia asiatica, and Draceana laxissima.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Ihangana Forest is an important catchment area. Several streams originating in the forest provide water for hydroelectricity, general use and small-scale irrigation for Kibengu, Igeleke, and Usokame villages.

TIMBER VALUES:

In recent years timber extraction has severely depleted stocks. Lower grade timbers include: Bridelia brideliifolia, Cassipourea malosana, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Macaranga kilimandscharica.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, but are relatively dry and so not as rich in endemic species as those on the escarpment. Over 50 species of birds and several species of mammals are known from Ihan’gana.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

There is a high level of exploitation in the reserve and at least one species of mammal, Black-and-White Colobus, Colobus angolensis palliatus, has recently become extinct. There is exploitation for fuel-wood, poles, and lianas. Forest damage is much heavier on the South and East boundaries near Igeleke village. This is probably because there are areas of forest plantation near Kibengu serving as an alternate source of wood products.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary should be cleared and planted. Regeneration and enrichment planting with indigenous species should be carried out. Boundary plantations need to be established to supply local requirements for building poles and fuel wood.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river banks and ridge tops.

Productive zone: Boundary plantations.

Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey.

Amenity zone: Areas of cultural importance.

LITERATURE:

Lovett, J. C., & Congdon, T. C. E. (1990). Notes on the Ihangana Forest and Luhega forest near Uhafiwa Uzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin. 19: 30-31.

Back to Top

Kibao Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Mufindi District
Declaration : not seen
Border map : JB 457
Government Notice : None seen
Topographic maps : 248/2
Gazetted area : 265.68 acres (107.5 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 22,248 feet (6.78 km)
LOCATION: – 8°34’00” – 8°35’25″S; 35°17’50” – 35°18’05″E

About .5 km North of Kibao. Access is from Kibao on the Mufindi loop road. The reserve covers a ridge North of Kibao with an elevational range of 1920 – 2000 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: _ 1480 mm/year (Kibwele Tea Estate). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures:

_ 19_C max. (December), _ 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by scrubby thicket and tangled secondary upper montane forest. The canopy is best developed in the eastern end of the reserve.

Upper montane forest: Most of the forest has a tangled canopy to 5 m tall, though reaches 15 – 20 m in parts. Trees include: Albizia gummiflua, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Cussonia spicata, Diospyros whyteana, Maesa lanceolata, Myrica, Prunus africana, Rapanea melanophloeos.. Shrubs include: Allophyllus, Clausena anisata, Draceana laxissima, Pavetta, Peddeia fischeri, Tecomaria.. Climbers include: Dalbergia lactea, Embelia, Rhiocissus tridentata..

CATCHMENT VALUES:

There are several small streams originating from the reserve which are used locally for general use. The streams flow into the Itufilo river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Timber values are low as there are few trees of sufficient size to extract.

BIODIVERSITY:

Biodiversity values are low. The reserve has been extensively disturbed and it is of the plateau type. Birds include: Andropadus tephrolaemus, Dryoscopus cubla, Nectarinia mediocris, Pogoniulus leucomystax, and Tauraco livingstonii.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve has been extensively disturbed by extraction of building poles and fuelwood. Honey and medicine are also taken. Cultivation extends to the reserve boundary.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary should be surveyed, cleared and planted. Some parts of the boundary are already planted with Cypress. Scrubby and open areas should be regenerated and enriched with indigenous species for timber, building poles and fuelwood. Boundary plantations for fuelwood and building poles need to be established.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment with indigenous species for timber, building poles and fuelwood. Border plantations for building poles and fuelwood.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths crossing the reserve.

Biodiversity zone: Not needed.

REFERENCES:

None known

Back to Top

Kidete Local Authority Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Mufindi District
Border map : None known
Government notice : None known
Topographic maps : 232/4
Measured area : _ 105 ha (Calculated from 1978 aerial photography).
LOCATION: – 8°29’15” – 8°29’45″S; 35°27’08” – 3°28’33″E

About 43 km South of Mafinga. Access if from the road from Ifupira Tea Estate to Mdabulo Mission. The reserve covers a strip of land south of the Ifupira to Mdabulo road adjacent to Kidete village with an elevational range of 1800 to 1880 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: _ 1400 mm/year (Kilima Tea Factory). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 19_C max. (November), _ 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest, much of which is secondary thicket.

Montane forest: Canopy to 15 – 20 m, but mostly broken or open with secondary thicket 2 – 3 m tall. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Catha edulis, Diospyros whyteana, Halleria lucida, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Mystroxylon, Nuxia, Sinarundinaria alpina, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum. Shrubs include: Allophylus, Carvalhoa campanulata, Clausena, Clutia abyssinica, Tecomaria capensis. Climbers include: Dalbergia lactea, Keetia gueinzii, Rhiocissus, Rubus. Herbs include: Kalanchoe, Triumfetta.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seven small streams originate in the reserve and are used locally for drinking water, general use, and small-scale irrigation of vegetable plots.

TIMBER VALUES:

Formerly Mipongolo (Macaranga killimanscharica), Mtanga (Albizia gummifera), and Mihapi (Bridellia bridellifolia) were exploited for timber but stocks are now exhausted.

BIODIVERSITY:

Biodiversity values are relatively low as much of the forest has been converted to secondary thicket and the remaining forest is of the Plateau type. Birds include: Alcippe abyssinica, Apalis chapini, Bradypterus mariae, Buteo oreophilus, Laniarius fuelleborni, Nectarinia mediocris, Orthotomus metopias, Pogoniulus bilineatus, Trochocercus albonotatus, Zosterops senegalensis. Animals include: Vervet Monkey and occasionally Bushpigs which come over from the more extensive Brooke Bond forests to the North.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Heavy exploitation for fuelwood, poles, lianas. Medicine is taken. The reserve is not used for traditional cultural purposes.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The borders need to be surveyed, cleared and planted. Secondary thicket needs to be enriched and regenerated with valuable indigenous timber species, building poles and fuelwood. Border plantations of building poles and fuelwood need to be established.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Biodiversity zone: None needed.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment with indigenous timber, building pole and fuelwood species. Border plantations of building pole and fuelwood.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths crossing the reserve.

LITERATURE:

None known

Back to Top

Kigogo Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Mufindi District
Year of establishment: : 1952
Declaration: : GN 131 of 1952
Border map: : JB 120 (1:10,000) of 23/1/52
Topographic maps: : 248/1, 248/2
Gazetted area: : 6232 acres (2522 ha)
Gazetted boundary length: : 97,430 feet (29.7 km)
LOCATION: – 08°37’40” – 08°41’40″S; 35°11’45” – 35°16’30″E

About 55 km from Mafinga. Access to the northern boundary is 6 km South of Mninga Village and 1 km South of Mkalala Village. The beginning of the forest road to the view point on the escarpment is 7 km from the head office of Brooke Bond (T) Ltd., at Lugoda on Kivere Estate. The reserve covers the Mufindi escarpment and Kigogo and Ngalawa valleys. It is contiguous with and lies north-east of Mufindi Scarp West Forest Reserve, and is west of Mufindi Scarp East FR. The elevational range of the reserve is from 1770 – 1940 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss. Outcrops of clay with stones occur.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mufindi Forest Station. Estimated rainfall: 2000 mm/year. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: 20_C max. (Dec.), 15_C min. (Jul.).

VEGETATION:

Kigogo Forest Reserve is montane forest with extensive areas of bamboo, both in single-species stands and in forest understory. Parts of the reserve are secondary over old cultivation.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 m. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Annonaceae Ede 65, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Ilex mitis, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maytenus acuminata, Nuxia congesta, Ochna holstii, Parinari excelsa, Phoenix reclinata, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Podocarpus, Rapanea melanophloeos, Rytigynia lichenoxenos, Rytigynia uhligii, Schrebera alata, Sinarundinaria alpina, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum, Vepris stolzii, Xymalos monospora. In lower parts of the forest, where it is adjacent to Mufindi Scarp East FR, trees may include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Garcinia volkensii, Galiniera saxifraga, Myrianthus holstii, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Polyscias fulva, and Strombosia scheffleri.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The Kigogo River flows down the escarpment and is an important source of water for the Southern Paper Mills on the Mgololo plain below the escarpment. There are many other small streams flowing to the East and West down the escarpment. Water from these is used for small scale irrigation of vegetable plots and general use by the local people.

TIMBER VALUES:

Ocotea and Khaya nyasica formerly occurred, but stocks are now exhausted. Lower grade timber includes: Albizia gummifera, Bridelia brideliifolia and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum. Podocarpus also occurs, though no large trees were seen.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve contains quite a number of Eastern Arc endemics. Animals include: Red Duiker, Livingstone’s Suni, Bushbuck, Blue Monkey, Bushpig, Red-legged Sun Squirrel. Birds include: Mountain Greenbul, White-chested Alethe, Olive-flanked Ground Robin, Iringa Ground Robin, Spot-throat, Red-capped Forest Warbler, Chapin’s Apalis, and Njombe Thick-billed Seed-eater. Kigogo is the type locality of the bird Francolinus squamatus uzungwensis. Before 1960 buffalo were common, though none exist there today. Similarly Harvey’s red duiker, Livingstone’s Suni and leopard were once common but are rare now due to extensive hunting and trapping. Blue monkeys occur, but Black and White, and Red Colobus have never been seen. Butterflies include: Acraea vuillotii, Chondrolepis obscuriora, Chondrolepis similisa and a new species of Anthene. Rare and interesting plants include: Aframomum laxiflorum, Afrothismia insignis, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Bersama rosea, Coffea mufindensis, Oxyanthus lepidus subsp kigogoensis, Psychotria megalopus, Stolzia christopherii, Stolzia leedalii, and a tree Annonaceae that has yet to be placed to genus.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Paths crossing the reserve are used by people who live on the plateau, but cultivate on the fertile land below the escarpment. The main path through the reserve is also quite important for trade during the Ulanzi (bamboo wine) season. The Ulanzi season on the escarpment and in the valley are slightly out-of-phase giving rise to a brisk trade. In the northern part of the reserve a road has been placed along the trace of a traditional footpath in order to reach a view point. There is also a path along the Kigogo river which was used by fishermen. The river itself was stocked with trout. An arboretum and forest station were established some time ago, but are now abandoned.

Parts of the forest currently under closed canopy cover were formerly cultivated as indicated by cultivation ridges. The cultivation and subsequent regeneration are probably at least 150 years old. There are many areas of cultural importance within the reserve which are related to former inhabited sites. More recent disturbance comes from logging for Ocotea and Khaya nyasica. There are many old buffalo traps, and hunting for smaller animals is still practised. Fuelwood, building poles and bamboo for basket making are extracted on a small scale.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The northern, eastern, and western boundaries should be cleared and planted. Most of the southern boundary is common with the northern boundary of Mufindi Scarp East Forest and will not need clearing and planting. This boundary is till marked by direction trenches, and these need cleaning. Logged areas should be planted with indigenous species such as Ocotea and Khaya. The arboretum and forest station should be rehabilitated as these have considerable educational and recreational potential.

The old secondary nature of part of the forest also makes it interesting for establishment of long term studies of natural forest regeneration.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Biodiversity zone: Kigogo valley and surrounding ridges. Lower part of the forest which contains many Eastern Arc endemics, plus other areas containing Coffea mufindensis.

Amenity zone: Areas of cultural importance. Path along the Kigogo river, and view point. Arboretum and forest station.

Productive zone: Selected bamboo stands. Border plantations for fuel wood and building poles. Regeneration and enrichment of Ocotea and Khaya.

LITERATURE:

Greenway, P.J. 1973. A classification of the vegetation of East Africa. Kirkia 9: 1-68.

Lovett, J.C. & T.C.E. Congdon. 1989. Notes on the Kigogo Forest, Mufindi, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 19: 53.

Loveridge, A. (1933). Reports on the scientific results of an expedition to the southwestern highlands of Tanganyika Territory: I, Introduction and Zoogeography. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 75: 1-43.

There is some literature concerning the forest station and arboretum, but the reference is not available to us.

Back to Top

Lugoda Lutali Local Authority Forest Reserves

Iringa Region, Mufindi District
Border map : None known
Government notice : None known
Topographic maps : 248/2, 249/1
Measured area : _ 440 ha (calculated from 1978 aerial photography).
LOCATION: – 8°32’30” – 8°34’15″S; 35°25’15 – 35°31’30″E

About 45 km South of Mafinga via Lupeme Tea Estate. Access is from the Lupeme to Ikanin’gombe road. There are seven forested patches in the area known as Lugoda Lutali (Mkonge, Muholomela, Mlowa, Makologwa, Mlogolo, Luhunga, Ipafu Hill) with an elevational range from 1860 m at Ipafu Hill to 1700 m at Luhunga. These are local names for these forests and may not be those used by the District forestry office.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: _ 1400 mm/year (Kilima Tea Factory). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 19_C max. (November), _ 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserves contain montane forest, which is much disturbed in some parts and with an intact canopy in other areas. Area calculated from 1978 aerial photography was around 440 ha for seven forest patches. The extent of the forest is quite a bit smaller now as much clearing has gone on for agriculture since then.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 m tall, open in some areas and closed in others. Trees include: Albizia gummiflua, Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Dombeya torrida, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Prunus africana, Scolopia rhamniphylla, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum. Shrubs include: Carvalhoa campanulata, Clausena anisata, Clutia abyssinica, Dodonea viscosa, Kiggelaria africana, Psychotria, Tecomaria capensis. Climbers include: Dalbergia lactea, Embelia schimperi.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

There are streams issuing from each patch of forest, which are named after the streams, which are used locally.

TIMBER VALUES:

Most timber stocks have been harvested. No species of value occur. Species taken include: Mpongolo (Macaranga kilimandscharica), Muhapi (Bridelia brideliifolia), and Mnyalati (Rapanea melanophloeos)

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the plateau type and are probably secondary. The biodiversity value is low as it is largely composed of widespread species.

Birds include: Buteo oreophilus, Apalis chapini, Alcippe abyssinica, Cossypha anomala, Colius striatus, Modulatrix stictigula, Nectarinia mediocris, Pogoniulus leucomystax, Zosterops senegalensis. Animals include: Blue Monkey, Vervet Monkey, and Bushpig.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

There is heavy exploitation for fuelwood and poles. Forest soil is taken from Mkonge (Mlogolo) forest for tea nurseries in Mkonge village. Luhunga and Ipafu are of cultural importance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The legal status of the forests are uncertain. If they have a legal status, the boundaries need to be surveyed, cleared and planted. The forest patches are gradually getting smaller due to demand for agricultural land. Disturbed and extracted areas need to be regenerated and enriched. Boundary plantations need to be established to supply local needs for building poles and fuelwood.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and stream sides.

Productive zone: Regeneration of disturbed and extracted areas with suitable indigenous species for building poles and timber. Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood.

Amenity zone: Areas of cultural importance at Ipafu hill and Luhunga, and traditional footpaths crossing the reserve.

Biodiversity zone: None needed.

LITERATURE:

None known

Back to Top

Lulanda Forest

Iringa Region, Mufindi District. On map sheet 249/1 Lulanda is placed in Iringa District.
Declaration : Not known to be officially declared
Topographic map : 249/1
Measured area : _ 196.7 ha (three patches 89.3, 24.8, 82.6 ha)
Measured boundary length : _ 1310 m (13.1 km)
LOCATION: – 08°35’15” – 08°17’07″S; 35°36’50” – 35°38’15″E

About 75 km from southeast of Mafinga. Access is from the road through Mdabulo mission, Ihanu and Ibwanzi villages to Lulanda village. The forest is located in the southern Udzungwa mountains, (5 km East of Mufindi Scarp East Forest Reserve) in two valleys on the edge of the east facing escarpment from 1480 – 1640 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kibwele Tea Factory. Estimated rainfall: 1600 – 2000 mm/year with a mist effect. Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 19_C max. (November), _ 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The three forest patches are montane forest with swampy open areas in valley bottoms.

Montane forest: Canopy to 30 m, intact in parts but generally much disturbed following extraction of timber species. Larger trees include: Alangium chinense, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Apholia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia brideliifolia, Caloncoba welwitschii, Canthium oligocarpum, Cassipourea gummiflua, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cola greenwayi, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Drypetes gerrardii, Drypetes usambarica, Garcinia volkensii, Isolona hexaloba, Ixora scheffleri, Maytenus acuminata, Myrianthus holstii, Myrica salicifolia (on the edges), Pancovia golungensis, Parinari excelsa, Polyceratocarpus scheffleri, Polyscias fulva, Rauvolfia caffra, Rawsonia reticulata, Schefflera goetziana , Schrebera alata, Strombosia scheffleri, Trichocladus ellipticus, Trilepisium madagascariense, Vitex amaniensis and Xymalos monospora.

Swamps: Thick herbaceous cover to 3 m tall with Mimulopsis and Cyathea. Trees include: Anthocleista grandiflora and Hallea rubrostipulata.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The forest protects a small catchment with year round stream flow. The water is used for domestic consumption and small scale irrigation.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mkangazi (Khaya nyasica) and Vitex amaniensis were extracted for timber, but stocks are now exhausted.

BIODIVERSITY:

For such a small forest Lulanda contains a remarkable number of interesting species, and with nearly forty large tree species recorded it has a high diversity. Mammals include: Black-and-White Colobus, and formerly Red Duiker and Livingstone’s Suni. Birds include: Buff-spotted Pygmy Crake, Mountain Greenbul, Little Greenbul, Shelley’s Greenbul, Yellow-streaked Greenbul, Olive Mountain Greenbul, Chapin’s Apalis, Black-headed Apalis, Brown-headed (Grey) Apalis, Bar-throated Apalis, Red-capped Forest Warbler, White-chested Alethe, Spot-throat, and Olive-flanked Ground Robin. New or interesting trees and shrubs include: Berteria pauloi, Canthium sp. nov., Coffea sp. nov., Cola sp. nov., Drypetes gerrardinioides, Drypetes usambarica var. rugulosa, Lasianthus peduncularis, Lasiodiscus sp. aff. mildbraedii, Psychotria megalopus, Trichilia lovetii and Zimmermaniopsis uzungwae.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Recent timber extraction has heavily disturbed the forest, opening the canopy in many areas. There is encroachment for cultivation along the edges of the forest. Building poles, firewood and medicines are taken. There is a footpath through the forest linking the village with cultivated areas below the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be surveyed, cleared and planted. Building pole and fuelwood plantations need to be established along the boundary.

The high biodiversity of the reserve, and occurrence of many species of restricted distribution suggests that the reserve should be managed as a nature reserve. To do this effectively fuelwood and building poles need to be supplied from alternative sources. Traditionally used footpaths should remain open and sustainable extraction of medicines and other locally used non-commercial products should be allowed. Areas where timber was extracted need to be regenerated to restore canopy cover.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment Zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Biodiversity zone: To cover all three forest patches.

Productive zone: Building pole and fuelwood plantations along the boundaries.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths.

LITERATURE:

Lovett, J. C., & Congdon, T. C. E. (1990). Notes on Lulanda Forest, southern Uzungwa mountains. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 20: 21.

Back to Top

Mufindi Scarp East Catchment Forest Reserve

Iringa Region; Mufindi District
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 450 of 1954
Variation Order : There must be one relating to putting the main and alternate route to Southern Paper Mills through the reserve.
Border map : JB 588 (1963)
Topographic maps : 248/1, 248/2, 249/1
Gazetted area : 15,183 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 51,736.31 m (rest curvilinear)
LOCATION: – 8°34’05″S – 08°42’40″S; 35°11’55″E – 35°36’05″E

Forty km South of Mafinga, 3 km South of Sawala, on the Mufindi loop road. Access is from the road from Sawala to Mgololo which bisects the reserve (not shown on topographical sheet 248/2), from the road along Mpanga ridge and at many places on the escarpment from the Brooke Bond Tea Estates. The south-western limb of the reserve is bordered by Kigogo Forest Reserve to the northwest. The reserve covers a 45 km long strip of the Mufindi escarpment from southwest of Livalonga to 4.5 km southwest of Lulanda village, and the Mpanga ridge east of Kibwele Tea Estate and south of Lugoda Lutali villages from an elevation of 860 to 1960 m. It is mislabelled as Mufindi Scarp West Forest Reserve on map sheet 248/1, and as Mufindi Scarp Forest Reserve on map sheet 248/2.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss or clay with stones, with small areas of granitic outcrops on the escarpment.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: 1450 mm/year (Kilima Tea Factory). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures:

19_C max. (November), 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The escarpment is covered by grassland with scattered Protea but extends into montane forest on the lower south eastern part of the Kigogo FR. The Mpanga ridge is covered by scrubby to secondary upper montane forest on infertile clay with stones soils.

Montane forest: Canopy to 20 m. Trees include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Garcinia volkensii, Galiniera saxifraga, Myrianthus holstii, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Polyscias fulva, and Strombosia scheffleri.

Upper montane forest: Secondary in nature on poor soils of the Mpanga ridge, with patches of wattle. The canopy is very open, but trees to 20 m occur. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Bersama abyssinica, Cussonia spicata, Dombeya torrida, Macaranga kilimandscharica Maesa lanceolata, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea melanophloeos. Shrubs include: Buddleja salviifolia, Dodonea viscosa, Tecomaria. Climbers include: Urera. Herbs include: Ensete, Lobelia gibberroa.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The Kigogo River flows through the reserve and there are numerous other small streams flowing to the East and West down the escarpment. Water from these streams is used for small scale irrigation of vegetable plots and general use by the local people living below the escarpment, and by Southern Paper Mills for pulp processing. The escarpment is susceptible to erosion, and so the reserve protects it.

TIMBER VALUES:

Some timber species occur in the montane forest where the reserve is continuous with Kigogo FR. Stocks of Mkangazi (Khaya nyasica) are exhausted, but some Mlembelembe (Chrysophyllum gorungosanum) and other less valuable species remain.

BIODIVERSITY:

The montane forest continuous with the Kigogo FR is of the Eastern Arc type and contains a number of species of restricted distribution including: Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Psychotria megalopus.. On the Mpanga ridge the forest is secondary and contains few species of restricted distribution. Birds include: Buteo oreophilus, Cossypha anomala, Sheppardia lowei, Orthotomus metopias, Andropadus tephrolaemus, Alcippe abyssinica.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Areas of thicket on the Mpanga ridge were under cultivation prior to gazettement. The reserve is traversed by traditional footpaths in a number of places. Fire occurs in the escarpment grassland most years. Fuel wood, poles, and other forest products are used by the villages on the northern boundary. A road 40 m wide and about 13 km long (about 52 ha) has been cleared along the Mpanga ridge. The main road from Sawala to the Southern Paper Mills at Mgololo traverse the escarpment. A small road south of the Luisenga river traverses the escarpment, but is very eroded at the bottom.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

There has been limited planting of gaps and thicket with Eucalyptus sp., Pinus patula, Cypress, Ficus sp., Hagenia abyssinica, and Combretum sp. Much more enrichment planting of suitable indigenous species needs to be done, especially to provide for the needs of villagers in Lugoda Lutali. The boundary was cleared and planted in 1989 with Eucalyptus along the base of the escarpment. The planting should be extended around the entire boundary and areas where trees have died should be replanted. Further development of the alternate route along the Mpanga ridge to the escarpment for Southern Paper Mill vehicles should be examined carefully and an environmental assessment prepared before implementation.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides.

Productive zone: Northern side of the Mpanga ridge to be planted with timber, building pole and fuelwood species for local and commercial use. Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood near areas of population density.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths up the escarpment. View points on the escarpment.

Biodiversity zone: Forested area adjacent to Kigogo FR.

LITERATURE

None known

Back to Top

Mufindi Scarp West Forest Reserve

Iringa Region; Mufindi District
Declaration : Not seen
Border map : JB 587 1963 (1:50,000)
Topographic map : 248/1
Gazetted area : 4576 acres (1851.8 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 8607 m (28,239 ft.) rest curvilinear
LOCATION: – 08°41’15″S – 08°43’50″S; 35°07’40″E – 35°10’50″E.

140 km from Mafinga (via Ngwazi), 12 km from Igowole. Access is from Udumka or Ihomasa village. The road from Kifyulilo Tea Research Station to Ihomasa passes through the northern edge of the reserve for a short distance, and Malenda Farm borders the reserve. The reserve covers part of the Mufindi escarpment south of Ihomasa together with hills and valleys behind the escarpment with an elevational range of 1300 m to 1860 m. The area marked Mufindi West Scarp FR on map sheet 248/1 includes part of Mufindi Scarp East FR to the east, and extends west of the actual boundary.

SOILS:

Under forest: well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: 2000 mm/year (Mufindi Forest Station). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures:

20_C max. (Dec.), 15_C min. (Jul.).

VEGETATION:

The steep escarpment is covered by grassland with scattered Protea sp., with montane forest in the northern and central part of the reserve, edged by scrubby thicket. The montane forest is probably secondary as the reserve was formerly inhabited.

Montane forest: Canopy to 15 – 20 m. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Allophylus africanus, Apholia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia bridelliodes, Canthium oligocarpum, Catha edulis, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Croton sylivaticus, Cussonia spicata, Diospyros whyteana, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Nuxia congesta, Oxyanthus speciosus, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Polyscias fulva, Psychotria mahonii, Rapanea melanophloeos, Strychnos mitis, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum, Syzygium masukuense, Vepris stolzii, Xymalos monospora. Trees at the forest edge include: Buddleja salviifolia, Dombeya torrida, Flacourtia indica, Heteromorpha, Myrica salicifolia, Osyris lanceolata.. Shrubs include: Clausena anisata, Clutia abyssinica, Dodonea viscosa, Kiggelaria africana, Kotschya, Lippia, Lobelia gibberroa, Maytenus mossambicensis, Pavetta, Rhus longipes, Rytigynia, Solanum schumannianum, Tecomaria capensis, Triumfetta, Vernonia.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

There are numerous other small streams flowing to the East and West down the escarpment. Water from these streams is used for irrigation of tea, for small scale irrigation of vegetable plots and general use by the local people, and by Southern Paper Mills in pulp processing. The escarpment is very susceptible to erosion, and so this is protected by the reserve.

TIMBER VALUES:

The valuable species such as Muheti (Ocotea usambarensis). are exhausted, but less valuable species such as Mtanga (Albizia gummifera) and Muhapi (Bridelia bridellifolia) occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

This reserve contains the southernmost forest in the Eastern Arc, and although areas of the forest are secondary, there is likely to be remnants of Eastern Arc forests in the river valleys.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Formerly there was a mission within the reserve near Malenda Farm. Much of the forested area north of the escarpment was inhabited prior to gazettement of the reserve so many places in Mufindi West Scarp Forest Reserve have cultural importance. Examples of areas of importance are: Ikemesa, Malenda, Kipugu and Itendega. In the north and north east the reserve is bordered by Kifyulilo, Malenda and Livalonge tea estates which protect it from encroachment. On map sheet 248/1, which is drawn from 1978 aerial photography, habitation is shown in the north western part of the reserve. Timber was formerly extracted and small animals hunted. Fire occurs in the escarpment grasslands almost annually.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be resurveyed, cleared and planted, taking into account settlement in the north west part on the reserve. Logged areas need to be enriched and regenerated with valuable indigenous species. Border plantations of fuel wood and building poles need to be established in areas near villages.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, river valleys and streamsides.

Amenity zone: Areas of local cultural importance and traditional paths.

Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but likely to cover a wide altitudinal range along a suitable river valley.

Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of logged areas. Border plantations of fuelwood and building poles in areas near villages.

LITERATURE:

None known.

Back to Top

Myangala Local Authority Forest Reserve

Iringa Region, Mufindi District
Border map : None known
Government notice : None known
Topographic maps : 248/2
Measured area : _ 200 ha (area combined with Eucalyptus forest and calculated from 1978 aerial photography. Natural forest probably no more than 35 ha).
LOCATION: – 8°18’15” – 8°19’00″S; 35°19′ – 35°20’E

About 40 km South of Mafinga (1 km South of Sawala) on the Mufindi loop road. The reserve is adjacent to Mtwango village on the North side of the road and covers a ridge and slope from 2220 m to 1940 m.

SOILS:

Under forest: Well drained brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Rainfall: _ 1400 mm/year (Kilima Tea Factory). Dry season: June – November. Temperatures: _ 19_C max. (November), _ 14_C min. (July).

VEGETATION:

The natural forest is disturbed upper montane forest.

Upper montane forest: Canopy to 15 m tall, open in many places. Trees include: Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Casearia battiscombei, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Nuxia congesta, Ochna holstii, Scolopia rhamniphylla. Shrubs include: Allophyllus, Carvalhoa campanulata, Dodonea, Eugenia, Tecomaria. Climbers include: Rhiocissus tridentata, Rutidea, Urera. Herbs include: Ensete

CATCHMENT VALUES:

One stream originates in the reserve and is used locally for drinking water and general use.

TIMBER VALUES:

No timber of value remains, though there is regeneration of Casearia battiscombei.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the plateau type and is probably secondary. The biodiversity value is low as it is largely composed of widespread species. One interesting plant is a Eugenia which is otherwise only known from Luisenga stream. Birds include: Nectarinia mediocris, Apalis chapini, and Alcippe abyssinica.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Heavy exploitation for fuelwood and poles. A footpath crosses the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be surveyed, cleared and planted. Disturbed and extracted areas need to be regenerated and enriched. Boundary plantations need to be established to supply local needs for building poles and fuelwood.

MANAGEMENT ZONATION:

Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and stream sides.

Productive zone: Regeneration of disturbed and extracted areas with suitable indigenous species for building poles and timber. Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood.

Amenity zone: Traditional footpaths crossing the reserve.

Biodiversity zone: None needed.

LITERATURE:

None known

Back to Top

Last Updated: 20 March 2017