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Kilimanjaro Region

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The Catchment Forest Reserves and proposed Catchment Forest Reserves of Kilimanjaro Region are primarily in three Districts, Moshi, Mwanga and Same, with the very large KILIMANJARO reserve divided between Moshi, Hai and Rombo Districts. Altogether there are 15 reserves, of which five are not yet gazetted (KAMWALA I, KAMWALA II, KIVERENGE, KWAMWENDA and MWALA). Many of the reserves are on mountainous areas with a high rainfall, and so are important catchments. The main mountain ranges in the region are: Kilimanjaro, North Pare and South Pare.

Kilimanjaro mountain is ringed by KILIMANJARO with Kilimanjaro National Park covering the peak above the reserve; and the Half Mile Strip acting as a buffer zone below the reserve between the forest and cultivation. The North Pare mountains in Mwanga District are covered by five reserves (MRAMBA, MINJA, KINDOROKO, KAMWALA I and KAMWALA II) with one reserve (KIVERENGE) on an outlying hill south of the main range. The South Pare mountains in Same District are covered by four reserves (CHAMBOGO, CHOMME, KWAMWENDA and MWALA) with one reserve (KOKO HILL) covering a rock outcrop near Same town. Three reserves of limited catchment value are on the plain south of Kilimanjaro covering areas of high ground water (RAU, KAHE I and KAHE II). A number of the Kilimanjaro region reserves contain valuable timber, though most stocks have already been exploited. KILIMANJARO contains stands of East African Camphor, East African Cedar and Podo; and CHOMME contains stands of East African Camphor. RAU, KAHE I and KAHE II have potential for growth of Mvule, the stocks of which are now mostly exhausted. Camphor regeneration experiments exist in KILIMANJARO and Mvule regeneration is being carried out in RAU. Biodiversity values are varied. The North and South Pare mountains are in the Eastern Arc range with species rich forest of high biodiversity value in KINDOROKO, CHOMME and MWALA. Species rich dry woodlands of high biodiversity value and arid land species of restricted distribution are likely to be found in CHAMBOGO and KIVERENGE. KILIMANJARO is regarded as having a high biodiversity value because it contains the largest known population of Abbot’s duiker and is a migration route for elephants. Most of the plant species of restricted distribution are at high altitudes within the National Park. RAU contains stands of the rare Oxystigma msoo and seed trees for Mvule. Population pressure on the reserves varies. KILIMANJARO is surrounded by intensive cultivation and there is considerable shortage of land. Similarly, RAU, KAHE I and KAHE II are surrounded by cultivation and are used as a source of building poles and fuelwood. In the North and South Pare mountains the forests are often of local cultural importance and so have traditionally been protected even though population density is high. However the proposed reserves of KAMWALA I, KAMWALA II and KIVERENGE are under pressure, partly because of delay in completing gazettement. Drier parts of CHAMBOGO are under pressure from livestock grazing.

Moshi District

There are four Catchment Forest Reserves administered by Moshi District. KILIMANJARO covers the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro with parts of the reserve being administered by Hai and Rombo Districts. The other three reserves (RAU, KAHE I and KAHE II) are on the plain south of Moshi on an area of high ground water fed by run-off from Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Mwanga District

There are six Catchment Forest Reserves administered by Mwanga District. Three of these are proposed reserves (KAMWALA I, KAMWALA II and KIVERENGE) whose gazettement is yet to be finalised.

Five reserves (MRAMBA, MINJA, KINDOROKO, KAMWALA I and KAMWALA II) are on the North Pare mountains. MRAMBA covers the north west edge, MINJA covers the north east edge and KINDOROKO covers the highest ridge in the southern part of the mountains. The proposed reserves of KAMWALA I and KAMWALA II cover forested hills just north of KINDOROKO.

The proposed KIVERENGE reserve covers Kiverenge Hill just south of the main North Pare range.

Same District

Same District Catchment Forest Office administers five reserves. Of these, two (KWAMWENDA and MWALA), are not yet legally gazetted.

Four of the reserves (CHAMBOGO, CHOMME, KWAMWENDA and MWALA) are on the South Pare mountains. CHAMBOGO is at the northern end of the range covering dry lowland thicket to dry montane forest. CHOMME covers the highest ridge on the South Pare mountains, including Shengena peak, and KWAMWENDA covers a smaller ridge. MWALA is at the southern end of the range covering Mwala peak and associated ridges.

KOKO HILL covers Koko Hill, a small rock outcrop immediately behind Same Boma.

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KAHE I Catchment Forest Reserve

Moshi District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1941
Declaration : GN 300 of 1941
Variation order : GN 378 of 3/11/1961
Border map : Jb 497 (1:10 000) 1961
Topographical maps : 56/4, 72/2
Gazetted area : 2185 acres (885 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 75 187 ft (23 km)

LOCATION: 3_ 29′ – 3_ 33′ S 37_ 27′ – 37_ 29′ E

20 km south east of Moshi. Access is from Kahe station, the reserve is traversed by the Kahe to Soko and Kahe to Tingatinga roads, and Moshi to Tanga railway. The reserve is located between Kahe and Chakindo villages, in the Pangani river basin flats at 700 m.

SOILS:

Alluvial loam fluvisols, gleysols, in depressions vertisols and alkaline soils. Due to the dry climate, alkaline salts are often deposited near the surface. The depressions are seasonally inundated.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kifaru Sisal Estate. Estimated rainfall: 500-700 mm/year, in the Pare mountain rain shadow with ground water. Dry season: June – Feb. Temperatures: 26_C max. (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Despite the fact that the reserve is in an arid area, the presence of ground water in the central and western parts of the reserve allows the growth of tall evergreen ground water forest on raised areas with well drained soils, similar to that in Rau FR. Acacia spp. woodland occurs on less well drained soils in seasonally inundated depressions. In the south east of the reserve a dry deciduous forest occurs.

Ground water forest: Large trees include: Ficus sycomorus, Milicia excelsa and Newtonia buchananii. Smaller trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Tabernaemontana ventricosa, Trichilia emetica and Uapaca sp. A tall, straight boled Acacia sp. also occurs. Understorey trees include: Cordia sinensis, Ficus exasperata, Garcinia sp. and Markhamia zanzibarica.

Woodland: Dominants: Acacia xanthophloea and A. albida with Ficus sycomorus and Hyphaene compressa. Where saline accumulation takes place, salt tolerant species such as Tamarix nilotica and Suaeda monoica occur. The candelabra Euphorbia robbechii occurs near the village.

Deciduous forest: Dominants: Warburgia salutaris and Trichilia emetica, with Cordia goetzei. This dry forest seems to be independent of ground water or at least not much influenced by it.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve protects the banks of the Rau river where it flows through the reserve. Otherwise it has no catchment value.

TIMBER VALUES:

Timbers include: Newtonia buchananii, Milicia excelsa, Acacia albida and Warburgia salutaris.

BIODIVERSITY:

Warburgia salutaris (Maasai name: O’sokonoi) is a relatively rare species and the stand in Kahe I should be maintained as a seed source. It is considered to be a very useful, multipurpose medicinal plant by local people.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Much of the reserve is in good condition. However, near the border of the reserve, open deciduous forest is being degraded by overgrazing, logging and burning. Near the villages at either end of the reserve, firewood is collected, and the south western edge is grazed and sometimes damaged by bushfires. At the south eastern end, Warburgia salutaris bark is collected for sale in the market where it fetches at high prices. In consequence many trees are debarked. The reserve is traversed by the Kahe to Soko and Kahe to Tingatinga roads; and the Moshi to Tanga railway.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Valuable timbers should be regenerated in both the ground water and dry forest. In particular, silviculture of Warburgia salutaris should be investigated and nurseries established. The tree produces abundant fruits in February. Any utilisation should ensure that proper regeneration takes place. With proper management, wood, leaf and bark could all be utilised when logging takes place.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: River banks. Biodiversity zone: A stand of Warburgia salutaris for seed production. Productive zone: Ground water forest for timber. Dry forest for Warburgia salutaris bark and timber.

LITERATURE:

J.M. Bryce (1967): The commercial timbers of Tanzania. Tanzania Forest Division, Utilisation Section. Moshi, 139 pp.

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KAHE II Catchment Forest Reserve

Moshi District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 300 of 1941
Variation order : GN 378 of 3/11/1961
Border map : Jb 496 (1:5000) 1960, Jb 64
Topographical maps : 56/4
Gazetted area : 499 acres (202 ha) (GN 300); 474 acres (192 ha) (Jb 496)
Gazetted boundary length : 23 163 ft (7 km) (GN 300), 23 974 ft (10 km) (Jb 496)

LOCATION: 3_ 28′ – 3_ 27′ S 37_ 27′ – 37_ 28′ E

2 km from Kahe. Access is from Kahe station to Longoni village, there is a road around and into the reserve. The reserve covers a level area at 715 m.

SOILS:

Alluvial loam fluvisols and gleysols.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kifaru Sisal Estate. Estimated rainfall: 500-700 mm/year with ground water. Dry season: June – Feb. Temperatures: 26_C max. (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Despite being in an arid area, the presence of ground water has resulted in the growth of ground water forest which has an uneven canopy and varies from evergreen to semi-evergreen with drier parts being dominated by Acacia spp.

Ground water forest: Canopy broken, trees to 20 m. Dominance varies between Cordyla africana and Acacia spp. Trees include: Acacia spp., Albizia schimperiana, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cordyla africana, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus sur, Milicia excelsa, Newtonia buchananii, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Trichilia emetica, Ziziphus pubescens.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is on level ground and has no direct catchment value, but does protect an area with a high ground water table. No springs are reported from the reserve, but there are wells just outside it.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mikufi (Newtonia buchananii), Mroma (Cordyla africana) and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occur but timber stocks are now exhausted.

BIODIVERSITY VALUES:

The biodiversity value is probably low, with the forest being composed of widespread species. For example, Oxystigma msoo is not reported from the reserve. However a survey would be needed to check this.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Timber stocks are reported to be finished and there are old logging roads going into the reserve. Currently building poles are taken, and Mwavi (Acacia sp.) cut for charcoal which is sold in Moshi. The reserve is surrounded by intensive cultivation.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border has been recently cleared and planted. Timber stocks of Mvule, Mikufi and Mroma need to be regenerated. Acacia sp. cut for charcoal needs to be regenerated and plantations of this species established to supply further requirements. Building pole plantations also need to be established along the border.

Proposed zones: Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey. Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable timbers. Regeneration and enrichment planting of Acacia sp. for charcoal production. Establishment of building pole plantations.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KILIMANJARO Catchment Forest Reserve

Hai, Moshi and Rombo Districts, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1940
Declaration :
Variation orders : GN 182 of 27/8/71, GN 59 of 13/3/73
Border maps : Jb 52a, Jb 52b; Jb 590, Jb 131, Jb 1633, Jb 736 (1:100 000) 1972
Gazetted area : 107 828 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 238 km
LOCATION: 2_ 52′ – 3_ 18′ S 37_ 03′ – 37_ 34′ E
30 km from Moshi. Access is from many points around the base of the mountain. The reserve is far the largest in the region and includes the whole forest belt on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, between 1800 and 2700 m altitudes, but extends as low as 1240 m (Sanya Juu). Kilimanjaro National Park is enclosed by the reserve (75 575 ha) and forms the upper boundary.
CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Moshi, Kibosho Mission, Rombo Mission, Kilema Mission, Kibongoto, Lyamungu, Engare Rongai Mission and Seminary. Estimated rainfall: The eastern and southern slopes are wetter than the western and northern slopes. In the cloud belt on the south eastern slope the rainfall probably exceeds 4000 mm/year, decreasing to 900 mm/year on the northern slopes. Dry season: A short dry season in September on the south eastern slopes with a longer dry season from May to October on the northern slopes. Temperature: 16_C at 1500 m to 7_C at 3000 m; frosts determine the upper forest limit.

SOILS:

Andosols rich in nutrients have developed on porphyry and basalt lava. At lower elevation deep ferralitic latosols have also developed, while on the rocky ridges of higher elevation acidic lithosols occur.

VEGETATION:

Vegetation varies with rainfall and altitude. Lower altitude dry montane forest occurs on the southern and northern slopes below 1800 m with submontane riverine forest in stream valleys from 1400-1600 m. Montane forests occur from 1600 to 2700-2800 m altitude. At lower altitudes, below 2000 m, these forests are secondary, having been logged for camphor. A drier type of montane forest occurs on the eastern, western and parts of the northern slopes. Dry montane forest covers most of the northern slopes between 1800 and 2000-2200 m altitude and extends to the upper forest limit on dry ridges and slopes. Upper montane forest occurs above 2400-2500 m up to the forest line at 2900-3000 m. On the shallow soil of ridges and near the upper forest limit subalpine heath replaces broad-leaved trees of the mossy forest upper montane forest. On the uninhabited western and northern slopes buffalo and elephant migration has resulted in the forests having an open canopy and thick tangle of climbers.

Submontane riverine forest: With Albizia schimperiana and Newtonia buchananii.

Lower altitude dry montane forest: Canopy 10-20 m, larger trees include: Calodendrum capense, Clausena anisata, Cussonia holstii, Croton macrostachyus, C megalocarpus, Euphorbia candelabrum, Olea capensis and Teclea simplicifolia.

Montane forests: Lower altitude secondary forests, once rich in Ocotea usambarensis are now dominated by: Albizia gummifera, Macaranga kilimandscharica and Polyscias fulva. Good regeneration of Ocotea usambarensis can be observed at most places. Plantation forests (Pinus patula, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus spp., Grevillea robusta) and replanting of Ocotea usambarensis took place in this belt and most human impact is also restricted to this area. Undisturbed montane forests at higher altitudes (2000-2500 m) are dominated by Ocotea usambarensis with Balthasaria schliebenii, Podocarpus latifolius, and Rapanea melanophloeos. Tree ferns (Cyathea manniana) are common in gullies and depressions. Herbs include: Impatiens kilimanjari and Selaginella kraussiana. A drier type of montane forest with emergents to 40-50 m is dominated by Cassipourea malosana and Casearia battiscombei with: Bersama abyssinica, Diospyros abyssinica, Ekebergia capensis, Entandrophragma excelsum, Fagaropsis angolensis, Olea capensis, Nuxia congesta, Podocarpus sp., Prunus africana, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontana, Tabernaemontana holstii, Teclea sp. and Xymalos monospora.

Dry montane forest: Dominated by Juniperus procera with Calodendrum capense, Cussonia holstii, Dombeya goetzenii, Euphorbia candelabrum (only up to 2000 m), Olea capensis, Podocarpus falcatus, Teclea nobilis, T. simplicifolia, (rarely with P. latifolius) and Trichocladus ellipticus.

Upper montane forest. With increasing altitude, Ocotea usambarensis is gradually replaced by Podocarpus latifolius (upper limit of Ocotea usambarensis is 2750 m). Hagenia abyssinica becomes more dominant above 2600 m altitude. The forest form of the giant groundsel Senecio johnstonii appears at the same altitude, together with other afroalpine elements, such as Lobelia deckenii and Gladiolus watsonioides. In the cloud belt there is a rich epiphytic cover with mosses and liverworts covering the stems. On the northern slopes mossy upper montane forest occurs in the cloud belt above 2400 m, or just below the upper forest line. Trees include: Casearia battiscombei, Ekebergia capensis, Hagenia abyssinica (above 2500 m), Nuxia congesta, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Podocarpus latifolius, Schefflera myriantha and Xymalos monospora. Shrubs include: Psychotria cyathicalyx. Herbs include: Impatiens kilimanjari and Selaginella kraussiana.

Subalpine heath. Dominated by Erica arbora which forms either pure stands with an open canopy or mixed stands with Podocarpus sp. and Hagenia abyssinica. In both cases a rich moss layer covers the trees and ground.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Mt. Kilimanjaro forest has a very high catchment value. Water from the reserve supplies traditional furrow irrigation systems on the southern and eastern slopes for coffee and banana plantations. The reserve also supplies the sugarcane plantations of Arusha Chini and the large scale rice project south-east of Moshi (through Rau Forest). Kilimanjaro is the main contributor to the Pangani river system, which flows to Tanga and waters several agricultural projects and the Hale hydroelectric dam.

TIMBER VALUES:

Large scale exploitation for Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) on the southern slopes and cedar (Juniperus procera) on the northern slopes has taken place for a long time. Other timber trees include: Podocarpus spp., Xymalos monospora, Entandrophragma excelsum, Fagaropsis angolensis, Albizia spp., Rapanea melanophloeos, Prunus africana, Olea spp., Casearia battiscombei and Cassipourea malosana.

BIODIVERSITY:

A high number of rare and endemic plants occur on Mt. Kilimanjaro, including: Senecio johnstonii subsp. kilimanjari, Senecio cottonii, Lobelia deckenii, Helichrysum meyeri-johannis (decimated along climbing trails), Impatiens kilimanjari, I. digitata subsp. digitata, I. volkensii, Gerrardinia eylesiana, Euphorbia quinquecostata, Rubus volkensii, Vepris arushensis, Diospyros kilimandscharica, Psychotria petiginosa, Euryops dacrydioides, Disperis kerstenii. Eleven species of bryophytes are endemic to Kilimanjaro mountain, including: Colura berghenii, Pocsiella hydrogonioides, Ulota tanganyikae and Zygodom robustus.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

On the southern and eastern slopes there is high population pressure. Encroachment in the form of grazing and wood collecting occurs on the southern slopes where the boundary is in contact with intensively cultivated areas. Logging has affected much of the lower altitude forest belt changing the canopy structure and composition. Pit sawing is common for camphor in the south and cedar in the north. Fires occur in the subalpine heath during the dry season, set by poachers and to lesser extent by hyrax hunters. Regular fires on the northern side above Rongai have pushed down the upper limit of forest from 2900 m to 2500 m. Tourism has a major impact in the National Park area.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is usually well marked. Cultivators adjacent to the reserve should be encouraged to use agroforestry techniques to supply wood and fodder. Woodlots should be planted along the boundary of the reserve, and a system worked out for local use of the reserve. Logged areas need to be regenerated with camphor and cedar. Regeneration of camphor is good under the secondary Macaranga kilimandscharica canopy. Its development should be promoted by gradual removal of Macaranga kilimandscharica and care of camphor regeneration. Gaps should be filled by camphor plantation, which is successful on the southern slopes at Kibosho, Umbwe and Mweka. Pit sawing should be controlled by regular patrolling. If logging licences are provided, trees should be individually marked for exploitation. Jaako Poyry inventoried 60 000 ha in 1977/79. Fire control is a continuous problem during the dry seasons. Above the altitude of 2400 m there should be no exploitation as this is the important area for water catchment. The reserve has a high amenity value. There is a proposal to include the forest inside Kilimanjaro National Park.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and stream sides. Forest above 2400 m. Biodiversity zone: Game migration routes on the northern slopes. Productive zone: For local use near the reserve boundary, for timber in camphor and cedar forests with regeneration of valuable species. Amenity zone: Suitable routes to the National Park and forest walks.

LITERATURE:

Foley, C. & J. Grimshaw. 1991. Kilimanjaro Elephant Project. Miombo 6: 18.

Greenway, P.J. 1965. The vegetation and flora of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tanganyika notes and records 64: 97-107.

Hedberg, O. 1951. Vegetation belts of the East African mountains. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 45: 140-202.

Kasulwa, S. 1990. The future of Mount Kilimanjaro. Mahali Clubs Magazine, 1990, pp 15-17.

Mwakasonda, J.G. 1986. South Kilimanjaro forest project management plan. Mimeograph, Forest Division.

Newmark, W.D. (ed.) 1991. The conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro. IUCN, Gland. Containing 13 chapters: Historical change in human population on Mount Kilimanjaro and its implications, D.M. Gamassa; Changes in the boundary of the montane rainforest on Mount Kilimanjaro between 1958 and 1987, R.H. Lamprey, F. Michelmore and H.F. Lamprey; The natural forest of Mount Kilimanjaro, B.C. Mwasaga; The significance of lower plants in the conservation of Mt. Kilimanjaro, T. Pócs; Local extinctions of large mammals within Kilimanjaro National Park and Forest Reserve and implications of increasing isolation and forest conservation, W.D. Newmark, C.A.H. Foley, J.M. Grimshaw, O.A. Chambegga and A.G. Rutazaa; Recreational impacts of tourism along the Marangu route in Kilimanjaro National Park, W.D. Newmark and P.A. Nguye; The hydrology of Mount Kilimanjaro: an examination of dry season runoff and possible factors leading to its decrease, J.D. Sarmett and S.A. Faraji; The farming systems on Mount Kilimanjaro, A. O’Kting’ati and J.F. Kessey; The history of the half-mile forestry strip on Mount Kilimanjaro, C.O. Kivumbi and W.D. Newmark; Attitudes of local people toward Kilimanjaro National Park and Forest Reserve, W.D. Newmark and N.L. Leonard; An ecological approach to the inventory and monitoring of rainforest catchments in Tanzania, J.E. Bjørndalen; The importance of Mount Kilimanjaro and the need for its integrated management and conservation, S.B. Misana; Priorities for the conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro, W.D. Newmark.

NORAD. 1985. Catchment Forestry in Tanzania. FORINDECO, Oslo.

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RAU Catchment Forest Reserve

Moshi District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : Before 1910
Declaration : GN 127 of 25/5/1951
Variation order : The must be a variation order to account for the differences between GN 127 and Jb 100.
Border map : Jb 100 (1:10 000) 1951
Topographical map : 56/4
Gazetted area : 3526 acres (1427 ha) (GN 127); 1408 acres (570 ha) (Jb 100).
Gazetted boundary length : 53 570 ft (16 km) (GN 127); 36 220 ft (11 km) (Jb 100).
LOCATION: 3_ 23′ S 37_ 22′ E

3 km south east of Moshi. Access is from Moshi. The reserve is on the gentle south facing alluvial base of Mt. Kilimanjaro, at an altitude of between 730 and 765 m.

SOILS:

Fluvisoils and nutrient rich gleysols on alluvial sand and loam of volcanic origin.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Moshi. Estimated rainfall: 870 mm/year with ground water. Dry season: June – Feb. Temperature: 26_C max. (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

In 1951 the reserve consisted of 809 ha of natural ground water forest, 243 ha of woodland and 375 ha of grassland. By 1964 there was 216 ha of plantation including 10 ha of Oxystigma msoo, with only 50 ha of natural forest remaining.

Ground water forest: Several types of ground water forest can be recognised. In the north near Njoro village, on deep well drained soil, there is a stand of 40-50 m tall Lovoa swynnertonii with Albizia schimperiana, Ficus sycomorus, Newtonia buchananii and Tabernaemontana ventricosa. To the south there is a stand of 15-18 m tall Macaranga kilimandscharica, probably resulting from former exploitation of Lovoa swynnertonii forest. East of Kaloleni village 50 m tall Oxystigma msoo occurs with Cordyla africana, Ficus sycomorus, Newtonia buchananii, Rauvolfia caffra, Syzygium guineense and Trichilia emetica in the lower canopy. There is good regeneration of Oxystigma msoo. Further south, towards the end of the reserve, swamp forests dominated by Ficus sycomorus occur. Where the water level changes, and salt probably accumulates, Acacia xanthophloea dominates with occasional Phoenix reclinata. In the eastern central part of the reserve 50 m tall Milicia excelsa occurs.

Woodland: Dominated by Acacia xanthophloea.

Plantations of exotic trees are mostly teak, with Cedrela odorata, C. mexicana, and Lagerstroemia speciosa in blocks. Plantations occupy deforested areas. There are also plantations of teak, Eucalyptus spp., Cassia sp. and Mahogany.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve contains a large number of freshwater springs of which three are important. Water is collected in a reservoir at the south east end of the reserve and used to irrigate about 50 000 ha of dry lowland area south of Mt. Kilimanjaro for rice and rural water supply. The origin of these rich springs is on the slopes of Kilimanjaro. Water arrives underground through loose volcanic debris.

TIMBER VALUES:

East African Mahogany (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occur, but valuable trees are mostly extracted. Lovoa swynnertonii and Oxystigma msoo can be used for plywood.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest reserve is famous for two tree species, Oxystigma msoo and Lovoa swynnertonii which are rare elsewhere. Both are very tall evergreen trees with valuable timber. Together with tall Mvule trees, they represent an important seed source. In particular, Rau forest is considered essential to the survival of Oxystigma msoo.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve was logged in the past. Population pressure is high. On the Moshi side there is pollution from a tanning factory, garbage deposits and sewage plants. On the Njoro side human influence is increasing. A road through the forest is used by heavy trucks carrying rice to Moshi town from the south-east. Without proper maintenance and an adequate number of bridges the trucks use many alternative routes, compacting soil and destroying forest. Firewood is collected from the northern end.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The Forest Office runs a well maintained tree nursery which is important for forest management and Moshi township tree planting. In 1967 it was suggested that the reserve should be given Park status to protect the Oxystigma msoo population and provide a recreational area for Moshi town. Logged areas should be replanted with valuable timbers. Road maintenance should be carried out due to the heavy traffic and for recreational aspects perspectives. Garbage dumping and cultivation should be stopped at the forest edges.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: To protect springs and streams. Biodiversity zone: To protect stands of Mvule, Lovoa swynnertonii and Oxystigma msoo for seed production. Productive zone: Plantations and regenerated valuable timbers. Amenity zone: Suitable routes and areas for recreation.

LITERATURE:

Rodgers, W.A. 1983. A note on the distribution and conservation of Oxystigma msoo Harms (Caesalpiniaceae). Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 53: 161-164.

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KAMWALA I & II Proposed Catchment Forest Reserves

Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 2178 (1: 2500) 1991 (Kamwala I).
Topographical map : 73/1
Gazetted area : Proposed 117 ha (Kamwala I) & 293 ha (Kamwala II)
Gazetted boundary length : Proposed 6875 m (7 km) (Kamwala I); 11 395 m (11 km) (Kamwala II)
LOCATION: 3_ 41′ S 37_ 38′ E (Kamwala I); 3_ 43′ S 37_ 35′ E (Kamwala II)

20 km from Mwanga. Access is from the Vuchama Ndambwe to Songoa road which traverses Kamwala II. The two reserves cover steep slopes and ridges in the North Pare mountains from an altitude of 1670 to 1920 m.

SOILS:

Red clays.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kilomeni Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year. Dry season : June – Sep. Estimated temperatures: 20_C max. (Mar.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest with a broken to intact canopy with areas of scrub and wattle plantation.

Montane forest: Canopy broken to intact 10-20 m tall. Trees include: Albizia schimperiana, Allophylus sp., Bersama abyssinica, Ficus sur, Newtonia buchananii, Ochna holstii, Prunus africana, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum, Xymalos monospora. Scrub includes: Clutia abyssinica, Dodonea viscosa, Solanum sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserves are important catchments with rivers going to Kisangara. A lake is reported from inside the reserve.

TIMBER VALUES:

Although the forest looks suitable, no Ocotea usambarensis is reported. Prunus africana is good timber.

BIODIVERSITY VALUES:

The forests are potentially of the Eastern Arc type and so may contain species of restricted distribution, though a survey is needed to check this as the forests may be too dry to be particularly rich.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Kamwala I & II are traditional forest reserves of cultural importance. The traditionally protected areas have been enlarged in the proposed forest reserves to cover water catchments and include areas of black wattle plantation. The reserves are surrounded by villages and are traversed by footpaths. They are utilised for livestock grazing and as a source of building poles. A brick kiln to make bricks for a new dispensary has been erected just inside Kamwala II on the road just inside the reserve boundary.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The reserves have been surveyed but not yet gazetted. About half the boundary has been cleared and planted with Eucalyptus sp. Delays in completing the gazettement process are causing problems as people do not yet recognise the reserve as being official. There is some local opposition to the proposed boundaries. Originally one reserve was proposed, but this was split into two following local objections. Once gazettement is finalised then management can commence. Wardell (1991) has proposed that an area of public land on the south-east border of Kamwala II should be included within the reserve to give continuity with Kindoroko FR. Gaps should be filled with Prunus africana and Albizia spp., both of which are potential timber trees, and border plantations of fuelwood and building poles established.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridges and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey. Productive zone: Enrichment planting with Prunus africana and Albizia spp., boundary plantations for fuelwood and building poles. Amenity zone: Traditional forest reserves for religious purposes.

LITERATURE:

Wardell, D.A. 1991. Proposal for a natural forest conservation and management programme in the North Pare mountains, Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. TFAP, BAFMP, GTZ/IBD.

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KIVERENGE Catchment Forest Reserve

Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order : None
Border map :
Topographical map : 73/3
Gazetted area : 2155 ha proposed
Gazetted boundary length : 30 km proposed
LOCATION: 3_ 48′ – 3_ 50′ S 37_ 37′ – 37_ 40′

16 km from Mwanga, 5 km from Lembani on the main Moshi road. Access is from the Sekibaha to Kilomeni road which passes through the reserve. The reserve covers the western slopes, half the eastern slopes and peak of Kiverenge Hill on the southern end of the North Pare mountains from an altitude of 1000 to 1680 m.

SOILS:

Sandy loams over crystalline gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kisangara Sisal. Estimated rainfall: 700 mm/year in the rain shadow of the Pare mountains with mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Estimated temperatures: 25_C max. (Mar.), 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is predominately dry woodland and thicket with grassland and dry montane forest on the peak.

Dry woodland: Species rich, trees to 6 m tall with a dense shrub layer and tall Aloes forming a thicket 4 m tall. Trees include: Acacia spp., Combretum spp., Commiphora spp., Croton spp., Euphorbia spp.. Dalbergia melanoxylon is reported.

Dry montane forest: The following trees are reported: Brachyleana huillensis, Calodendrum capense, Gnidia latifolia, Olea capensis, Synadenium grantii.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Two springs are reported in the summit area, otherwise the streams are seasonal. The area is too dry to be an important catchment, but the reserve would serve to protect the steep slopes of Kiverenge Hill. Adjacent steep slopes are being cultivated and are certain to suffer from soil erosion.

TIMBER:

Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon), Muhuhu (Brachyleana huillensis) and Loliondo (Olea capensis) are reported but do not occur in any density.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are potentially of the Eastern Arc type, but may be too dry to contain many species of restricted distribution. The dry woodland is species rich and may contain important biodiversity.

HUMAN IMPACT:

Parts of the proposed reserve were formerly cultivated. Building poles are firewood are taken, stock grazed, and charcoal burnt within the reserve. Many of the trees are coppicing following earlier cutting. Fire can be a problem.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Gazettement needs to be finalised as management cannot be started until this process is complete. The border has been cleared on the western side. Initial planting with Eucalyptus sp. was not successful because of termite attack, Melia azedarach is to be tried next. Border plantations for fuelwood and building poles need to be established to supply local needs. Fuelwood species should include those suitable both for charcoal and firewood. As cultivation spreads on surrounding hillsides pressure on the reserve will increase. A system of grazing licenses should be established to allow grazing within the reserve without overstocking.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, the forested peak, ridge tops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but likely to include some dry forest and a wide elevation range of dry woodland. Productive zone: Boundary plantations of fuelwood and building poles; grazing under license in the dry woodland.

LITERATURE:

Wardell, D.A. 1991. Proposal for a natural forest conservation and management programme in the North Pare mountains, Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. TFAP, BAFMP, GTZ/IBD.

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KINDOROKO Catchment Forest Reserve

Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro District
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : Supp. 59, Cap. 389, p 112
Variation order : GN 341 of 29/9/61
Border map : Jb 458 (1:10 0000) 1959; Jb 67 (1:25 000) 1957 (traced from a German map)
Topographical maps : 73/1, 73/3
Gazetted area : 2186 acres (885 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 13.6 km
LOCATION: 3_ 43′ – 3_ 46′ S 37_ 38′ E

20 km from Mwanga, 6 miles south of Usangi village. Access is from Kilomeni mission. The reserve covers the highest ridge and summit of the North Pare Mountains from 1600 to 2113 m altitude.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosoils, or deeper, ferralitic latosoils, have developed on gneiss Precambrian rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kilomeni Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature: 22_C max. (Mar.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Montane forest covers the southern half of the ridge from 1600-1800 m above Kilomeni mission and village. On the shallow soils of the central ridge at 1800-1900 m there is heath with patches of stunted montane forest. The heath may be secondary, resulting from burning of the forest. Upper montane forests occur on the summit from 1900-2100 m.

Montane forest: Canopy 20 m high, without emergents. Dominated by: Newtonia buchananii and Albizia gummifera, with Ficalhoa laurifolia, Garcinia volkensii, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Polyscias fulva, and Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum. Smaller trees include: Maesa lanceolata (dominant) and Tabernaemontana sp. All trees are occupied by the hemi-epiphytic Culcasia falcifolia. The ground layer is dominated by the fern Blotiella stipitata.

Heath and forest patches: Dominated by Erica arborea, with Lycopodium clavatum in the ground layer. The forest patches are dominated by Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum with Garcinia volkensii. Shrubs include a Memecylon species. Herbs include: Selaginella kraussiana. Both heath and forest types have a rich moss layer covering the soil.

Upper montane forest: No data.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment area supplying water to the dry slopes and basins surrounding it. About 20 villages in the Usangi area receive water from the forest reserve, including Kisangara town on the main road and the neighbouring coffee and sisal plantations. Water is piped straight from the forest to the villages.

TIMBER VALUES:

A number of useful timbers occur, including: Ficalhoa laurifolia and Newtonia buchananii.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are likely to be rich in species of restricted distribution. The moss layers of the Ericaceous heath vegetation is rich in rare species. The main summit area is still to be explored biologically.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Apart from the secondary nature due to fire of the summit ridge heaths, there is very little disturbance in the forest. There is a traditional forest reserve (mpungi) along the summit ridge of cultural importance. In contrast, surrounding land on steep slopes is increasingly heavily cultivated.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The forest edge is well marked and there is no encroachment. Management proposals in Wardell (1991) are: Resurveying and demarcating the boundary. Possibly including the 500-800 m buffer strip of natural forest between the existing boundary and current limits of agriculture in Ngujuni. Possibly including 100-200 ha of public land on the north east edge of the FR to give continuity with Kamwala II proposed reserve. The boundaries and gaps should be enriched with valuable species. A buffer strip of Grevillea robusta and wattle should be established along the northern and eastern boundaries.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and ridge tops. Biodiversity zone: To be located following survey. Productive zone: Boundary planting and buffer zone. Amenity zone: Traditional forest reserves for religious purposes.

LITERATURE:

Wardell, D.A. 1991. Proposal for a natural forest conservation and management programme in the North Pare mountains, Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro region. GTZ/IBD.

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MINJA Catchment Forest Reserve

Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1955
Declaration : GN 197 of 3/6/55
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 206 (1:10 000) redrawn 1979
Topographical maps : 73/1
Gazetted area : 1286 acres (520 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 34 430 ft (10 km)
LOCATION: 3_ 35′ S 37_ 40′ E

20 km from Mwanga. The reserve covers the north east tip of the North Pare Mountains north of Vuchama Ngofi and west of Lake Jipe and is naturally delimited by steep rocky cliffs on the northern, western and eastern sides. It was formerly known as Vulwe FR. It is incorrectly positioned on the map sheet 73/1.

SOILS:

Shallow acidic lithosols or deeper, red ferralitic latosols have developed under the forested area, with humic ferralitic soils in favourable conditions, over Precambrian gneiss rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Shingatini Mission and Isangi Rural. Estimated rainfall: 1300 mm/year with wetter eastern and drier western slopes, and a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep.

VEGETATION:

Montane forest covers about 80% of the area on the summit ridges and higher slopes between 1650-1850 m. Submontane rainforest covers less than 10% of the area in valley bottoms between 1500-1650 m altitude, formerly it would have covered the wetter lower slopes which are now cultivated. Secondary heath occurs at the forest edges where it appears to be the result of burning, and on the shallow soils of the sharp ridge at the western edge of the reserve at 1700-1850 m where it appears to be natural.

Montane forest: The low canopy is dominated by Xymalos monospora with: Aphloia theiformis, Erica arborea (especially in patches with degraded, shallow soil), Manilkara sp., Myrica salicifolia, Prunus africana, Rapanea melanophloeos, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum and Zanthoxylum sp.

Submontane forest: Dominated by Newtonia buchananii.

Heath: Dominated by Erica arborea.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is important in the water supply of Vuchama Ngofi and Mcheni villages. One permanent and two seasonal streams flow south-east to Kambi ya Simbi near Lake Jipe. Streams support irrigated agriculture in the eastern lowlands. A water intake was constructed in 1975/76 on Vulue stream to pipe water to Vuchama Ngofi.

TIMBER VALUES:

The soft timber tree, Lemonwood (Xymalos monospora), dominates the montane forest. The more valuable satinwood (Zanthoxylum sp.) occurs sporadically everywhere in the montane forest. Newtonia buchananii is dominant in the submontane rainforest but should not be extracted as it is the most important species in the main catchment area. Macaranga kilimandscharica is common in secondary forest.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so may contain species of restricted distribution. However, no particularly rare, endangered or endemic tree species have been recorded.

HUMAN IMPACT:

The forest was formerly protected by the Wagweno, and there are old enclaves of utilisation within the present boundaries. Fire causes damage on the boundaries. There is small scale cutting for building poles and some pit sawing. An application to mine vermiculite was approved in 1961 but the right was not exercised. A track through the forest provides access to Kambi ya Simba from Vuchama Ngofi.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Management proposals in Wardell (1991) are: the boundary needs resurveying and demarcating; there should be enrichment planting along the boundary and in gaps; a buffer strip of e.g.. Grevillea robusta and/or Cordia africana should be established along accessible parts of the boundary. The reserve should be protected from fire, and the secondary heath vegetation enriched.

As in many areas of the Pare mountains, the local people practise traditional agroforestry systems using many tree species (avocado, coffee, Raphia palm for thatching, Rauvolfia caffra, shade trees as Cordia abyssinica) on cultivated slopes and so preventing erosion and contributing to water catchment.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover steeper slopes, ridges and stream sides. Productive zone: To cover boundary areas for buffer zone plantations.

LITERATURE:

Wardell, D.A. 1991. Proposal for a natural forest conservation and management programme in the North Pare mountains, Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. TFAP, GTZ/IBD.

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MRAMBA Catchment Forest Reserve

Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 352 of 18/7/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 419 (1:25 000) 1958
Topographical map : 73/1
Gazetted area : 8290 acres (3355 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 100 172 ft (31 km)
LOCATION: 3_ 31′ – 3_ 39′ S 37_ 33′ – 37_ 36′ E

20 km from Mwanga. Access is from Simbomu village. The reserve covers the steep rocky Mramba – Kifaru ridge on the north-western end of the North Pare mountains from an altitude of 760 to 1 700 m.

SOILS:

Red laterites over gneiss, probably some volcanic input as Kilimanjaro is visible from the reserve.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Shingatini Mission and Isangi Rural. Estimated rainfall: 1100 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperatures: 22_C max. (Feb.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is capped by dry montane forest, but is largely covered by dry woodland and thicket with extensive areas of rock outcrop.

Dry montane forest: Albizia sp., Newtonia buchananii and Podocarpus sp. are reported.

Dry woodland and thicket: Trees to 4 m tall with: Combretum spp. and Commiphora spp. There are areas of Dodonea viscosa scrub.

CATCHMENT VALUE:

Two permanent rivers, the Maruhuri and Mrimwacha, are reported to originate in the reserve. There are many seasonal streams.

TIMBER VALUE:

Newtonia buchananii and Podocarpus sp. are reported to occur in the montane forest.

BIODIVERSITY VALUE:

The forests are potentially of the Eastern Arc type, and so may contain species of restricted distribution. However they are likely to be rather dry and so not particularly rich.

HUMAN IMPACT:

Logging of Newtonia buchananii and Podocarpus sp. formerly took place in the montane forest. Building poles, firewood and charcoal are taken from the dry woodland. Cultivation extends up to the reserve boundary, and fires occasionally enter the reserve. Livestock are grazed in parts of the reserve. Small animals are hunted.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary has been cleared, but planting has not yet started. Building pole and fuelwood plantations should be established along the reserve border near areas of high population in order to supply local needs. Newtonia buchananii and Podocarpus sp. should be regenerated and enriched in the montane forest. There is a proposal for extending the reserve to include the western slopes of the Mramba – Kifaru ridge. GTZ are currently investigating the possibilities of starting a forestry project in the North Pare mountains. This project should be co-ordinated with the activities of the catchment project.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: To cover steeper slopes, ridge tops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To be located in the forest area following a survey, and possibly to include a strip of dry woodland from the forest to the boundary. Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment of valuable species in the forest, and border planting for fuelwood and building poles near areas of high population density.

LITERATURE:

Wardell, D.A. 1991. Proposal for a natural forest conservation and management programme in the North Pare mountains, Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. TFAP, BAFMP, GTZ/IBD.

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CHAMBOGO Catchment Forest Reserve

Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 298 of 20/6/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 373 (1:25 000) 1957
Topographical map : 89/2
Vegetation map : JICA (1:10 000) 1988
Gazetted area : 13 508 acres (5467 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : External border 106 321 ft (32 km); Manga enclave 10 264 ft (3 km); Korokoro – Kitilinga enclave 16 497 ft (5 km)
LOCATION: 4_ 04′ – 4_ 08′ S 37 45′ – 37 51′ E

2 km east of Same. Access is from the Same to Kisiwani and Same to Mwembe roads. The north-east boundary is along the Same to Kisiwani road. The reserve covers the north western end of the South Pare mountains from 820 to 1847 m altitude.

SOILS:

At higher altitudes: shallow lithosols. On the lower slopes: ferralitic latosols. On the foothills: xerosols, arenosols, with vertisols in depressions.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental/oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Same. Estimated rainfall: Above 1400 m from 800-1500 mm/year with a mist effect, on western foothills less than 500 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: In dry areas 26_C max. (Mar.), 21_C min (July) cooler at higher altitudes in wetter areas.

VEGETATION:

The reserve is largely covered by dry vegetation with semi-desert conditions on the lower slopes from 900 to 1100 m supporting bushland. Above 1100 m there is a gradual transition to secondary wooded grassland and open woodland. Dry deciduous forests occur at 1200 m, with dry montane forests at 1400 m around the Manga village enclave. Montane forest occurs on the summit ridge above Manga village at 1400 m.

Bushland: Dominated by Acacia mellifera, with: Acacia sp., Commiphora sp., and Terminalia sp. bushes.

Woodland: With: Combretum molle, Ozoroa reticulata, Ormocarpum sp. and Terminalia sp.

Dry montane forest: With: Brachylaena huillensis, Calodendrum capense, Catha edulis, Croton megalocarpus, Diospyros natalensis, Euphorbia nyikae, Euphorbia quadrangularis, Olea capensis and Teclea simplicifolia.

Montane forest: Tall canopy with Newtonia buchananii as an emergent, with Podocarpus latifolius and Ekebergia capensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The montane forest provides water to Mwanga and Mwembe villages, otherwise catchment value is limited to soil erosion control.

TIMBER VALUES:

Dry forest: Brachylaena huillensis. Olea africana trees are not big enough to yield timber.

BIODIVERSITY:

The montane forests are of the Eastern Arc type and may contain species of restricted distribution. The rock cliffs and semi-desert area are rich in rare and endemic species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

There are two enclaves within the reserve, Manga and Korokoro – Kitilinga. The slopes around Manga village are cultivated, otherwise there is little impact. There are regular fires on the lower slopes. Pastoralists graze cattle on the lower foothills. Catha edulis shoots are used locally and sold as a stimulant.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Fire needs to be controlled in dry areas. A system of grazing licences needs to be established. The wooded grassland which currently replaces former dry forest should be planted with valuable species for timber, fuel wood and building material.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Montane forest area and steeper slopes. Productive zone: Woodland following enrichment planting; bushland for controlled grazing.

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CHOMME Catchment Forest Reserve

Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1951
Declaration : GN 125 of 25/5/51
Variation : GN 303 of 20/6/58
Border maps : Jb 98, Jb 338, Jb 340 (1:25 000) 1988 2 sheets
Topographical maps : 89/2, 89/4
Gazetted area : 35 292 acres (14 283 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 67 km (105 591 ft (32 km) on sheet 2)
LOCATION: 4_ 10′ – 4_ 25′ S 37_ 53′ – 38_ 00′ E

Access is from the Makanga to Mwembe road. The reserve covers the highest ridge of South Pare Mountains which runs north – south between the old and new Tanga to Moshi highways, and Gonja and Makanya towns from 1250 to 2463 m.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tia. Estimated rainfall: Eastern slopes; up to 3000 mm/year, western slopes; 1500-2000 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature: 20_C max. (Feb.), 15_C min (July).

SOILS:

On ridges: acidic lithosols. On slopes: ferralitic latosols. Over gneiss and migmatite Precambrian crystalline basement rocks. On Chomesuji Plateau peat has accumulated and histosols developed in depressions under heath and bog vegetation.

VEGETATION:

Submontane forest occurs on the eastern edge of the reserve between 1250 and 1600 m. Montane forests occur above 1500 m with a drier type on the lower slopes and rainshadow areas, and a wetter type covering about 60% of the reserve mainly on the eastern slopes and western slopes in valleys around 2000-2300 m. Above 2300 m altitude moss covered upper montane forest occurs with elfin forest on the highest ridges. Heath occurs along rocky ridges in shallow, acidic soil as natural vegetation. Secondary heaths and grassland follow fire in drier montane forest and now occupy large areas between 1600 to 2000 m with scattered stands in the east and north, and a continuous belt between the forest edge and cultivation in the drier west.

Submontane forest: Dominated by Parinari excelsa.

Montane forest: Drier montane forest with a single high canopy and few epiphytes. Large trees include: Albizia gummifera, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Teclea nobilis and Xymalos monospora. In wetter montane forest where timber has not been extracted, such as on the west slope of Mt. Shengena, Ocotea usambarensis is the dominant emergent tree, with specimens of 45 m height and 2 m diameter common. Associated species are: Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Chrysophyllum gorongosanum and Podocarpus latifolius. In exploited areas secondary stands include: Macaranga kilimandscharica and Polyscias fulva. Smaller trees include: Aphloia theiformis, Balthasaria schliebenii, Cornus volkensii, Ekebergia capensis, Halleria lucida, Memecylon deminutum, Maesa lanceolata and Rapanea melanophloeos. On Mt. Shengena and in Tae and Suji forest areas a dense, 1-2 m high undergrowth occurs with the half woody, endemic Impatiens teitensis subsp. oblanceolata, and the fern Blotiella stipitata. It is worth noting that Ocotea usambarensis does not occur, or is rare, in the North Pare mountains, whereas in the South Pare it is the dominant tree in primary montane forests and, together with Podocarpus latifolius, has very good regeneration.

Upper montane forest: Similar canopy composition to wetter montane forest, but only 10-15 m tall with the trees covered in epiphytic bryophytes, ferns and orchids, for example: Drynaria volkensii, Lepidozia cupressina and Stolzia repens. On the highest ridges and summits elfin forest with a 3-5 m tall canopy includes the trees: Rapanea melanophloeos, Schefflera myriantha, Syzygium cordatum and occasional Erica arborea. Shrubs include: Gerrardinia eylesiana and Pentas hindsioides var. parensis. The trees and shrubs have a rich bryophyte cover, with the endemic Neorutenbergia usagarae, with Lepidozia cupressina, and on the ground, cushions are formed by Campylopus jamesonii, Dicranoloma billarderi and Cladonia usambarensis.

Heath: Primary heath dominated by Erica arborea. Secondary heaths, 1-2.5 m tall, dominated by Erica spp. with Sporobolus grassland patches.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The large size, high rainfall and extensive forests give the reserve a high catchment value. The surrounding area is densely populated and at many places water is piped from the reserve to villages in drier areas (e.g. to Makanya) or taken directly from streams. All streams from the reserve (both through Mkomazi and Mwembe Rivers on the east and west side) feed Pangani River, and the Mkomazi Rice project.

TIMBER VALUES:

Wetter montane forest contains the most valuable timber, notably Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis). Other timber species include: Podocarpus spp., Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Xymalos monospora. Camphor regeneration is good.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so contain species of restricted distribution. Chomme FR is the most species rich forest on Pare Mountains, with the largest, continuous rainforest area. There are many endemic and rare species for example: Impatiens teitensis, Memecylon deminutum, Pentas hindsioides var. parensis, Neorutenbergia usagarae, Cladonia usambarensis, Gymnosiphon usambaricus. Colobus monkeys occur in relatively large numbers.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Camphor was exploited legally in the 1960’s on the western edge of the reserve above Tai village from 1900 to 2050 m altitude. This area is secondary and lacks emergent trees. Extensive illegal pitsawing for camphor was observed on the western slopes of Mt. Shengena. Fire is replacing drier forest types with heath. Each fire destroys marginal trees in a 5-20 m broad strip at the forest edge.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is well marked. Logging should be controlled and not carried out in certain areas. Camphor and other valuable species should be regenerated in existing secondary areas and following logging. Fire control is needed on the western edge, where secondary heath is already continuous and fire endangers the whole forest edge. In the heath area, plantation forest should be established with firebreaks forming a network to prevent spreading of fierce fires.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be selected following a survey. Productive zone: Selective logging and regeneration of Camphor; plantation area on the western heath.

LITERATURE:

None known

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KWAMWENDA Proposed Catchment Forest Reserve

Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order : None
Border map :
Topographical map :
Gazetted area :
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION:

Access is from Mweteni via Mamba myamba. The reserve covers a forested ridgetop in the South Pare mountains.

SOILS:

Humus rich sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tia. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperature: 20_C max (Feb.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly covered by montane forest with some areas of scrub and bracken. There are occasional rock outcrops.

Montane forest: Canopy to 15-20 m tall with: Cussonia spicata, Dasylepis integra, Maesa lanceolata, Nuxia sp., Podocarpus sp., Prunus africana, Rapanea melanophloeos, Vepris stolzii, Tabernaemontana sp., Xymalos monospora, Zanthoxylon gillettii. Newtonia buchananii and Ocotea usambarensis are reported.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve protects a catchment of local importance.

TIMBER VALUES:

Podo (Podocarpus sp.), Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) and Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is potentially of the Eastern Arc type and so may contain species of restricted distribution, however it may be too dry to be particularly rich.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The proposed reserve covers an area of traditional forest reserve. There is some cutting for building poles. Cultivation extends up to the edge of the reserve and fire has damaged the border in some places.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The gazettement process needs to be finalised so that management can start. The boundary was originally surveyed and partly planted with Eucalyptus sp. in 1977-78. Boundary planting was completed last year. Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood need to be established to supply local needs. There is good regeneration of Podocarpus sp. in the forest, and this needs to be encouraged. Any areas of logging should be regenerated. Camphor and Nyasa should be regenerated and enrichment planting carried out.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but likely to contain an altitudinal range of forest types if it is justified. Productive zone: Boundary planting for fuelwood and building poles; regeneration and enrichment of Podo, Camphor and Nyasa.

LITERATURE: None known.

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KOKO HILL Catchment Forest Reserve

Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : 1957
Declaration : GN 7 of 11/1/57
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 298 (1:5000) 1959
Topographical map : 89/1
Gazetted area : 193 acres (78 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 11 526 ft (3.5 km)
LOCATION: 4_ 05′ S 37_ 43′ E

1 km from Same. Access is from Same boma. The reserve covers Koko Hill immediately behind Same boma from an altitude of 915 to 1054 m.

SOILS:

Clay and stones (murram) around the base, shallow rocky soils with extensive areas of gneiss rock outcrop on the hill.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Same. Estimated rainfall: 570 mm/year in the rainshadow of the Pare mountains. Dry season: June – Oct. Estimated temperatures: 26_C max (Mar.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by dry woodland and thicket.

Dry woodland: Trees to 4 m tall, rising out of a dense thicket 1-2 m tall. Trees include: Adansonia digitata, Acacia spp., Commiphora spp., Euphorbia spp. Herbs include: Sansevieria sp.

CATCHMENT VALUE:

The reserve has no catchment value, but serves to control erosion and runoff from the steep hillside. For example the road leading up to the Koko Hill quarry is deeply gullied by runoff from the deforested quarry area.

TIMBER VALUE:

There are no timbers of value within the reserve.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve appears to be composed of widespread dry country species, but may contain some species of restricted distribution in common with other areas in the Eastern Arc rainshadow.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The hill is grazed by locally kept cattle and erosion from stock trails is visible on the south-eastern side. Firewood is collected from within the reserve, and evidence of charcoal burning was seen on the border with wood possibly coming from within the reserve. Medicine is taken from the reserve. Beehives are hung on trees in the reserve. There is an enclave within the reserve for quarrying (PWD Quarry Claim No. CC 232) with buildings for explosive stores, and a rifle range next to the quarry.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is clear, but needs marking, possibly with sisal. Grazing needs to be controlled to prevent over-grazing and subsequent erosion, possibly with a system of grazing licenses. Non-destructive practises, such as beekeeping, should be encouraged under license providing that they do not cause fire. Non-commercial gathering of medicines and other minor forest products should be permitted providing it does not become excessive. Boundary plantations of preferred fuel wood and building pole species (eg. Acacia spp.) should be established to supply local needs. Proximity of the reserve to Same town offers the possibility of developing a minor local amenity area with a path to the peak.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and the hilltop. Productive zone: Lower slopes for beekeeping and controlled grazing; boundary plantation of preferred fuelwood and building pole species. Amenity zone: A suitable route to the peak.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MWALA Proposed Catchment Forest Reserve

Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 2165 (1:10 000) 1990
Topographical map :
Gazetted area : 1373 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 35 283 ft (35 km)
LOCATION: 4_ 34′ S 38_ 01′ E

Access is from Vugwama through Kirangare to Mwala. The reserve covers Mwala ridge on the southern end of the South Pare mountains from an altitude of 1065 to 1755 m.

SOILS:

Humus rich sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tia. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year drier north-west and wetter south-east ends; mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperatures: 20_C max (Feb.), 15_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by montane forest, with submontane forest in the wetter sheltered valleys of the south-eastern end and rocky outcrops on the peaks and steep slopes.

Montane forest: This is a relatively dry type of montane forest, wetter types probably occur in the south-eastern valleys. Canopy 10-15 m with: Acokanthera oppositifolia, Albizia schimperiana, Cola greenwayi, Diospyros natalensis (Shume varient), Drypetes gerrardii, Erythoxylon emarginatum, Euphorbia sp., Manilkara discolor, Ochna holstii, Strychnos mitis and Xymalos monospora. A tree that may be Ptaeroxylon obliquum was seen.

Submontane forest: Newtonia buchananii is reported.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The south-eastern end of the reserve is an important local catchment with water being channelled to lowland areas for small scale irrigation. There are a number of springs, including: Kichumbi, Maziaka and Chichi.

TIMBER VALUES:

Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) is reported. The local people are not interested in logging as there is limited local need for planks, and it is not possible for a lorry to reach the area by road.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is potentially of the Eastern Arc type and so may contain species of restricted distribution. For example the small leaved varient of Diospyros natalensis is otherwise only known from Shume forest in the West Usambara and may be distinct species. It is possible that other West Usambara dry forest endemics may be found.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The Mwala ridge is a traditional forest reserve of cultural significance. Building poles are taken from the proposed reserve area.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The gazettement process needs to be completed. Some kilometres of boundary have been cleared, but little marking has been done as yet. Local people are very much aware of the reserve’s importance as a catchment and have requested that a nursery is established as soon as possible. A suitable local person should be recruited as a forest attendant, trained and given responsibility for the nursery, boundary clearing and planting, and forest protection. Fuelwood and building pole plantations should been established along the boundary.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steep slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Forest areas. Productive zone: Boundary plantations for building poles and fuelwood. Amenity zone: Traditional forest reserves for religious purposes.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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Last Updated: 20 March 2017