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Morogoro Region

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The 47 Catchment Forest Reserves of Morogoro region are in four districts, Kilombero, Kilosa, Mahenge and Morogoro. Many of the reserves cover mountainous areas under a high rainfall and so are important catchments. The main mountain ranges are the: Uluguru and Nguru in Morogoro District; Udzungwa in Kilombero District; Mahenge in Mahenge District; and Ukaguru and Rubeho in Kilosa District.

The Uluguru mountains are covered by six reserves (ULUGURU NORTH, ULUGURU SOUTH, NYANDIDUMA, VIGOZA, SHIKURUFUMI and BUNDUKI I-III), the eastern foothills by three reserves (KIMBOZA, RUVU and CHAMANYANI/MVUHA) and outlying hills by five reserves (MKUNGWE, MINDU, NGURU YA NDEGE, DINDILI and KITULANGHALO). The Nguru mountains are covered by two reserves (NGURU (SOUTH) and KANGA) with two reserves in the foothills (MKINDO and MAGOTWE). The eastern escarpment of the Udzungwa mountains is covered by six reserves (MWANIHANA, NYANGANJE, IWONDE, MATUNDU, LYONDO and UZUNGWA SCARP). The Mahenge mountains are covered by six reserves (MAHENGE SCARP, NAWENGE, MSELEZI, MYOE, MUHULU and SALI) with one outlying reserve (LIGAMBA). The Ukaguru mountains are covered by five reserves (IKWAMBA, MAMBOTO, MAMIWA-KISARA (NORTH), SOUTH MAMIWA-KISARA, UPONERA) with two reserves on outlying forested hills (MAMBOYA and TALAGWE). The Rubeho mountains are covered by one large reserve (UKWIVA) with two outlying reserves, one on a forested hill (PALA MOUNTAIN) and the other on a woodland hill (KIHILIRI). Six reserves are of limited catchment value with three covering groundwater forests (NAMBIGA, MASAGATI, DUNDUMA) and three covering woodlands (MKULAZI, PAGALE, MAFLETA). Many of the Morogoro region reserves contain valuable timbers, especially those in Kilombero District along the base of the Udzungwa escarpment where lowland groundwater and riverine forests are rich in Mvule and Mkangazi. This forest type is a first class site for growth of these species, and is also found on the lower eastern slopes of the other mountains and in the Kilombero valley. There has already been substantial extraction of timber, and the main management need is to regenerate logged areas. Some reserves, such as LYONDO, still contain stocks of old growth timber and present an opportunity for controlled sustainable extraction and regeneration. Biodiversity values of the forests are high. The Nguru, Ukaguru, Rubeho, Uluguru, Udzungwa and Mahenge mountains are part of the Eastern Arc mountains and are rich in species of restricted distribution. The Uluguru mountains in particular have a high rainfall with no dry season and contain many exceptionally rare species. High rainfall is correlated with high biodiversity values of forest, and so areas of the greatest catchment values also have the highest biodiversity values. Other areas containing species of restricted distribution are rock faces and ridgetops on the Eastern Arc mountains. The Nguru, Uluguru and Udzungwa have a wide altitudinal range of forest, and so have a high species diversity. Forests on limestone, such as those in KIMBOZA, RUVU and MSELEZI, also contain very rare species. The northern part of the Udzungwa mountains, including MWANIHANA and parts of NYANGANJE, IWONDE and MATUNDU have been gazetted as a National Park in recognition of their high biodiversity values. UZUNGWA SCARP was originally included in the National Park proposals, but was later excluded for logistical reasons. Other reserves of especial importance for biodiversity are: NGURU (SOUTH), KANGA, ULUGURU NORTH, ULUGURU SOUTH, IKWAMBA, MAMBOTO and MAMIWA-KISARA (NORTH). Population pressure on the reserves varies. The Uluguru mountain reserves (ULUGURU NORTH, ULUGURU SOUTH, KIMBOZA) have the highest pressure and are surrounded by areas of intensive cultivation. In contrast, the Rubeho (UKWIVA and PALA MOUNTAIN) and Udzungwa mountain (NYANGANJE, IWONDE, MATUNDU, LYONDO) reserves are in areas of low population density and can have many elephant and buffalo. Some reserves in Kilosa District (MAMIWA-KISARA (NORTH), TALAGWE) are affected by seasonal grazing and the related fire problem; and KIHILIRI is exploited for charcoal.

Kilombero District

There are seven Catchment Forest Reserves administered by the Kilombero District Catchment Forest Office. Six of these reserves are on the eastern escarpment and foothills of the Udzungwa mountains, covering a large part of the Kilombero river catchment. The boundary between Iringa and Morogoro regions runs along the Udzungwa escarpment, however its exact location is not clear. Some of the reserves are certainly partly in Iringa Region. Five of the Udzungwa escarpment reserves form a continuous belt around the south and eastern facing escarpment from the Mgeta river to the Great Ruaha river. On the south facing part of the escarpment from west to east these reserves are: LYONDO, MATUNDU, IWONDE and NYANGANJE; with MWANIHANA north of NYANGANJE on the east facing escarpment. The upper northern and western boundary of these reserves is the WEST KILOMBERO SCARP reserve which is administered by Iringa region. This boundary is remote and is not marked on the ground. Boundaries between the reserves are usually rivers. LYONDO is between the Mgeta and Ruipa rivers; MATUNDU is between the Ruipa and Idete rivers; IWONDE is between the Idete and Lumemo rivers; NYANGANJE is between the Lumemo and Kiberege rivers; and MWANIHANA is between the Kiberege and Great Ruaha rivers. On the southern part of the escarpment, separate from, and south of LYONDO, is UZUNGWA SCARP which lies between the Chita and Kidete rivers with its upper western boundaries being the Ruaha, Iwolo and Lukosi rivers on the cultivated Uhehe plateau. The description of UZUNGWA SCARP is included in the account for Iringa Region.

The seventh reserve, MASAGATI, is in the upper Kilombero valley north of the Mnyera River and south of the Utengule to Taveta road on more level ground than the escarpment reserves.

Kilosa District

There are ten Catchment Forest Reserves in Kilosa District. Five of these (IKWAMBA, MAMBOTO, MAMIWA-KISARA (NORTH), SOUTH MAMIWA-KISARA, UPONERA) cover forests on the steep high rainfall peaks and ridges of the Ukaguru mountains. Three reserves cover isolated peaks capped by forest and surrounded by dry woodland: MAMBOYA covers an isolated mountain north east of the Ukaguru; TALAGWE covers an isolated mountain still further north; and PALA MOUNTAIN covers on peak, east of Mikumi. UKWIVA covers an extensive area of the east facing escarpment and plateau of the Rubeho (also known as the Usagara) mountains, and KIHILIRI covers a hill just south of Kilosa town.

Ulanga District

Ulanga District Catchment Office administers eight reserves. Six of these (MAHENGE SCARP, NAWENGE, MSELEZI, MYOE, MUHULU and SALI) are on the main part of the Mahenge mountains. MAHENGE SCARP covers part of the escarpment north of Mahenge town where the Ifakara to Mahenge road ascends the mountains and NAWENGE covers a ridge above Mahenge town, including the former KWIRO reserve. MSELEZI covers ridges either side of the Mselezi valley, whereas MYOE, MUHULU and SALI all cover forest areas on hilltops.

LIGAMBA covers a hilltop south of the main Mahenge range, and NAMBIGA is an area of groundwater forest on the Lupiro to Malinyi road.

Morogoro District

Morogoro District Catchment Office administers 22 reserves. Fifteen of these are on or near the Uluguru mountains, with the other seven on or near the Nguru mountains.

Of those on or near the Uluguru mountains, six of these are actually on the mountains (ULUGURU NORTH, ULUGURU SOUTH, NYANDIDUMA, SHIKURUFUMI, VIGOZA and BUNDUKI I-III). ULUGURU NORTH and ULUGURU SOUTH cover the main northern and southern Uluguru mountain ridges and Lukwangule plateau, being separated by the Mgeta valley. NYANDIDUMA, SHIKURUFUMI, VIGOZA and BUNDUKI I-III are smaller reserves in the southern Uluguru mountains. Three reserves, CHAMANYANI/MVUHA, KIMBOZA and RUVU are in the eastern foothills; with MKULAZI still further east on the plains east of the Ruvu river. Five reserves (MKUNGWE, NGURU YA NDEGE, MINDU, DINDILI and KITULANGHALO) cover outlying hills. MKUNGWE is east of the northern Uluguru ridge; NGURU YA NDEGE and MINDU are west of Morogoro town; and DINDILI and KITULANGHALO are south east of the Uluguru mountains near the main Morogoro to Dar es Salaam road.

Of those on or near the Nguru mountains, two are on mountainous areas with NGURU (SOUTH) covering the main Nguru mountain block and KANGA covering Kanga mountain just north of the main block. MKINDO and MAGOTWE are in the Nguru foothills; with DUNDUMA, MAFLETA and PAGALE east of the mountains on the Wami plains.

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IWONDE Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 555 of 19/12/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 433, Jb 2180 (1:100 000) 1991
Topographical maps : 217/3, 235/1
Gazetted area : 36 444 acres (24 748 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 204 862 ft (62 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 55′ – 8_ 00′ S 36_ 32 – 36_ 42′ E

17 km north of Ifakara. Access is through the KATRIN station, and Idete. Access is difficult due to broken temporary logging bridges. The reserve covers hilly country south of West Kilombero Scarp FR, west of Nyanganje FR and east of Matundu FR between the Idete and Lumemo rivers from an altitude of 300 to 1460 m.

SOILS:

Light brown sandy loams over crystalline rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental/oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Lumemo W.D.I.D. Estimated rainfall: 1350 mm/year with permanent riverine groundwater. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 27_C max (Dec.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is woodland with grassland on hilltops and riverine forest along larger rivers. Heavier forest is reported further inside the reserve. There are elephants and buffalo.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m with: Annona senegalensis, Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Combretum molle, Diplorhyncus condylocarpon, Markhamia obtusifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis. Along rivers the woodland becomes thicker with an evergreen understorey and emergent Sterculia appendiculata.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve has a high catchment value. It contains the head-waters of the Idete river and feeds the Lumemo river. The Lumemo river is often responsible for flooding in Ifakara, and flows into the Kilombero river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) occur in the heavier and riverine forest. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs in the woodlands.

BIODIVERSITY:

The wetter forests are of the Eastern Arc type are so will contain species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is remote and mostly undisturbed. Small scale harvesting for Mvule and Mkangazi is taking place, though this is limited to the months of January and December. There is a high cost of building temporary bridges and roads to extract timber. Cultivation is close to the southern boundary along the Lumemo river. Fires occur in the woodland.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The southern boundary needs to be cleared and marked, especially near to cultivated areas. The eastern, western and northern boundaries are remote and adjacent to other forest reserves. The eastern boundary is the Lumemo river and Nyanganje FR. Extracted areas need to be regenerated with Mvule and Mkangazi, and enrichment planting with Mninga in the woodland considered. Population pressure is currently low.

About three-quarters of the reserve are included in the Udzungwa National Park and so should be managed as a biodiversity zone with potential for an amenity zone. The remaining southern part of the reserve could be productive with regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable species, with catchment zones protecting river banks and catchment areas.

Proposed zonation: Productive zone: Southern part of the reserve following enrichment planting and regeneration. Catchment zone: Along river banks and areas of catchment importance. Biodiversity zone: Northern part of the reserve covered by the Udzungwa National Park. Amenity zone: The reserve is remote, but has some potential. Following results of a survey, but the most likely scenic area is along the Lumemo river. Tourist hunting may be possible in areas adjacent to the NP.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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LYONDO (IYONDO) Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 555 of 19/12/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 432 (1:50 000) 1958
Topographical maps : 234/1, 234/2, 234/3
Gazetted area : 69 124 acres (27 975 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 479 478 ft (146 km)
LOCATION: 8_ 00′- 8_ 16′ S 36_ 06′ – 36_ 22′ E

55 km west of Ifakara. Access is from Mbingu mission farm. The road beyond the mission is only passable for vehicles in the dry season. The reserve covers hilly country along the base of the Udzungwa mountains with the western boundary the Mgeta river, the northern boundary the West Kilombero Scarp FR, the eastern boundary the Ruipa river, from altitude of 300 to 900 m.

SOILS:

Sandy loams over crystalline rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mchombe Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1900 mm/year with a ground water effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 27_C max (Nov.), 22_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The forest is reported to be undisturbed lowland forest with a 30-40 m tall canopy containing: Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, and Pterocarpus mildbraedii. Patches of swampy grassland occur. Elephant and buffalo are reported.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers the lower part of the Ruipa, Ichiwachiwa, Iyondo and Mgeta river catchments which flow into the Kilombero river.

TIMBER VALUES:

The forest has not been exploited and is reported to contain many Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mkangazi (Khaya nyasica formerly K. nyasica) and Mninga maji (Pterocarpus mildbraedii).

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and so should be rich in species of restricted distribution. The forest is undisturbed and so should contain good seed trees of valuable timber species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is reported to be completely undisturbed.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be cleared and planted. The remote and undisturbed nature of the reserve, combined with good stocks of valuable timber offer the opportunity to start a management plan without the burden of first regenerating previously exploited areas. Following zonation, coups can be demarcated from aerial photography and inventoried for valuable species. Licenses could be issued on the condition that pitsawyers should be involved in management activities such as regeneration and boundary demarcation. Management of logged sites should start immediately after timber extraction.

Proposed zonation: Productive zone: Following coup demarcation and inventory. Catchment zone: To protect catchment areas and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To protect areas of species richness (following survey) and populations of valuable timber species of good form as seed sources.

LITERATURE: None known.

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MASAGATI Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1955
Declaration : GN 89 of 18/3/55
Variation order : There must be a variation order to account for the differences between GN 89 and Jb 2068
Border map : Jb 226 (1:50 000) 1954, Jb 2068 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical map : 263/1
Gazetted area : 25 sq miles (6475 ha) (GN 89); 2500 ha (Jb 2068)
Gazetted boundary length : 38 km with 11 km of river (GN 89); 23 km with 7.5 km river (Jb 2068)
LOCATION: 9_ 01′ – 9_ 05′ S 35_ 38′ – 35_ 42′ E

194 km from Ifakara, 44 km from Mlimba, 8 km south east of Taveta mission between the Utengule to Taveta road and Mnyera river. Access is from Mlimba on the Taveta road. The reserve covers an area of groundwater in hilly country between the Mnyera river and Utengule to Taveta road from an altitude of 460 to 670 m.

SOILS:

On well drained areas: sandy brown loams. Grey clays in seasonally inundated areas.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental/oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Taveta. Estimated rainfall 1550 mm/year with groundwater. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 25_C max (Nov.), 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Lowland forest covers most of the reserve, with a high water table providing groundwater. Some areas are covered by swamps and grassland. Much of the forest is secondary following logging

in the late 1960’s. A plot of Cassia sp. exists on the north east side. Buffalo are reported to occur.

Lowland forest: Highly disturbed with many areas of climber tangles. Larger remaining trees to 25 m tall, Olyra latifolia dominants the herb layer. Trees include: Albizia sp., Bombax rhodongaphalon, Bridelia micrantha, Cussonia zimmermannii, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Malacantha alnifolia, Milicia excelsa, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Sapium ellipticum, Trema orientalis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Vitex sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Although not of primary importance for catchment, the reserve covers an area of high water table with tributaries feeding into the Mnyera river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) and Mninga maji (Pterocarpus mildbraedii) occur, formerly in some quantity, but now mostly extracted.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest should contain lowland Eastern Arc or Coastal forest species, but survey work is required to confirm this.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest was logged by Kiberege Timber in the late 1960’s and small scale pitsawing continues today. Extracted areas are secondary, with extensive climber tangles. Firewood is taken from the reserve, and building poles taken from the Cassia sp. plantation. Poles from the reserve are used in construction of small bridges. There may be some encroachment.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The reserve is an excellent site for Mvule, Mkangazi and Mninga Maji growth and these species should be regenerated in logged areas. Mvule stumps are coppicing, but leaders need to be chosen and climber tangles cleared to allow good growth. The boundaries need to be cleared and planted, the last border clearance was in 1969. The Cassia sp. plantations need to be extended to provide building poles and firewood, or preferably suitable local termite resistant species grown. Stream banks and other water sources need to be protected from erosion. The road from Chita is being improved and all weather access to Masagati will soon be possible.

Proposed zonation: Productive zone: Existing areas of production, extending to previously exploited secondary areas following regeneration of valuable timbers. Catchment zone: Stream banks, springs and other water sources. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but likely to be any remaining primary forest in a wetter part of the reserve.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MATUNDU Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 555 of 19/12/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 434 (1:50 000) 1952, Jb 2180 (1:100 000) 1991
Topographical maps : 217/3, 234/2, 235/1, 216/4
Gazetted area : 43 648 acres (17 644 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 314 402 ft (96 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 55′ – 8_ 8′ S 36_ 20′ – 36_ 33′ E

30 km WNW of Ifakara town, north and west of the Chita road and Tazara Railway. Access is from Idete and Namawala. The reserve covers the undulating southern foothills of the Udzungwa Mountains between the Ruipa and Idete rivers, from 300 to 500 m altitude.

SOILS:

Red and yellow ferralitic latosols developed on Precambrian crystalline rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Lumemo W.D.I.D. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with groundwater. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 27_C max (Dec.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The southern half of the reserve is covered by miombo woodland and dry forest. The northern half (16 km from the main road by car) is a huge lowland forest with a very tall canopy (up to 50 m high).

Woodland: Dominated by Afzelia quanzensis, Brachystegia spp., Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia africana, S. appendiculata and S. quinqueloba. Along streamlets Breonadia salicina is common.

Lowland forest: Dominated by Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa and Parinari excelsa, with Anthocleista grandiflora, Bersama abyssinica, Didymosalpinx norae, Elaeis guineensis (native) and Funtumia africana in the lower canopy. Entada pursaetha is a common climber with giant pods. In the shrub layer Piper umbellatum and Hypoestes aristata occur, while in the herb layer Bolbitis auriculata (fern) and Streptogyna crinita are dominants.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is the source of the Namawala, Namawaba, Mgwina, Igomba rivers, and tributaries of the Ruipa and Idete rivers. Namawala stream provides water for the Kilombero River. The water supply of Idete settlement comes from the reserve through the Idete stream.

TIMBER VALUE:

A very large amount of Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) occurs, with exceptionally tall and large specimens (2-3 m diameter). Very tall specimens of Mvule (Milicia excelsa) also occur here.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and so will be rich in species of restricted distribution. The common occurrence of otherwise very rare grass Streptogyna crinita indicates that other rare lowland rainforest elements might occur. Lowland forests of this stature are rare in Tanzania, and the large specimens of valuable timber trees may be good sources of seed.

HUMAN IMPACT:

Extensive mechanised logging for valuable species such as Mkangazi and Mvule has recently been carried out by UWOP in the forest area.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and planting continued. Logged areas need regenerated with Mkangazi and Mvule. The northern part of the reserve is included in the Udzungwa National Park. The southern part of the reserve could continue to be productive, but using manual pitsaw techniques rather than the overly destructive mechanical techniques formerly used. The Commonwealth Development Corporation has plans for a large teak plantation near the reserve.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Along rivers and on steep slopes. Biodiversity zone: Northern part of the reserve is included in the proposed Udzungwa National Park. Productive zone: Southern part of the reserve following regeneration of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known, though there must be some inventory data.

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MWANIHANA Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 73 of 28/2/58
Variation order : GN 280 of 27/10/70
Border map : Jb 354 (1:50 000) 1957; Jb 2180 (1:100 000) 1991
Topographical maps : 217/4, 217/2
Gazetted area : Originally 44 484 acres (18 130 ha), and then 17 923 ha following the variation order
Gazetted boundary length : 299 712 ft (91 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 40′ – 7_ 57′ S 36_ 46′ – 36_ 56′ E

60 km from Ifakara, 60 km from Mikumi. Access is from the Ifakara to Mikumi road which runs along its eastern edge. The reserve covers the steep east facing Udzungwa escarpment south of the Great Ruaha River and north of the Kiberege and Nyandera rivers from an altitude of 300 to 2080 m. The western boundary is continuous with West Kilombero Scarp FR, the eastern boundary runs along, and in some places is marked by, the road from Kiberege to Kidatu. The southern boundary is continuous with Nyanganje FR.

SOILS:

Well drained sandy brown loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Sanje, Kilombero Sugar. Estimated rainfall: 2000-2500 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 27_C max (Dec.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve covers a wide altitudinal range with a correspondingly wide range of forest types, including lowland, submontane, montane and upper montane forest. Woodland occurs on drier ridges, and grassland at higher altitudes. Buffalo and elephant occur.

Lowland forest: Canopy 25-30 m with emergents to 40 m. Large trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Aningeria pseudoracemosa, Antiaris toxicaria, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Dialium holtzii, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Funtumia africana, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, Parinari excelsa, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Terminalia sambesiaca.

Submontane forest: Canopy 25-30 m tall with emergents to 40 m. Large trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Anisophylla obtusifolia, Anthocleista grandiflora, Antidesma vogelianum, Cassia angolensis, Cassipourea gummiflua, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Funtumia africana, Milicia excelsa, Newtonia buchananii, Myrianthus excelsa, Parinari excelsa, Sapium ellipticum.

Montane forest: Canopy 25-30 m tall with emergents to 40 m, on ridge tops the canopy is 15-25 m tall. Large trees include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Allanblackia ulugurensis, Beilschmiedia kweo, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cleistanthus polystachyus, Cola greenwayi, Myrianthus holstii, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Phoenix reclinata.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 15-20 m tall. Large trees include: Agauria salicifolia, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia ulugurensis, Aphloia theiformis, Faurea sp., Maytenus acuminata, Podocarpus latifolius, Rapanea melanophloeos, Ocotea usambarensis, Olea capensis.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m tall with: Annona senegalensis, Brachystegia microphylla, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Diplorhyncus condylocarpon, Pericopsis angolensis, Sclerocarya caffra.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment with numerous permanent streams flowing eastwards supplying villages and agriculture, including sugar estates, along the Kiberege to Kidatu road.

TIMBER VALUES:

The moist forests contain an number of valuable timbers including:

Lowland forest: Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica). Submontane forest: Mtambala (Cephalospheara usambarensis), Mvule, Mkangazi and Mfimbo (Beilschmeidea kweo). Montane forest: Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis). Most of the valuable timber has been extracted by pitsawing during the last ten years.

BIODIVERSITY:

The moist forests are of the Eastern Arc type and rich in species of restricted distribution. The Iringa Red Colobus, Crested Mangabey monkey and Red-winged sunbird are rare animals known from the reserve.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The lower eastern side of the reserve is adjacent to villages and estates along the Kiberege to Kidatu road. The upper western side is continuous with the large, remote West Kilombero Scarp FR. Consequently, most human impact is near the lower eastern boundary, and is almost negligible near the western boundary. Timber has been extracted from the reserve for some time and there are many secondary areas, especially at lower altitudes where the remains of very large Mkangazi can be found. Building poles are also taken from lower altitude forests close to villages, and firewood taken from the woodland. Fire occurs in the woodland, and both small and large animals are hunted. The north east corner of the reserve was excised for the Kidatu Dam Project (GN 280 of 1970).

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The entire reserve has been included in the Udzungwa National Park. About 64 km of boundary has been planted, but needs maintenance. Valuable timbers should be regenerated in secondary areas created by logging. Village woodlots should be planted to supply building poles and fuelwood.

Six nurseries have been established by WWF to assist villagers in developing agroforestry adjacent to the boundary of the National Park. These are located at Kiberege, Kisawasawa, Mkula, Sanje, Msolwa A and Kidatu. The field office co-ordinating the nurseries is located at UWOP in Mangula.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Covering steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Covering the forest. Productive zone: Boundary plantations of fuelwood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

Lovett, J.C., Bridson, D.M., Thomas, D.W. 1988. A preliminary list of the moist forest angiosperm flora of Mwanihana Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 874-885.

Lovett, J.C. & D.W. Thomas. 1986. The ecology of pteridophytes in the Mwanihana Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Fern Gazette 13: 103-107.

Rodgers, W.A., Homewood, K.M. 1982. Biological values and conservation prospects for the forests and primate populations of the Uzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 24: 285-304.

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NYANGANJE Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilombero District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1958
Declaration : GN 555 of 19/12/58
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 436 (1:50 000) 1958, Jb 2180 (1:10 000) 1991
Topographical maps : 235/1, 235/2, 217/3, 217/4
Gazetted area : 46 919 acres (18 988 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 243 162 ft (74 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 56′ – 8_ 4′ S 36_ 39′ – 36_ 50′ E

15 km NE of Ifakara. Access is from the Kiberege to Ifakara road, or from the KATRIN station north of Ifakara. The reserve covers the south east foothills of the Udzungwa mountains east of the Lumemo river and west of the Kiberege to Ifakara road at an altitude of 270 to 962 m.

SOILS:

Red and brown ferralitic latosols over Precambrian crystalline base rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Ifakara and Lumemo W.D.I.D. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 27_C max (Dec.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Between 300-700 m the southern slopes and ridges are covered with woodland, becoming dry evergreen forest above 700 m. Riverine forest covers about 30% of the reserve. Elephants and buffalo occur.

Woodland: Canopy 10-15 m with: Annona senegalensis, Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Combretum molle, Diplorhyncus condylocarpon, Markhamia obtusifolia, bamboo and Pterocarpus angolensis, At higher altitudes, dry evergreen forest with Brachylaena huillensis.

Riverine forest: Canopy 10-15 m with an evergreen understorey and larger trees to 30 m. The dominant tree is Breonadia salicina, with Albizia cf. gummifera, Anthocleista grandiflora, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Ficus thonningii, Sorindeia madagascariensis, and Sterculia appendiculata. The woody climber Entada pursaetha is common in the canopy. In the ground layer a woody herb, Mellera lobulata (Acanthaceae) is dominant in many places.

TIMBER VALUE:

Timber trees include: Brachylaena huillensis on drier ridges, Breonadia salicina and Erythrophleum sauveolens in valleys, Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) in the woodlands.

BIODIVERSITY:

No special genetic value.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment area supplying water to Ikwambe, Matonera and Lukamanga villages; and protecting part of the Lumemo river catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Pitsawing takes place in the riverine forest. Fires occur. Cultivation is approaching the southern boundary of the reserve and paths enter the reserve. There are fish traps in the Lumemo river along the reserve boundary.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About half of the boundary has been cleared and planted. Logged areas should be regenerated with valuable species, and enrichment planting with Mninga considered. Fire control should be maintained. Villagers cultivating near the boundary should be encouraged to plant woodlots for firewood and building poles to prevent future encroachment in the reserve. The northern part of the reserve is included in the Udzungwa National Park. The Commonwealth Development Corporation plans to plant teak near the reserve.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Along rivers and in steeper areas. Biodiversity zone: Northern part of the reserve is included in the Udzungwa National Park. Productive zone: Woodlands to be enriched with Mninga and logged areas in riverine forest regenerated.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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IKWAMBA Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1962
Declaration : GN 231 of 22/6/62
Variation order : Initiated in 1983 (Jb 2088, 1:10 000) but not yet legally finalised
Border map : JB 2088 (1:10 000); Jb 445 (1:25 000) 1959
Topographical maps : 164/4
Gazetted area : 2316 acres (899 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 46 525 ft (14 km) (Jb 445); 15.6 km (Jb 2088)
LOCATION: 6_ 19′ – 6_ 21′ S 36_ 57′ – 36_ 59′ E

100 km from Kilosa. Access is from Mandege Forest Station. The reserve covers the summit area of Mount Ikwamba, from 1520 to 1980 m altitude, adjacent to and north of Mandege Forest Station in the Ukaguru Mountains.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols over Precambrian crystalline gneisses and graniolite.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mpwapwa Evergreen, Msowero Ginnery (there should be data from Mandege Forest Station). Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with mist effect on the summit. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 20_C max (Jan.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is moist forest with upper montane forest on the peak and montane forest on the slopes. Near the road and Mandege Forest Station the forest is degraded and secondary.

Upper montane forest: The very top of Mt.Ikwamba is covered by a small stand of mossy elfin forest formed by about 4 m tall trees of Garcinia volkensii.

Montane forest: Below the summit on the highest slopes there are mossy montane rainforests with Balthasaria schliebenii, Pauridiantha paucinervis and many treeferns (Cyathea manniana). Cincinnobotrys oreophila occurs in the herb layer. The forest on the lower slopes is dominated by Albizia gummifera, with Maesa lanceolata, and Macaranga capensis. In the valleys, trees include: Hallea rubrostipulata, Polyscias fulva, Tabernaemontana holstii; shrubs include: Carvalhoa campanulata, Gravesia hylophila, Psychotria schliebenii, Chassalia parviflora. In the herb layer the endemic Impatiens ukaguruensis occurs with the 2 m tall fern Pneumatopteris unita.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Together with Mamiwa-Kisara (North) the reserve is part of the Jekulu river catchment contributing water to the Wami basin, which supports intensive agriculture and animal husbandry.

TIMBER VALUE:

At its present stage no valuable timber occurs in any quantity.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and is rich in endemic and rare species. For example: Impatiens ukaguruensis only occurs within a 2 km radius of here; Gravesia hylophila has Madagascan affinity; and Saintpaulia pusilla, a species endemic to the Ukaguru, Uluguru and Nguru Mountains occurs on shaded mossy cliffs with by the endemic Streptocarpus schliebenii.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The Mandege Forest Station workers’ compounds are on the lower edge of the reserve, and logging and encroachment is very common in the area. The forest on the lower slopes is secondary with an open canopy. In the openings impenetrable thickets have developed from thorny creeping shrubs such as Rubus spp. and Toddalia asiatica.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The once clear boundary marking should be restored, the canopy gaps should be replanted and measures taken to protect the forest reserve from the forest station labourers, who have enough firewood and building resources in the huge plantation forest below the Station.

Proposed zones: Catchment Zone: On steeper slopes ridgetops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To cover a suitable forest area located following a survey. Productive zone: Boundary building pole and fuelwood plantations.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KIHILIRI Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration :
Variation order : GN 373 of 16/8/1963
Border map : Jb 576 (1:5000) 1963
Topographical map : 181/4
Gazetted area : 514 acres (208 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 21 340 ft (6.5 km)
LOCATION: 06_ 48′ – 06_ 51′ S 36_ 55′ – 36_ 58′ E

3 km from Kilosa. Access is from the main Kilosa to Mikumi road and then via Mkuyuni along the Mkadage (sheet 181/4 shows Mkadayi on the other side of the river) road which forms part of the northeast boundary. The reserve covers a hill immediately southwest of the Mkondoa river, with an altitudinal range of 520 to 1040 m.

SOILS:

Soil light brown to grey, sandy, over quartzite rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kilosa. Estimated rainfall: 1050 mm/year with ground water on the northeast boundary. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 26_C max (Dec.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is wooded grassland with a narrow belt of highly degraded riverine forest along the northeast boundary close to the Mkondoa river. In 1977 elephants were reported from the reserve, but none occur now.

Riverine forest: 520 m. Mostly replaced by teak and Eucalyptus spp. trial plots, but some Milicia excelsa regeneration occurs.

Woodland: 520-1040 m. Open wooded grassland with Brachystegia spp. trees up to 10-15 m tall. Trees include: Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla, Combretum molle, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Monotes glaber, Pterocarpus angolensis, Stereospermum kunthianum, Strychnos sp., Tamarindus indica.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve has a low catchment value with only storm flow gullies and no permanent streams, but does prevent erosion. Maps show it as the source of the Nguli and Mtalawe rivers which flow to the Mkondoa river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occurs as coppice regeneration from stumps in the degraded riverine forest. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) occur in the woodland. Lower quality timbers are Brachystegia spp. and Tamarindus indica.

BIODIVERSITY:

The vegetation is composed of widespread species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The riverine forest strip contains old stumps of Mvule. In 1968-1969 14 ha on the lower east side of the reserve was cleared to plant Eucalyptus spp. in the upper part and teak in the lower part in order to supply Kilosa town with fuel and timber. This plantation failed due to poor soil conditions. A 7.5 ha trial plot of teak and Eucalyptus spp. exists on the north east boundary. Teak coppice shoots are cut for building poles. Brachystegia spp. were felled in 1990 for commercial charcoal production, and firewood is cut from the remaining dead boles for local use. Building poles are cut in the woodland for local use. Fire occurs every year. Building stones are taken from the lower part of the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and planted. Fire protection will result in rapid regeneration of the woodland. Pole regeneration of species such as Brachystegia microphylla can then be extracted for building poles and fuel wood. Enrichment planting with Mninga and Mpingo in the woodland could be considered. Selection and encouragement of Mvule coppice shoots in the riverine forest strip should be carried out. Recovery of the area cleared for plantation is needed, perhaps with planting of Brachystegia spp. as potential fuelwood species.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops gullies and streamsides. Productive zone: Fire protection to allow regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable species; regeneration of Mvule in the riverine forest.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAMBOTO Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration order : GN 233 of 22/6/1962
Variation order : GN 370 of 1963
Border map : Jb 2061 (1:5000) 1982; Jb 445 (1:25 000) 1959
Topographical map : 165/3
Gazetted area : 137 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 4.8 km
LOCATION: 6_ 20′ S 37_ 01′ E

100 km from Kilosa, 8 km from Mandege. Access is from the Madenge to Ikwamba road to the Uponera ridge and then by foot to Uponera village. The reserve covers the eastern end of the Uponera ridge north east of the Jungu (Jekulu) river valley. It is separated from Uponera FR by a few hundred metres of public land covering the pass between Uponera village and Isokwe. The altitudinal range is 1600 to 1760 m.

SOILS:

Humus rich, brown, slightly sandy, well drained over crystalline schists.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mpwapwa Evergreen, Msowero Ginnery (there should be data from Mandege forest station). Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with a mist effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 20_C max (Jan.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly covered by secondary montane forest dominated by Neoboutonia macrocalyx with fire climax grasslands over what appears to be old cultivation on the southern end.

Forest edge: Regeneration on historically recent cultivation probably dating from the gazettement of the reserve. Trees to 5 m tall with: Albizia gummifera, Bersama abyssinica, Dodonea viscosa, Ensete ventricosa, Maesa lanceolata, Myrica salicifolia.

Montane forest: Secondary forest dominated by Neoboutonia macrocalyx, canopy 15-20 m, with: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Bersama abyssinica, Cussonia spicata, Garcinia volkensii, Leptonychia usambarensis, Maesa lanceolata, Myrianthus holstii, Phoenix reclinata, Tabernaemontana pachysiphon and Xymalos monospora.

TIMBER VALUES:

No trees of timber value were seen.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is composed mostly of secondary species, but some Eastern Arc endemic plants occur, such as a Peddeia species and some Memecylon species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Protects part of the upper part of the Jekulu river catchment. No permanent streams are reported.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is dominated by secondary tree species indicating extensive disturbance in the past, probably by cultivation. Locally used forest products include building poles, firewood and Phoenix reclinata leaves for weaving mats.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The borders are mostly marked by Eucalyptus sp., though some gaps need to be filled and the borders cleared. There is potential for enrichment planting with Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) and Podo (Podocarpus latifolius). To continue to supply local needs Phoenix reclinata should be planted both inside the forest and also perhaps along the boundary. Village woodlots are needed for firewood and building poles.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: A full altitudinal range of less disturbed forest and the ridgetop. Productive zone: Enrichment planting of Podo and Camphor; border plantations for building poles, fuelwood and of Phoenix reclinata.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAMBOYA Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : Cap 132P 1360
Variation order : GN 348 of 1961
Border map : Jb 515 (1:10 000) 1961; Jb 2081 (1:10 000) 1983
Topographical maps : 165/1, 165/3
Gazetted area : 494 acres (200 ha) (Jb 515); 455 ha (Jb 2081)
Gazetted boundary length : 8.3 km
LOCATION: 6_ 13′ – 6_ 15′ S 37_ 03′ – 37_ 04′ E

100 km from Kilosa. Access is from Mamboya which is reached from the Morogoro to Dodoma road. The reserve covers an isolated mountain north east of the Ukaguru Mountains from an altitude of 900 to 1600 m. The reserve is incorrectly marked on sheet 165/1.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols and ferralitic latosols developed on Precambrian gneiss basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kidete Sisal Estate, Mpwapwa Evergreen. Estimated rainfall: 1900 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 20_C max (Dec.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The forest is mostly drier submontane and montane with forest patches on the drier slopes. At the north east edge of the reserve there are huge cliffs with a rich rock vegetation.

Submontane and montane forest: The dominant tree species in the canopy are: Bersama abyssinica, Manilkara sp., Myrianthus holstii, Newtonia buchananii and Rauvolfia caffra, while in the lower tree and shrub layers Chassalia discolor, Clausena anisata, Psychotria goetzei, P. schliebenii and Rytigynia uhligii occur.

Rock vegetation: Dominated by Cyperus longi-involucratus.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Mamboya, Ikonde, Magubike and Berega villages are supplied by streamlets coming from the reserve.

TIMBER VALUES:

Newtonia buchananii occurs in quantity.

BIODIVERSITY:

The north-east facing huge cliffs (especially “N’ong” rock, visible from the highway) bear very interesting vegetation, including many endemic species. The forest will be of the Eastern Arc type and so contain species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Grazing, burning and encroachment for cultivation from the southeast, though this is relatively small scale. Newtonia buchananii is pitsawn under licence.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Border and gap planting on the south east side, increased patrolling. Regeneration of logged areas.
Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To protect cliff vegetation. Productive zone: Regeneration of logged areas, boundary planting of fuelwood and building pole plantations.

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MAMIWA-KISARA (NORTH) Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 132 p.1360
Variation order : In progress since 1981 (Jb 2097, 1:25 000) for a larger area of 8203 ha, but not yet legally finalised
Border map : Jb 2097 (1:25 000) 1984
Topographical maps : 164/4, 165/3
Gazetted area : 19 513 acres (7897 ha); 8203 ha (Jb 2097)
Gazetted boundary length : 6.4 km (Jb 2097)
LOCATION: 6_ 21′ – 6_ 30 S 36_ 53′ – 37_ 03′ E

100 km from Kilosa. Access is from Mandege Forest Station with the road from Mandege to Lufukiri passing through the valley between Mamwira ridge to the west and Mnyera ridge to the east. Access to the southern part is from the Mvumi to Mandege road at Makwambe. The reserve covers the sharp mountain ridge southwest of Mandege Forest Station in the Ukaguru Mountains, from 1500 to 2250 m altitude.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols on Precambrian gneiss and granulite basement rocks with extensive areas of exposed rocky cliffs.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mpwapwa Evergreen, Msowero Ginnery (there should be data from Mandege forest station). Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 21_C max (Jan.), 17_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The ridge is largely covered by forest with moist forests on the wetter eastern side. Heath occurs on the summits with upper montane forest. Montane forest and dry submontane forest occurs on the lower slopes. The drier south south west slopes of the whole ridge are covered by dry evergreen forests, bushes and wooded grasslands. Where forest edges are bordered by grassland, they are maintained by fire.

Summit heath: In natural openings on the summits ericaceous heath and dry, rocky grassland occur, with shrubs as Erica arborea, Philippia usambarensis, Berberis holstii and Tecomaria capensis.

Upper montane forest: The summit ridge of both hills is covered by a mosaic of mossy montane rainforest and 4-6 m tall elfin forest. The main tree species are: Balthasaria schliebenii, Cussonia lukwangulensis, Garcinia volkensii, Ocotea usambarensis, Podocarpus latifolius, Polyscias stuhlmannii (dominant on Mamwira), Schefflera myriantha and Syzygium cordatum. Shrubs include: Agauria salicifolia, Cyathea pumila, Canthium oligocarpum subsp. captum, Chassalia parviflora, Gerrardina eylesiana, Lasianthus kilimanscharicus, Memecylon verruculosum, Pavetta lynesii, Psychotria zombamontana and Rauvolfia mombasiana. The most interesting species of the elfin forests is Lobelia sancta, a recently described strict endemic of the area, which occurs only in a 10 x 50 m strip on the northern side of the sharp Mnyera ridge. Herbs include: Cincinnobotrys oreophila, Streptocarpus schliebenii, Liparis bowkeri, Chlorophytum sparsiflorum and Polystichum zambeziacum. Tree trunks and branches are full of epiphytic bryophytes (e.g. Neorutenberhia usagarae), ferns (e.g. Hymenophyllum kuhnii, Ctenopteris rigescens). The forest floor is thickly covered by bryophytes (e.g. Campylopus jamesonii). On the north north east slopes of Mamwira at 2000-2100 m altitude the African mountain bamboo (Sinarundinaria alpina) forms a 400 x 200 m, 2-3 m tall stand, with Piper capense and Rytigynia pseudolanceolata.

Montane forest: On the north north east slope of both parts of Mamiwa ridge (Mamwira and Mnyera hills), montane rainforest dominates from 1700 to 2000 m altitude. The canopy is intact, except for patches of heavy logging or former cultivation. The dominant canopy species are: Cussonia spicata, Dombeya burgessiae, Clerodendron sp., Macaranga capensis, Myrianthus holstii and Polyscias fulva. Shrubs include: Chassalia discolor subsp. discolor, Psychotria schliebenii, Rytigynia uhligii, Peddiea polyantha and many tree ferns (Cyathea manniana). Rare endemic species in the herb layer include: Impatiens ukaguruensis and Arisaema uluguruense.

Dry submontane forest: Canopy 20 m tall with emergent Newtonia buchananii to 30 m. Trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Maesa lanceolata, Myrica salicifolia, Parinari excelsa, Phoenix reclinata, Rauvolfia caffra, Sapium ellipticum, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum.

Wooded grassland: Trees to 5 m tall, though generally shorter due to regular burning. Trees include: Acacia sp., Albizia versicolor, Annona senegalensis, Dombeya rotundifolia, Erythrina abyssinica, Lannea sp., Psorospermum febrifugum, Stereospermum kunthianum, Vitex sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The most important catchment function is supplying water to Gairo. Water is piped 25 km from the northern slopes of Mamwira hill to the dry Gairo basin, an important cattle breeding area. The reserve also supplies water to the densely populated Lufukiri basin on its southern side, and to the Wami River in the Mkata Plains

TIMBER VALUE:

Small amounts of East African Camphor, Mikulo, (Ocotea usambarensis) occur in the montane forest. Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) of poor form occurs in the submontane forest. Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) occurs in the submontane forest.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. One of the most remarkable plants in the reserve is the giant Lobelia sancta, a strict endemic found in a very small area and related to L. lukwangulensis of the Uluguru Mountains. The herb Impatiens ukagaruensis is also very rare. Other species of restricted distribution also occuring on the Uluguru or other neighbouring mountains include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Cussonia lukwangulensis, Pavetta lynesii, Streptocarpus schliebenii and Arisaema uluguruense. This reserve has the highest species diversity and largest number of endemic and rare plants of the four Ukaguru Mountain reserves.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Heavy logging took place on the northern slopes of Mnyera ridge, leaving large gaps in the canopy. Other parts are quite intact. Fires occur every year in the wooded grassland below the forest, which is a dry season grazing ground for pastoralists. Parts of the dry submontane forest are secondary, possibly resulting from cultivation in the historical past. There is some encroachment resulting from lack of boundary marking.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and marked, especially in areas where encroachment is occurring. Fires need to be controlled to allow forest along streams to regenerate and prevent fire from entering the pine plantations. Cattle grazing needs to be controlled in order to prevent fires and stop damage to stream banks and water contamination. A system of grazing licenses should be developed whereby grazing rights can be exchanged for assistance in reserve management. Cattle troughs should be located away from the main streams. Logging should be stopped, valuable species regenerated and gaps filled.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Forest areas. Productive zone: Wooded grassland for dry season grazing in return for assistance with reserve management.

LITERATURE:

Thulin, M. (1980): A new giant Lobelia from Tanzania. Kew Bulletin 34: 815-817.

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MAMIWA-KISARA (SOUTH) Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : GN 250 of 26/10/51
Variation order : Initiated in 1979 (Jb 1994) for a larger area of 6975 ha but not yet legally finalized
Border map : Jb 112 (1:25 000) 1961 (compiled from a German plan); Jb 1994 (1:50 000) 1979
Topographical maps : 164/4, 181/2
Gazetted area : 15 484 acres (6266 ha); 6975 ha (Jb 1994)
Gazetted boundary length : 200 370 ft (61 km) (57.9 km on Jb 1994)
LOCATION: 6_ 26′ – 6_ 35’S 36_ 54′ – 37_ 00′ E

The reserve covers the steep rocky ridge of the Itumba Hills in the Ukaguru mountains south east of Mamiwa-Kisara (North).

SOILS:

Sandy soils with humus over crystalline gneiss with extensive areas of exposed rocky cliffs.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mpwapwa Evergreen, Msowero Ginnery (there should be data from Mandege forest station). Estimated rainfall: 900-1200 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 21_C max (Jan.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

No data

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment supplying water to dry areas surrounding the Ukaguru mountains.

TIMBER VALUES:

No data.

BIODIVERSITY:

No data.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

No data.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

No data.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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PALA MOUNTAIN Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1961
Declaration order : GN 218 of 23/6/1961
Variation order : There must be a variation order because the reserve was extended in the late 1970’s to include areas formerly farmed
Border map : Jb 512 (1:50 000) 1960
Topographical map : 199/2, 199/4
Gazetted area : 26 240 acres (10 620 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 211 417 ft (64 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 12′ – 7_ 22′ S 36_ 47′ – 36_ 50′ E

90 km from Kilosa. Access is from the Kilosa to Mikumi road via Kisanga to Madizini village. The direct route from Kilosa via Ulaya is no longer passable due to broken bridges. The reserve covers a rocky north – south ridge with an altitudinal range of 760 m to 1220 m. The 1625 m high forested peak of Pala mountain is in an exclave outside the reserve

SOILS:

Under woodland: sandy light brown over quartzite. Under forest: presumably the same with more humus. Extensive areas of rocky cliffs.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kisanga Msolwa. Estimated rainfall: 1000-1200 mm/year on woodland; 1400 mm/year on the forest with mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 25_C max (Dec.), 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION

The reserve is mostly wooded grassland capped by forest at higher altitudes with riverine forest in valleys. The edge of the forest appears to be maintained by fire.

Woodland: Wooded grassland with occasional Oxyanthera abyssinica thickets and many open sparsely wooded areas. Trees 10-15 m tall dominated by Brachystegia microphylla with: Annona senegalensis, Cassia abbreviata, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia quinqueloba.

Forest: Presumably dry montane forest at higher altitudes.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs. No timber values are reported from the forest on the peak.

BIODIVERSITY:

The woodland is composed of widespread species, but the forest on the peak should have some Eastern Arc species of restricted distribution in moist areas. There is an unconfirmed report of Red Colobus monkeys in the forest.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

There are three permanent rivers and many seasonal streams reported. A lake is reported from the top of the mountain.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Parts of the reserve were inhabited until 1974 when the people were moved. The reserve was extended in 1977-1978 to cover these areas including some coffee plantations. The coffee is still picked, though the trees are not tended. Oxyanthera was used for local construction, but it died back recently (possibly due to flowering). Every year there is a fire, which usually originates from the Mikumi National Park area to the east. Seasonal migration of cattle herders during August to November can also lead to fires. The mountain is of cultural importance and is said to be inhabited by spirits.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and planted. Enrichment planting of Pterocarpus angolensis could be considered. Fires need to be controlled. The reserve is under low population pressure. The reasons why the forested Pala mountain peak was excluded from the reserve should be investigated and the area considered for inclusion in the reserve as it is an important catchment and may contain significant biodiversity.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: If the forested peak is included in the reserve, the forest is a potential biodiversity zone. Productive zone: Control of fires and enrichment planting of Mninga.

LITERATURE:

None known, but there may be a published report of the cultural values of the forest.

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TALAGWE Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration :
Variation : GN 139 of 29/3/63
Border map : Jb 573 (1:25 000) 1962; Jb 1033 (1:25 000) 1912
Topographical map : 146/3, 165/1
Gazetted area : 2682 acres (1085 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 42 175 ft (13 km)
LOCATION: 5_ 58′ – 6_ 01′ S 37_ 09′ – 37_ 11′ E

130 km from Kilosa, 70 km from Gairo, 30 km from the Morogoro to Dodoma road via Berega. Access is from the main Morogoro to Dodoma road along the Gairo or Berega to Handeni road to Iyogwe. The reserve lies just south of Handeni District and covers the isolated peak of Talagwe from an altitude of 1170 to 1857 m.

SOILS:

Under woodland: Sandy, brown-grey over crystalline mica schists with exposed rocky areas. Under forest: Dark brown, rich in humus.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. The reserve lies on the northern edge of the Nguru mountain rainshadow. Nearest rainfall stations: Kidete Sisal Estate, Kongwa. Estimated rainfall: 600 mm/year on the woodlands with a mist effect at higher altitudes, 1200 mm/year on the forest. Dry season: June – Nov. Temperatures: 24_C max (Dec.), 19_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The mountain is largely covered by wooded grassland but is capped by dry montane forest with an area of grassland between the forest and woodland. The forest edge is maintained by fire.

Woodland: From 1170-1570 m. Open woodland grassland dominated by Brachystegia microphylla 5-10 m tall with: Brachystegia spiciformis, Cassia abbreviata, Combretum molle, Cussonia arborea, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Dichrostachyus cinera, Euphorbia sp., Lannea sp., Markhamia obtusifolia, Sterculia quinqueloba. Just below the edge of the forest Dombeya rotundifolia, Erythrina abyssinica and Faurea speciosa occur.

Dry montane forest: 1670-1850 m. Lower parts of the forest are tangled with a broken canopy 15-20 m dominated by Diospyros natalensis and Albizia gummifera with many open tangled glades. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Bersama abyssinica, Bridelia micrantha, Canthium oligocarpum, Cassipourea malosana, Celtis africana, Cola greenwayi, Cussonia holstii, Cussonia spicata, Diospyros natalensis, Draceana steudneri, Dombeya torrida, Garcinia volkensii, Maesa lanceolata, Phoenix reclinata, Vepris stolzii. Upper parts of the forest have an intact canopy of 20-30 m dominated by Rapanea melanophloeos on upper ridges. Lower tree boles are covered in mosses and ferns indicating a mist effect. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Bridelia brideliifolia, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Neoboutonia macrocalyx, Rapanea melanophloeos, Strombosia scheffleri, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum and Xymalos monospora.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Two permanent streams and three seasonal streams are reported to supply local villages. There are a number of springs or small streams immediately below the forest but these dry up before reaching the base of the mountain. 26 streams are shown crossing the border on the boundary map.

TIMBER VALUES:

No timber of value was seen. Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) occurs in the woodland. Pillar wood (Cassipourea malosana) and other low grade species such as Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Rapanea melanophloeos and Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum occur in the forest but not in any quantity.

BIODIVERSITY:

Despite being apparently quite dry the forest, especially the upper parts, contains some Eastern Arc species such as Memecylon deminutum and an unusual Psychotria sp.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The mountain is of some cultural importance to the Wakaguru people. Building poles up to 15 cm diameter and Phoenix reclinata leaves are taken from the forest for local use. Local cattle are grazed in the reserve during the dry season, and below the reserve there is soil erosion due to cattle come to the streams. There are occasional fires.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be cleared and planted. Phoenix reclinata needs to be regenerated and planted to supply local needs for mat making. This could be done in existing forest gaps, together with regeneration of species preferred for building poles such as Diospyros natalensis. Fire control is needed, especially around springs and watercourses to allow natural regeneration of protective vegetation. The potential for piping water from upper parts of the reserve to the village should be investigated. Grazing could cause erosion in the future if stocks increase as erosion is presently evident at the base of the reserve. Village woodlots for building poles and firewood are needed.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Forest on the peak in the mist zone. Productive zone: Regeneration of glades with timber trees, preferred building pole species and Phoenix reclinata; grazing under license in the woodland area in return for fire control; boundary planting of fuelwood and building poles near villages.

LITERATURE:

None known

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UKWIVA Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 407 of 3/12/1954
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 180, Jb 1932 (1:50 000) 1984
Topographical map : 181/3, 181/4, 199/1, 199/2
Gazetted area : 135 000 acres (54 635 ha) (GN 407); 78 780 ha (Jb 1932)
Gazetted boundary length : 143 km (Jb 1932)
LOCATION: 6_ 58′ – 7_ 21′ S 36_ 34′ – 36_ 51′ E

35 km from Kilosa (north east boundary). Access is from the Kilosa to Mikumi road via Zombo to Kiluzi or other villages along the eastern boundary; or from the Mbuyuni to Mpwapwa road to Ulelingombe. Access to the eastern boundary from the Ulaya to Madizini road is difficult due to broken bridges. The reserve covers an extensive area of the eastern escarpment and upland plateau of the Rubeho (Usagara) mountains with an altitudinal range of 600 to 2050 m.

SOILS:

Woodland: Light brown/grey sandy soils over quartzite with some areas of waterlogging. Forest: Light to dark brown sandy soils over quartzite.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Kilosa, Kisanga Msolwa. Estimated rainfall: 1000 mm/year on woodland; 1200 mm/year on forest with a mist effect at higher altitudes and groundwater effect at lower altitudes. Dry season: June – Nov. Temperatures: 25_C max (Dec.) 20_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The eastern escarpment is mostly grassland on the upper slopes, becoming woodland on the lower slopes. The upland plateau is covered by late successional secondary dry montane forest. Riverine forest follows the water courses. Formerly there was a large elephant population and animals are still reported to migrate into the reserve from Mikumi National Park during the dry season.

Woodland: At 550 m close to the eastern boundary, open wooded grassland with trees to 10-15 m tall including: Acacia sp., Brachystegia boehmii, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Kigelia africana, Pterocarpus angolensis, Vitex sp. Brachystegia microphylla occurs at slightly higher altitudes.

Riverine forest: Reported to contain Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) and Milicia excelsa.

Dry montane forest: At 1600-1700 m. Canopy 10-15 m dominated by Macaranga kilimandscharica in valleys, and 3-5 m on ridges. Trees include: Agauria salicifolia, Aphloia theiformis, Bridelia micrantha, Catha edulis, Diospyros whyteana, Halleria lucida, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Maesa lanceolata, Maytenus acuminata, Nuxia congesta, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Rapanea melanophloeos, Xymalos monospora.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is an important catchment area covering a large upland plateau including the Miyombo river catchment and parts of the Mkondoa and Great Ruaha catchments. The reserve is the source of the Mwega, Magubi, Mnaga, Luma, Simalenga, Chomboni, Mdukwi, Mgaku, Mengi, Lumuma and Sasima rivers.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occur in the riverine forest. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs in the woodland.

BIODIVERSITY:

Both the forests and woodlands in the areas visited are composed of widespread species. However, if primary forest exists in moist sites then it should be of the Eastern Arc type and will contain species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

At least part of the upland forests are secondary over old cultivation with fire maintained glades on the western edge. There is some extraction of Mkangazi and Mvule by pitsawing on the eastern escarpment. The reserve in general is still remote, though shifting cultivation has reached the eastern boundary with some slight encroachment resulting from the boundary not being visible. This has now been corrected.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 44 km of boundary has been cleared with 32 km planted with Cedrela sp. The reserve is very extensive and has the potential for quite large productive areas. It is possible that Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) and Podo (Podocarpus latifolius) would grow in the secondary forest areas on the plateau, small trial plots could be established. Mvule and Mkangazi need to be regenerated in the areas where they are being extracted. Enrichment planting with Mninga should be considered for the lower slopes of the woodland. Beekeeping would be possible in the woodlands. Areas such as the Simbalenga Gorge with their relative proximity to Kilosa town and Mikumi National Park offer potential for minor tourism.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, ridgetops, streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Elephant migration routes and areas of Eastern Arc type forest if it occurs. Productive zone: Enrichment planting of Mninga in the woodlands; Mvule and Mkangazi in lowland riverine forest; and Podo and Camphor in the montane forest. Amenity zone: Possibly around Simbalenga Gorge.

LITERATURE:

Lovett, J.C. & T.R.A. Minja. 1990. Notes on a visit to Ukwiva forest, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 20: 3-4.

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UPONERA Catchment Forest Reserve

Kilosa District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1962
Declaration : GN 232 of 22/6/1962
Variation order : Initiated in 1982 (Jb 2083), not yet legally finalized
Border map : Jb 445 (1:25 000) 1958; Jb 2083 (1:5000) 1982
Topographical maps : 164/4, 165/3
Gazetted area : 927 acres (375 ha) (Jb 445); 360 ha (Jb 2083)
Gazetted boundary length : 28 550 ft (8.7 km) (Jb 445); 8 km (Jb 2083)
LOCATION: 6_ 19′ S 37_ 00′ E

100 km from Kilosa, 3 km from Mandege Forest Station. Access is from Mandege to Ikwamba road and then by foot through plantation roads. The reserve covers Mt. Kifigo, an isolated block in the eastern Ukaguru mountains north east of Mandege Forest Station and west of Uponera village, from an altitude of 1600 m to 1993 m. Incorrectly marked as Mamiwa Kisara FR on sheet 165/3.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols on Precambrian gneiss basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic-continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mpwapwa Evergreen Msowero Ginnery (there should be data from Mandege Forest Station). Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature range: 21_C max (Jan.), 17_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The reserve is dominated by dry montane forests with montane forest on the wetter eastern side. The summit area (above 1850 m) is covered by mossy forest indicating an important mist effect.

Montane forest: Among rock boulders a 20 m tall undescribed Erythrina species is common. Other trees in the forest include: Albizia gummifera, Macaranga capensis, Polyscias fulva and Rauvolfia caffra with Ensete uluguruensis, Dracaena steudnerii and Mussaenda monticola in the lower canopy layer. Blechnum attenuatum and Asplenium cei are often dominant in the ground layer and Trichomanes melanotrichum and Vittaria guineensis are common epiphytes, indicating high grade of air humidity. In the mossy forest Blechnum attenuatum and Asplenium hyopomelas are the dominant ferns and Antrophium boryanum a typical epiphyte. Impatiens ukaguruensis is a very restricted endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve supplies water to local villages.

TIMBER VALUES:

Due to inaccessibility there are no timber values.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and so are rich in endemic species. For example Impatiens ukaguruensis, a recently described balsam is restricted to a very small area in the Ukaguru Mts., and occurs in Uponera.

HUMAN IMPACT:

Very high population pressure around the small, rocky hill. Grazing, burning and fuel wood collecting have already degraded many parts of the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Border clearing and planting of gaps, and guarding is needed. Village afforestation is needed to supply fuel wood.
Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover the mossy forest at higher altitudes and wetter eastern forest areas.

LITERATURE:

none known.

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LIGAMBA Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1955
Declaration : GN 335 of 9/9/55
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 243 (1:5000) 1955
Topographical map : 264/2
Gazetted area : 39 acres (16 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 10 708 ft (3.3 km)
LOCATION: 9_ 02′ S 36_ 26′ E

130 km from Mahenge, 90 km from Lupilo, 20 km from Sofi. Access is by foot from Sofi mission which is on the Lupilo to Malinyi road. The reserve covers a patch of forest on a ridge just below the summit of Ligamba (Igamba) Hill from an altitude of 1065 to 1330 m.

SOILS:

Presumably brown sandy loams over gneissic rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Sofi Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1200 mm/year with a marked mist effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 27_C max (Nov.), 22_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is dry submontane forest with a fire maintained edge. Elephant and Buffalo are reported.

Dry submontane forest: Closed forest with Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Pterocarpus tinctorius and Albizia sp. is reported.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica)) are reported, but the forest is too remote for extraction.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest may contain species of restricted distribution as it is part of the Eastern Arc, or it may be too small and dry to contain anything more than widespread species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The Sofi river which supplies Sofi village is reported to arise on Igamba Hill. On the eastern side streams flow into the Farua river.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is remote and no disturbance is reported. Villagers in Sofi mission reported that it is 12 hours walk through uninhabited land. At one time the path to Mahenge passed near the reserve, but this is no longer used.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The forest is sufficiently remote to be of low management priority. Boundary beacons are reported. There should be an attempt by Mahenge Forest Office to visit the reserve when the grass is shorter.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover the whole forest.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAHENGE SCARP Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 312 of 24/9/1954
Variation order : Initiated in 1982 (Jb 2076) for a larger area of 500 ha, but not yet legally finalised
Border map : Jb 193, Jb 2076 (1:10 000) 1983
Topographical maps : 251/1
Gazetted area : 956 acres (387 ha) (GN 312); 500 ha (Jb 2076)
Gazetted boundary length : 10 610 m (10.6 km)
LOCATION: 8_ 37′ – 8_ 38′ S 36_ 42′ – 36_ 44′

8 km from Mahenge. Access is from the Mahenge to Ifakara road which passes through the reserve and forms part of the northern boundary. The reserve covers the northern and north eastern edge of Mahenge Plateau north of Mahenge town, from 460 to 800 m.

SOILS:

Tropical rendzina soils cover the Precambrian crystalline limestone (dolomitic marble) carstic plateau formation. Ferralitic latosols cover small area on thicker clay deposits.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mahenge. Estimated rainfall: 1300 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 26_C max (Nov.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Seasonal lowland forest covers about 80% of the reserve over carstic limestone and is similar to that in Kimboza FR. The ground is rocky, with shallow soil rich in humus and nutrients on the huge marble rock boulders. Woodland covers the area along the road.

Lowland forest: Canopy trees include: Milicia excelsa, Parkia filicoidea and Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica). Smaller trees include: Dombeya amaniensis, Garcinia semseii and Vangueria madagascariensis. In depressions and along streamlets on travertine banks swamp forest occurs with Pandanus cf. engleri and an undergrowth of Cremaspora triflora, Filicium decipiens, Justicia interrupta, Pavetta sp., and Psychotria schliebenii.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m tall.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Several streams originate in the forest which will be of future importance to Mahenge town and small scale agriculture, as water is scarce on the limestone plateau.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) are abundant.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so contain species of restricted distribution, for example: Dombeya amaniensis, Garcinia semseii and an undescribed Pavetta species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Serious encroachment occurred on southern edge near the town, where heavy logging and cultivation took place in the forest reserve area. Unlicensed logging has been carried out for Mvule and Mkangazi. A 200 m belt of the forest has already been already destroyed. Preliminary mining for graphite has been done near the road and an area cleared for a factory. The mine area selected will cause erosion and threatens the road.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary should be cleared and planted. Mining should be restricted to areas away from the road. Valuable timbers should be regenerated and logging controlled.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover steeper slopes, streamsides, and the area above and below the road. Biodiversity zone: An area of wetter forest over limestone rich in endemics. Productivity zone: Following regeneration of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MSELEZI Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 216 of 30/7/54
Variation order : Initiated in 1982 (Jb 2071) but not yet legally finalized.
Border map : Jb 190 (1:24 000) 1954; Jb 2071 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical maps : 251/3
Gazetted area : 1904 acres (771 ha) (Jb 190); 2245 ha (Jb 2071)
Gazetted boundary length : 127 272 ft (39 km) (Jb 190); 25.6 km (Jb 2071)
LOCATION: 8_ 46′ – 8_ 52′ S 36_ 43′ – 36_ 44′ E

15-20 km south of Mahenge. Access is from the Chilombola road which passes through the reserve and along the Mselezi valley. The reserve forms narrow strips, joined at the northern end, on the ridges either side of Mselezi Valley from 560 to 890 m.

SOILS:

Tropical rendzina on crystalline limestone rocks. Where deeper soil can develop; especially in valley bottom and on gneiss and granulite baserocks, red and brown ferralitic soils occur.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Mahenge and Ruaha. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 26_C max (Nov.), 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION

Two main natural vegetation types can be distinguished within the reserve. In the damp valley bottom of Mselezi stream riverine lowland forest occurs, with a semi-evergreen drier type of forest on the valley’s rocky slopes.

Riverine lowland forest: Canopy trees include: Bombax rhodognaphalon, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, Parkia filicoidea and Terculia africana. Entada pursaetha is a common liana. The lower canopy is dominated by Dombeya amaniensis, with Psychotria lauracea, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Tricalysia microphylla and Vangueria madagascariensis. The herb layer is dominated by Nephrolepis biserrata, Elatostema welwitschii and a Costus sp.

Dry lowland forest: Emergents include 40-50 m tall Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) and 30 m tall Pterocarpus sp. with Albizia gummifera and Trema orientalis. Zamioculcas zamiifolia is common on rocky, half-shady ground. The nest epiphyte Platycerium elephantotis occurs in larger trees.

TIMBER VALUE:

Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) and Mninga Maji (Pterocarpus sp.) have a high timber value.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in endemic species. The Usambara-Mahenge endemic Dombeya amaniensis is common, and has potential as an ornamental tree, with its unbranched stem and large inflorescence consisting of huge orange flowers topping the trunk.

CATCHMENT VALUE:

The reserve supplies water to Mbingu, Chilomba and Mwaya villages.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

There is encroachment for small scale farming. Logging and burning have damaged the reserve at many places. Ruby mining is done in the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary marking and patrolling are important. Replanting of Mkangazi is needed to maintain the timber potential of the forest. The proposed variation includes the Mselezi valley between the two strips on ridges either side of the valley. The area is currently cultivated.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be selected, but containing Dombeya amaniensis. Productive zone: Selective logging of Mkangazi, regeneration of Mkangazi.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MUHULU Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 314 of 24/9/54
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 198 (1: 2000) 1954
Topographical maps : 251/3
Gazetted area : 1507 acres (670 ha); 2439 acres (987 ha) (Jb 198)
Gazetted boundary length : 44 151 ft (13.5 km) (Jb 198)
LOCATION: 8_ 51′ S 36_ 41′ E

30-40 km from Mahenge. Access is by foot up Sezeri Hill from Khituti village which is reached via Ruaha Mission. The reserve covers the upper part of Sezeri and Muhulu Hills with an altitudinal range of 700 to 1400 m.

SOILS:

Well drained humus rich brown loams over gneissic schists.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Ruaha. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/year with a mist effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 24_C max (Nov.), 18_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The reserve is a ridge top covered by undisturbed submontane forest with rocky outcrops. The forest is edged by woodland is maintained by fire. Buffalo and elephant are reported to occur.

Submontane forest: Canopy 30-40 m. Trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Harungana madagascariensis, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Mesogyne insignis, Newtonia buchananii, Pachystela brevipes, Parinari excelsa, Strombosia scheffleri, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum, Trichoscypha ulugurensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis. Bridelia micrantha occurs on the forest edge.

Woodland: Scattered trees to 5 m tall in tall grass or a sward of Afromomum sp. Trees include: Combretum molle, Erythrina abyssinica and Vitex sp.

TIMBER VALUES:

There are quite good stocks of Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) in addition to other lower grade timbers. Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is reported.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so will contain species of restricted distribution. For example Allanblackia stuhlmannii occurs.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is part of the eastern watershed of Ruaha river, and is the catchment for Muhulu and Sezeri stream which supply Khituti village; and Mgolo stream which supplies Mgolo village.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Population density is low and, apart from fire on the edge of the forest and a hunters path passing through the reserve, there was no sign of human impact.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be resurveyed, cleared and planted. Timber stocks are relatively high as there has been no exploitation and selective felling is possible. Population pressure is low and no extension for forest protection is needed at this time.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover a full range of altitudes. Productive zone: Selective felling and regeneration of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MYOE Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 314 of 24/9/54
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 199 (1:4500) 1954 (redrawn 1979)
Topographical map : 251/1
Gazetted area : 230 acres (93 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 12 562 ft (3.8 km)
LOCATION: 8_ 39′ S 36_ 37′ E

12 km due west of Mahenge town. Access is from Mahenge to Mdindo village and then by foot to Msogezi village and then by foot to the reserve. The reserve covers the top of Myoe hill from an altitude of 800 to 1300 m.

SOILS:

Presumably brown sandy loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mahenge. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1500 mm/year with a mist effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 22_C max (Nov.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is dry submontane forest with a fire maintained edge. Elephant and buffalo are reported.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) are reported, but the forest is too remote for extraction.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest may contain species of restricted distribution as it is part of the Eastern Arc, or it may be too small and dry to contain anything more than widespread species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is the source of the Mwezeza, Lwamba, Nalwegere, Erasi and Mwero rivers. The Mwezeza river supplies water to Msogezi and then goes to the Luri river.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is remote and no disturbance is reported. Villagers in Epanko village reported that it is six hours walk from Epanko to Msogezi and then three hours to the boundary. The Lufwili to Mahenge footpath passed near the reserve. The forest is of cultural importance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The forest is remote and no disturbance is reported. There should be an attempt by Mahenge Forest Office to visit the reserve when the grass is shorter.

Proposed zones: Catchment Zone:

LITERATURE:

None known.

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NAMBIGA Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 51 26/2/54
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 169 (1: 12 000) 1953 (redrawn 1979)
Topographical map : 250/2, 251/1
Gazetted area : 3435 acres (1390 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 52 600 ft (16 km)
LOCATION: 8_ 33′ – 8_ 35′ S 36_ 27′ – 36_ 30′

75 km from Mahenge, 45 km from Lupilo. Access is from the Lupilo to Malinyi road which passes through the reserve. The reserve covers fairly level to slightly hilly ground with areas of seasonal groundwater at an altitude of 335 to 365 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy humus rich loams, well drained to seasonally waterlogged.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtimbera, Idete. Estimated rainfall: 1000 mm/year with ground water effect. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 27_C max (Nov.), 22_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly lowland groundwater forest with a mixture of forest and woodland species, becoming woodland in areas of better drainage. The forest is much disturbed by logging and there is a teak trial plot. Elephant and buffalo are reported to occur.

Lowland groundwater forest. Canopy 20-30 m, much broken with climber tangles in old logging areas. Olyra latifolia is the dominant herb. Trees include: Albizia sp., Bombax rhodongaphalon, Borassus sp., Combretum molle, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Lettowianthus stellatus, Milicia excelsa, Piliostigma thonningii, Sterculia appendiculata, Trema orientalis, Terminalia sambesiaca, Trilepisium madagascariensis. Along the road there is some exotic Cassia sp. resulting from natural dispersal.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) occur but have mostly been extracted. Other lower grade timbers include Terminalia sambesiaca.

BIODIVERSITY:

As an eastern lowland groundwater forest the reserve is likely to contain species of restricted distribution as indicated by the occurrence of Lettiowianthus stellatus.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Being on fairly level ground in a generally low lying area, the reserve is of limited catchment value. The Mafinji river passes along the western edge, and all the water from the forest drains there.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Timber was extensively extracted in the 1970’s. There is a small 0.5 ha teak trial plot. The south western boundary has a low population pressure, but cultivation is now reaching the boundary on the north eastern side near Iragua village. There is trapping for small animals.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 15 km of boundary is reported to have been cleared last year in order to prevent unintentional encroachment. The clearing was 2.5 m wide and planted with 165 teak seedlings taken from self established seedlings in the teak trial plot. The boundary clearing needs to be completed, and a higher density of markers planted.

Logged areas need to be regenerated with Mvule and Mkangazi. Coppicing Mvule stems need leading shoots selecting. The teak trial plot needs a thinning schedule. The Commonwealth Development Corporation are investigating the possibility of establishing a 3 000 ha, teak plantation adjacent to the reserve.

Proposed zones: Productive zone: Following regeneration of valuable species. Biodiversity zone: Covering a well developed area of forest near the middle of the reserve.

LITERATURE:

Commonwealth Development Corporation report.

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NAWENGE Catchment Forest Reserves

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1931
Declaration : GN 149 of 1931
Variation order : GN 288 of 18/8/61. Nawenge includes the former Kwiro FR (134 ha), the variation was initiated in 1982 (Jb 1969) to enlarge the area to 623 ha, but is not yet legally finalized
Border map : Jb 513 (1:10 000) undated; Jb 1969 (1:10 000) 1982
Topographical map : 251/1
Gazetted area : Kwiro, 332 acres (134 ha) Nawenge, 623 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 16 892 ft (5 km) (Jb 513); 11 486 m (11 km) (Jb 1969)
LOCATION: 8_ 42′ – 8_ 43′ S 36_ 43 E

2 km from Mahenge. Access is from Mahenge town. When the gazettement process is complete the reserve will include the former Kwiro FR to cover a ridge southwest of Mahenge town from 1150 to 1350 m.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols, with ferralitic latosols on the lower slopes over crystalline gneiss. Limestone patches.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mahenge. Estimated rainfall: 2000 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 22_C max (Nov.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Submontane forest covers the intact part of the reserve. A thicket of succulents occurs on open crystalline limestone rocks along the road below the continuous forest. Scattered trees grow in shady gorges between the rocks.

Submontane forest. Canopy with 30-45 m tall emergents. Larger trees include: Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Cylicomorpha parviflora (at former pitsawing places), Entandophragma sp., Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Parkia filicoidea (at the lower edge) Rauvolfia caffra and Strombosia scheffleri. Smaller trees include: Bersama abyssinica, Dracaena laxissima, D. steudnerii, Lobelia longisepala, Memecylon schliebenii, and Psychotria megalopus. The herb layer is formed at most places by Leptaspis cochleata, occasionally by Olyra latifolia. On shady cliffs rare ferns: Lonchitis occidentalis, Diplazium sp.aff. hylophilum and Asplenium obscurum occur, along streamlets Marattia fraxinea and Nephrolepis biserrata are common. On fallen logs Steptocarpus solenanthus, Impatiens keilii, Vittaria guineensis var. orientalis and a Begonia sp. form an interesting community.

Limestone thicket: Dominated by a tree Euphorbia sp. mixed with a shrubby Aloe sp. In shady gorges between the rocks scattered Dracaena steudnerii, Erythrina sacleuxii, Pandanus cf. englerii, and Strombosia scheffleri trees occur.

TIMBER VALUE:

Newtonia buchananii and other less valuable timbers occur in limited quantity. Earlier pitsawing reduced stocks.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. Eastern Arc endemics include: Lobelia longisepala, Memecylon schliebenii, Psychotria megalopus and Streptocarpus solenanthus.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve provides the water supply of Mahenge town.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The area nearest the town is exploited for firewood and is partly converted to plantation. The rest of the forest is still in reasonable condition, except for smaller gaps in its canopy and some fire damage on the borders.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The variation orders and maps need to be clarified. At least the southern reserve (Kwiro) should be preserved for catchment. The canopy gaps should be filled by with indigenous species and the border marked and effective fire protection implemented. Mapping and regazetting of the northern Nawenge reserve should be done first. A well managed plantation forest in part of the reserve would meet the fuel needs of Mahenge township area.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover the southern part of the reserve. Biodiversity zone: To cover a core area of submontane forest. Productive zone: Fuel wood plantation near to Mahenge town.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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SALI Catchment Forest Reserve

Ulanga District, Morogoro Region
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 408 of 3/12/54
Variation order : Variation order initiated in 1982 (Jb 2072) for a larger area of 1890 ha, but legally not finalized
Border map : Jb 207, Jb 2072 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical maps : 251/3
Gazetted area : 3518 acres (1424 ha); 1890 ha (Jb 2072)
Gazetted boundary length : 17 918 m (18 km) (Jb 2072)
LOCATION: 8_ 54′ – 8_ 57′ S 36_ 37′ – 36_ 41′ E

30 km south south west of Mahenge. Access is from Sali Mission. The reserve covers a hill south west of the main Mahenge plateau from an altitude of 1050 to 1300 m. The reserve is incorrectly marked on sheet 251/3.

SOILS:

Yellow ferralitic latosols or at rocky places lithosols developed on Precambrian crystalline gneisses.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Ruaha. Estimated rainfall: 1700 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 23_C max (Nov.), 18_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Submontane forest covers most of the reserve. Rock outcrops, for example Baba Peak, bear dry montane grasslands and rock vegetation. Elephants from the Kilombero valley live in the reserve during the dry season.

Submontane forest: Canopy with: Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, Newtonia buchananii, Polyscias fulva and Pterocarpus sp. In the ground layer Acanthus ueleensis, Psychotria pandurata and two indigenous balsams occur.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Rivers from the reserve flow into the Msingizi, Ruaha and Luhombero rivers.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Mninga maji (Pterocarpus sp.) and Newtonia buchananii occur in exploitable quantities.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. For example, two species of Impatiens spp. are endemic in the area, and the Eastern Arc endemic Allanblackia stuhlmannii occurs. The reserve is important for dry season elephant migration.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

According to forestry records, there were settlements in the forest during the early part of the century; the inhabitants were later resettled. There is a small amount of pitsawing. Some encroachment for cultivation occurs. Fire affects the forest borders.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border needs to be cleared and planted. Valuable timbers need to be regenerated.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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BUNDUKI I and III Catchment Forest Reserves

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 132/1950 p. 1357
Variation order : GN 44 of 1/3/1946
Border map : Jb 680 (1:5000) 1966, Jb 86 (1:10 000)
Topographical map : 201/1
Gazetted area : Bunduki I, 251 acres (102 ha); Bunduki III, 7.5 acres (3 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : Bunduki I, 15 969 ft (4.9 km) (plus some distance along the Mungulu River); Bunduki III, 2393 ft. (0.7 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 01′ S 37_ 38′ E

8 km from Mgeta. Access is by foot from Bunduki village. Bunduki I covers the slope and valley of the Mgeta river from 1220 to 1540 m, and Bunduki III is a small reserve on level ground by the Mgeta river south west of Bunduki I at 1220 m. Bunduki I is marked on the topographical map as Vinile FR.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over crystalline gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Bunduki. Estimated rainfall: 2000 mm/year. Dry season: June – July. Temperature range: 22_C max (Dec.) to 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Bunduki I is mostly plantation of a variety of species including: Pinus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Bamboo, Cupressus spp., Grevillea robusta and Avacado. In the undergrowth beneath the plantation, and occassionally with the plantation itself, montane forest trees and shrubs occur. Bunduki III is a small patch of montane or submontane forest on a swampy area by the river.

Montane forest. Trees to 20 m including: Alangium chinense, Albizia gummifera, Anthocleista grandiflora, Bersama abyssinica, Cussonia spicata, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Draceana steudneri, Ficus sur, Harungana madagascariensis, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Rauvolfia caffra, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum.

TIMBER VALUES:

The plantation Cupressus is being harvested by pitsawyers.

BIODIVERSITY:

Although the reserve is mostly a plantation of exotics, it is possible that some species of restricted distribution have entered the reserve from the adjacent very species rich Uluguru North and South reserves. Bunduki III is just downstream of the reserve, in the Mgeta valley. It is a small patch of submontane riverine forest that is of traditional cultural importance, and which may also contain some species of restricted distribution.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserves protect part of the Mgeta river catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is largely converted to exotic plantations, some of which are presently being harvested. Firewood and building poles are also taken from the reserve. The reserve is a useful seed source for exotics.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

There is a nursery in the reserve which supplies Cupressus seedlings for boundary marking for Uluguru North and South FRs.

The reserve should continue in its role as a source of both exotic timber and seeds, but those areas where natural forest is regenerating or still occurs should not be cleared, especially by springs or along streams. Suitable indigenous species should also be planted, both for timber and seeds. Along the edges of the reserve suitable trees for firewood and building poles for local use should be planted.

Bunduki offers potential for conversion to a resource centre for visitors. The old forester’s house could be converted into an educational resource centre, whilst the nearby Bunduki Fly Fishing lodge could offer accommodation to visitors. The reserve could show plantation techniques for a number of exotic species, as well as being close to the extensive natural forests of both Uluguru North and South. Upstream of the reserve there are the spectacular Hululu falls.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: By springs and along streams. Productive zone: In areas currently under plantation. Amenity zone: In the area around the old foresters house and along selected paths through the forest and upstream along the Mgeta river.

LITERATURE:

None known, though it is likely that some exists as this was a much visited area at one time.

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DINDILI Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1953
Declaration : GN 311 of 30/10/53
Variation : GN 416 of 17/7/64
Border map : Jb 151 (revised), Jb 2069 (1:10 000) 1982
Topographical map : 183/2
Gazetted area : 2488 acres (1006 ha) (2735 acres before variation). 1005 ha on Jb 2069 Gazetted boundary length : 15.3 km
LOCATION: 6_ 42′ S 37_ 52′ E

25 km east north east of Morogoro town. Access is from Mikese village on the Morogoro to Dar es Salaam road. The reserve covers a north south running ridge north of Mikese to an altitude of 849 m.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols and ferralitic latosols on the steeper slopes with deeper deposits of ferruginous sandy clay at the foot. The ridge is built up of Precambrian migmatites and gneisses.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kingolowira Mission. Estimated rainfall: 700-1000 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 26_C max (Dec.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Woodland covers about 40% of the area, mostly the lower ridges and the drier western slopes. Dry evergreen forest covers 60% of the area on the wetter eastern slopes and summit ridge.

Woodland: The canopy is rich in species with: Acacia hockii, A. senegal, Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla, B. spiciformis, Combretum zeyheri, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Diplorhynchus coldylocarpon, Heteromorpha arborea, Ozoroa reticulata, Pavetta crassipes, Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis and Sclerocarya caffra. In the undergrowth Cyperus hemisphaericus, Hyparrhenia rufa, Indigofera garckeana, Ocimum suave and Themeda triandra are important.

Dry forest: Tall closed forest with trees up to 30 m in valleys. The trees include: Brachylaena huillensis (dominant at many places), Afzelia quanzensis, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Commiphora madagascariensis, C. pteleifolia, Diospyros consolata, Erythrina sp., Euphorbia candelabrum, E. nyikae (both Euphorbia tall trees up to 20 m), Manilkara sulcata, Pandanus engleri, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Scorodophloeos fischeri, Teclea simplicifolia, Vepris eugenifolia. Shrubs and minor trees: Chazaliella abrupta, Croton pseudopulchellus, Excoecaria madagascariensis and Tarenna nigrescens.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seasonal streams supply water to the relatively densely populated area along Tanzam Highway. There are shallow wells on the eastern foothills for rural water supply. The western slopes drain into the Ngerengere river and to the Ruvu River.

TIMBER VALUES:

The woodland is quite rich in Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon). The dry forest is rich in valuable timber with large quantities of Muhuhu (Brachylaena huillensis). Afzelia quanzensis is also a valuable hardwood.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve is a typical coastal lowland forest, a forest type which was very much reduced during the last century. A characteristic coastal endemic species (in spite of its name) with a very restricted distribution is Commiphora madagascariensis. Species with Madagascan affinities restricted to the coast in mainland Africa include: Tarenna nigrescens and Excoecaria madagascariensis. The Brachylaena huillensis population is valuable as a seed source.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Fires occur regularly in the woodland, especially above Mikese Police Station. Illegal charcoal making takes place close to the main road. The dry forest is relatively intact, except for exploitation of Brachylaena huillensis for construction. Traps are set for small forest antelopes. A small amount of encroachment is reported.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Border planting is required to control encroachment. Fires in the woodland should be reduced prevent loss and allow regeneration of closed dry forest. Illegal exploitation of Brachylaena huillensis should be controlled, and coppice regeneration of the Brachylaena huillensis maintained and selected to raise good quality timber trees.
Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and ridgetops. Productive zone: Border plantations. Regenerated Muhuhu stands.

LITERATURE:

There should be student field work reports at Sokoine University.

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KIMBOZA Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1964
Declaration : GN 417 of 11/7/64
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 2073 (1:10 000) 1982
Topographical maps : 183/4, 201/2
Gazetted area : 1059 acres (405 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 11 km
LOCATION: 6_ 59′ – 7_ 02′ S 37_ 47′ – 37_ 49′ E

Access is from the Morogoro to Kisaki road between Mkuyuni and Matombo villages. The reserve is in the eastern Uluguru foothills covering a karstic plateau south of Kibungo Mission at an altitude of 300 to 400 m.

SOILS:

Tropical rendzina on Precambrian dolomitic marble base rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kibungo. Estimated rainfall: 1700 mm/year with groundwater. Dry season: June – Aug. Temperature: 28_C max (Dec.), 23_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The predominant natural vegetation type is seasonal lowland forest formerly with a 30-40 m high canopy of tall emergents, most of which have now been extracted. Within the forest protruding metamorphosed limestone karsts are a prominent feature.

Lowland forest: Large trees include: Antiaris toxicaria, Aningeria pseudoracemosa, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Cordyla africana, Elaeis guineensis (native, up to 20 m tall), Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) (almost all exploited), Isoberlinia scheffleri, Lettowianthus stellatus, Milicia excelsa, Newtonia paucijuga, Parkia filicoidea, Ricinodendron heudelotii and Sterculia appendiculata. In the canopy large nest epiphytes, such as Platycerium elephantotis and Davallia chaerophylloides, are common. A second or third storey is formed by many smaller trees, such as Cola stelenacantha and C. greenwayii, Cussonia zimmermannii, Dialium holtzii, Drypetes parviflora, Filicium decipiens, Garcinia livingstonei and G. semseii, Grandidiera boivinii, Ixora tanzaniensis, Leptonychia usambarensis, Scorodophloeus fischeri, Uvariodendron gorgonis and Zenkerella egregia. Near springs and streamlets Pandanus cf. englerii forms large stands. The herb layer is often dominated by Nephrolepis biserrata and rare aroids occur such as Amorphophallus stuhlmannii, Anchomanes difformis, Callopsis volkensii, Gonatopus boivinii. On shady limestone or marble rocks an interesting community occurs containing Zamioculcas zamiifolia and the endemic Impatiens cinnabarina. At the northern edge of the reserve dry, semi-deciduous forests also occur. Along the road Cedrela sp. and teak plantation forests are cultivated.

TIMBER VALUE:

The valuable timbers Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mninga Maji (Pterocarpus sp) and especially Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) were once (in the 1960’s) common.

BIODIVERSITY

The forest is of the Eastern Arc and Coastal forest type, and so is rich in species of restricted distribution. For example the blue dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus williamsi) is an endemic lizard species found only on Pandanus sp. stems in Kimboza Forest Reserve. Compared to the small area a very high number of plant species are endemic: two Asystasia species, Baphia pauloi, Chassalia discolor var. grandifolia, Cynometra uluguruensis (a tall tree), Garcinia bifasciculata (tree), Impatiens cinnabarina, Pavetta crebrifolia var. kimbozensis, Streptocarpus kimbozana, and an epiphyllous liverwort: Cololejeunea jonesii.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

There are several springs producing water all year and supplying several streamlets carrying water to the Ruvu River.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Logging has almost completely deprived the forest of its tall canopy trees causing great damage. Most large Mkangazi trees were pitsawn in the early seventies. Large specimens of Aningeria pseudoracemosa existed in the late eighties but by now have almost all disappeared. Minor forest products include building poles and medicines. Cedrela sp. from nearby plantations has invaded the forest, replacing the indigenous canopy trees.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Valuable timbers such as Mvule and Mkangazi should be regenerated, and invasive Cedrela sp. controlled. Woodlots for building poles and firewood should be planted near villages to supply wood products currently supplied by the forest.

The reserve has a high biodiversity value with a high species diversity and many endemics. In addition, this type of lowland forest is rare in the Tanzania. This suggests the reserve should be conserved and further exploitation prevented.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To protect stream sides and springs. Biodiversity zone: To cover the whole reserve.

LITERATURE:

Pócs, T. 1976. Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24: 477-498 + 12 map.

Pócs, T. 1976. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

Rodgers, W.A., J.B. Hall, L.B. Mwasumbi, C.J. Griffiths and K. Vollesen 1983. The conservation values and status of Kimboza Forest Reserve, Tanzania. University of Dar es Salaam, mimeograph, 84 pp.

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KITULANGHALO Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1955
Declaration : GN 198 of 3/6/55
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 224 (1:50 000) 1954
Topographical maps : 183/2, 184/1
Gazetted area : 6518 acres (2638 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 59 120 ft (18 km)
LOCATION: 6_ 39′ – 6_ 43′ S 37_ 57′ – 38_ 01′ E

35 km east north east of Morogoro town. Access is from the Morogoro to Dar es Salaam road. The reserve covers a ridge between the main road and the Sangasanga river from an altitude of 350 to 774 m.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols, ferralitic latosols and ferrisols developed, depending on the depths, over Precambrian gneisses.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall, oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kingolowira Prison. Estimated rainfall: 700-900 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature: 27_C max (Dec.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Woodland covers about 60% of the reserve on the lower and higher slopes, except the summit and those parts, where the spread of fires was prevented by gullies or higher soil moisture. Dry semi-evergreen forest covers about 30 % of the area, mainly on the eastern slopes and summit.

Woodland: Dominant species include: Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Combretum zeyheri, Dichrostachys cinerea, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Julbernardia globiflora, Markhamia zanzibarica, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sclerocarya caffra and Spirostachys africana. Low, open dry, deciduous Combretum spp. woodland replaces Brachystegia spp. woodland on drier soils and is dominated by: Acacia nigrescens, Combretum apiculatum, C. collinum, C. psidioides and Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, with a dense grass layer.

Dry forest: Trees 15-20 m tall, forming a dense canopy dominated by Manilkara sulcata with: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Croton sylvaticus, Cussonia zimmermannii, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Scorodophloeus fischeri and Terminalia sambesiaca. The cycad Encephalartos hildebrandtii occurs as 6 m tall trees with stems 60-90 cm diameter. In the lower canopy and shrub layer there is an undescribed Coffea species, with Commiphora pteleifolia, Grandidiera boivinii and Excoecaria madagascariensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is part of the Sangasanga river catchment. There are no permanent surface streams. Underground runoff is collected by streamlets at the foot such as Lubungo stream near Mikese and tributaries of the Ngerengere river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Pterocarpus angolensis and Terminalia sambesiaca have some timber value. In addition, trial plots of Cassia siamea and teak have been established on the eastern foot of the hill along the main road and are doing well.

BIODIVERSITY:

Grandidiera boivinii and Excoecaria madagascariensis are typical Madagascan – coastal East African species with restricted distributions. The cycad stand in the dry forest is one of the largest in the country, with very tall specimens and therefore warrants attention. The still undescribed coffee species (Coffea sp. E of Bridson in the Flora of Tropical East Africa) is an unique endemic of the area of potential importance for coffee breeding. It grows on the ridge south of the summit at 550 m altitude, on the border of the dry forest.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Large scale charcoal making is carried out at the northern end of the reserve. The whole woodland area is burnt regularly.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Burning and charcoal making should be controlled. The teak and Cassia sp. stands should be managed.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes. Biodiversity zone: To cover the dry forest, protecting the Cycad stands and Coffea sp. population. Productive zone: Teak and Cassia sp. stands

LITERATURE:

J. Kielland-Lund (1982): Structure and morphology of four forest and woodland communities of the Morogoro area, Tanzania. In: Dierschke, H. (ed.): Strukur und Dynamic von Waldern: 69-93, Vaduz.

J. Kielland-Lund (1990): Phytosociology and productivity in four forest and woodland communities near Morogoro. In: A.S.M. Mgeni, W.S. Abeli, S.A.O. Chamshama, G.S. Kowero. Proceedings of the Seminar on Management of Natural Forests of Tanzania, Arusha, December 1988. pp. 2-15. Faculty of Forestry, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania.

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MINDU Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 72 of 19/3/54
Variation : GN 115 of 21/2/64
Border map : Jb 164 (1:10 000) 1963
Topographical maps : 183/3
Gazetted area : 5647 acres (2285 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 68 032 ft (20.7 km)
LOCATION: 6_ 50′ S 37_ 35′ E

6 km west of Morogoro. Access is from the main Morogoro to Mikumi road or from Mafiga. The reserve covers an isolated ridge at the north western end of the Uluguru Mountains above the Mindu reservoir to an altitude of 1260 m.

SOILS:

The foot is covered by alluvial sand and sandy loam deposits (up to 600 m altitude). The rocks are muscovite-biotite migmatites and hornblende gneisses of Usagaran (Precambrian) age. The slopes are steep, but the base rocks are exposed only at a few places, above Mafiga and Kasanga.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. In the rainshadow of the Uluguru mountains. Nearest rainfall station: Morogoro. Estimated rainfall: 800-1500 mm/year with a mist effect on the summit. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 25_C max (Dec.), 20_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

Wetter woodland covers about 50% of the reserve area on the slopes and ridges. The tree cover, when undisturbed, reaches 70%. Dry woodland covers about 20% of the area at the base of the hill and has a tree cover of not more than 40-50%. Dry semi-evergreen lowland forest covers about 20% of the area and has 85% tree cover. It has survived in, and is presently restricted to, the fire protected gorges and to parts of the slopes where gullies act as firebrakes. Submontane evergreen forest remains only in fragments on the summit ridge (2%), replaced mainly by secondary grassland (4%) as after logging and fires. Rock outcrops occupy less than 4% of the area

Woodland: Dominated by Brachystegia microphylla, B. spiciformis and Julbernardia globiflora with Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia quinqueloba and Xeroderris stuhlmannii. Uapaca sansibarica forms almost pure stands on the southern end of the summit ridge. The loose sandy soil at the base of the hill below 600 m is covered by dry Combretum woodland and wooded grassland. The trees are scattered, bushy, 4-8 m high. In valleys, Acacia nigrescens and Sclerocarya caffra dominate. On ridges and drier sites Combretum collinum, C. ghasalense, C. apiculatum, C. zeyheri, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Pteleopsis myrtifolia and Markhamia sp. dominate.

Dry lowland forest: The canopy is of varying height from 10 to 30 m. Evergreen trees include: Afzelia quanzensis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Euphorbia nyikae, Parkia filicoidea, Scorodophloeus fischeri. Deciduous trees include: Albizia glaberrima, Albizia versicolor, Brachystegia microphylla, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Tamarindus indica and Terminalia sambesiaca.

Submontane forest: The multi-layered canopy is dominated by Newtonia buchananii and tangled by many climbers.

Rock vegetation: Vegetation on cliffs and rocky summits is dominated by the dwarf bush Xerophyta scabrida and is a community rich in rare or endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Surface watercourses are seasonal and dry up during the dry season. During the rains (and in form of underground runoff) Mindu Hill supplies water to the Ngerengere River, which is important in supplying water to Morogoro township. Mindu Hill also supplies water to the Mindu water reservoir in the Ngerengere valley under its south eastern slopes.

TIMBER VALUES:

There are few valuable timbers, with the exception of some Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) in the wetter woodland. Less valuable species present in the reserve include: In the dry Commiphora spp. woodland: Acacia nigrescens, Pteleopsis myrtifolia and Sclerocarya caffra. In the wetter woodland: Brachystegia spiciformis and Sterculia quinqueloba. In the dry forest: Afzelia quanzensis and Ricinodendron heudelotii and to some extent Albizia versicolor.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type, and so contains species of restricted distribution. The biodiversity values of the reserve are concentrated in certain vegetation types. The submontane forest fragments on the summits have an undergrowth of gingers (Aframomum angustifolium and A. usambarense), both rare species and the latter so far otherwise only known from the Usambara Mountains. The upper, mist effected belt of miombo woodland is rich in epiphytes with rare orchids such as Polystachya isochiloides, P. fischeri; ferns such as Belvisia spicata; and interesting mosses and liverworts such as Squamidium brasiliense, Rhodobryum perspinidens, Macromitrium tristratosum, Schlotheimia schweinfurthii. The moss Frullania spp. occurs in large masses and is important in mist interception. In the dry semi-evergreen forest Grewia forbesii (a climbing shrub), Polysphaeria braunii (a shrub) and Commiphora madagascariensis (a medium sized tree) are rare species restricted to coastal Tanzania. In the open woodland rare bulbiferous plants occur, for example Amorphophallus goetzei. The granitic rock outcrops are also rich in rare species, for example Aloè morogoroènsis occurs in large clumps.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Charcoal making and regular burning have a serious impact on the wetter woodland. During the past 5 years the canopy has disappeared or reduced from 70 to 20% on the lower slopes between 600 and 800 m altitudes. The most utilised species are Brachystegia spp. and Pterocarpus angolensis.

Mining takes place on the lower slopes, with stone quarries and sand mines near the main road. Loose soil from the mines currently washes out onto the highway. In particular, sand mines have devastated large areas just behind Mafiga village. Cultivation does not take place on the slopes and grazing (goats) is very limited.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Border planting is needed on the south eastern side facing the town and highway. Easy access to the main highway and proximity to Morogoro result in exploitation for charcoal and regular burning. Intensive patrolling is needed to control this situation. With exclusion of fire, secondary grassland on the summit ridge would regenerate into closed forest. Gaps in the woodlands should be enriched with Mninga or Brachystegia spp. Fuel wood and building pole plantations should be established on the lower slopes.
Erosion from mining areas should be controlled by establishing a forest cover consisting of Acacia albida, Leucaena leucocephala and Eucalyptus spp. If the trend of deforestation continues, there is a real danger that not only the catchment and timber production will suffer but also large scale soil erosion will take place on the steep slopes.

Proximity to Morogoro also gives the reserve amenity value for education and recreation.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and upper ridges. Biodiversity zone: Submontane forest, epiphyte rich woodland on upper ridges, and rock face vegetation. Productive zone: Fuel wood and building pole plantations on the lower slopes. Wetter woodlands following enrichment with valuable species. Amenity zone: Suitable path to the summit ridge.

LITERATURE:

Kayambazinthu, D. (1989). Effects of selected forest types on the water input, Mindu Forest Reserve, Morogoro. M.Sc. thesis, 189 pp., mimeograph. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.

Pócs, T. (1976a). Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains Tanzania, East Africa) II. Correlations between orography, climate and vegetation. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

Pócs, T. (1976b). Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24: 477-498 + 1 map.

Pócs, T. (1980). The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 26: 143-167.

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MKULAZI Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 199 of 3/6/55
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 231 (1:125 000) 1954
Topographical map : 202/1, 202/3. 184/3
Gazetted area : 169 576 acres (68 627 ha)
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION:

Access is from Mvuha to Magogoni, across the Ruvu river by foot at Kiganela and then along the Mkulazi path, or by road from Ngerengere.

SOILS:

Sandy soil.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tununguo, Ngerengere Agriculture. Estimated rainfall: 1000-1500 mm/year with some groundwater. Dry season: June -Sep. Estimated temperatures: 28_C max (Dec.), 24_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by woodland with thicket on termite mounds and taller, dense vegetation in areas of groundwater. Buffalo and elephant occur.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m tall, dominated by Brachystegia spiciformis with: Afzelia quanzensis, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Hexalobus monopetalus, Hyphaene sp., Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis, Vitex sp. and Xylotheca tettensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Although not of major catchment importance, the ground water table is close to the surface and the reserve is the source of the Lulongwe and Mkulazi rivers. There are also wells, such as Visima ya Gamba on the Mkulazi path.

TIMBER VALUES:

Although there has been logging recently, the reserve is reported to still contain stocks of Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis), Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon), Msekeseke and Afzelia quanzensis.

BIODIVERSITY:

The vegetation is composed of widespread species. There may be stands of valuable timber species worth protecting as seed sources.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Valuable timber species have been recently extracted from accessible areas of the reserve and adjoining public land. Footpaths cross the reserve and it is subject to fires every year, otherwise it is in a remote area with a low population density.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries are marked with cement beacons and direction trenches, and some low density boundary planting would be useful to make the borders clear. The reserve has potential for production and valuable timber species need to be regenerated and enrichment planting done.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Over water sources and along stream and river banks. Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of Mninga, Mpingo, Msekeseke and Afzelia quanzensis.

LITERATURE:
None

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MKUNGWE Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 52 of 26/2/54
Variation order : Variation initiated in 1982 (Jb 2078) for a larger area of 5645 ha, but not yet legally finalised
Border map : Jb 171, Jb 2078 (1:25 000)
Topographical maps : 183/4
Gazetted area : 4860 acres (1967 ha), 5645 ha on Jb 2078
Gazetted boundary length : 30 km on Jb 2078
LOCATION: 6_ 52′ – 6_ 53′ S 37_ 54′ – 37_ 56′ E

15 km from Mikese, 3 km east of Kikundi village. Access is from Mikese on the Mikese to Madamu road. The reserve covers an isolated hill at the north east edge of the Uluguru Mountains from an altitude of 800 to 1104 m.

SOILS:

Ferralitic latosols developed on Precambrian gneiss and granulite rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Tegetero Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1700-2900 mm/year on the wetter eastern and upper slopes, mist effect on the summit. Dry season: not marked, on the eastern side, 2-3 months on the western side at lower altitudes. Temperatures: 24_C max (Dec.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Submontane forest covers the largest part of the reserve, with transitions to lowland rainforest below 800 m. Dry forest occupies some lower side ridges on the western slope, where the soil is shallow. Woodland occupies the lower slopes below 700 (to 400) m altitude. Elephant and buffalo occur.

Submontane forest: Canopy tall with emergent trees up to 50 m, with: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Isoberlinia scheffleri and Newtonia buchananii. In the lower part of canopy Allophylus pervillei Drypetes natalensis and Polyceratocarpus scheffleri occur. In the transition to lowland rainforest Tetrapleura tetraptera and Zenkerella egregia occur. In the ground layer Aneilema aequinoctiale, Leptaspis cochleata, Nephrolepis biserrata and Pollia condensata are typical.

Dry forest: Canopy to 10 m with Bequaertiodendron natalense, Manilkara sp., Scorodophloeos fischeri. Undergrowth with xero-tolerant ferns such as Pellea doniana, P. adiantoides, Phymatodes scolopendrium and Davallia chaerophylloides.

Woodland: Dominated by Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla and Vitex doniana.

CATCHMENT VALUE:

The reserve is part of the Ruvu river catchment. About 9 streamlets carry water from the reserve, supplying Nyagule, Kikundi, Kibungo, Kidugalo and Lukangazi settlements, and Lusanga Estate with water. Around Kikundi many small scale rice fields are irrigated with the water.

TIMBER VALUES:

Cephalosphaera usambarensis and Newtonia buchananii are valuable timbers.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and is rich in species of restricted distribution. Examples of Eastern Arc endemics include: the trees Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Polyceratocarpus scheffleri, and several Acanthaceae: Hypoestes forskaolii, Justicia fittonioides, and Stenandriopsis warneckei.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

In the central area of the forest Newtonia buchananii is under exploitation by pitsawing. Bushfires occur in the woodland every year and often damage the edge of the closed forest, which is therefore retreating. Encroachment or grazing was not observed.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to cleared and planted. Boundary plantations of building poles and fuelwood could supply some local needs. Exploited areas should be regenerated.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Covering the steeper slopes, streamsides and ridges. Biodiversity zone: To cover the forest. Productive zone: Boundary planting for building poles and fuelwood.

LITERATURE:

Pócs, T. 1976. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa) II. Correlations between orography, climate and vegetation. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

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MVUHA and CHAMANYANI Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : Cap. 137/1958
Variation order : 137/1355/1947
Border map : Jb 1077 (1:10 000) 1910
Topographical map : 201/2
Gazetted area : 3724 acres (1506 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : No schedule, estimated to be 48 km
LOCATION: 7_ 08′ – 7_ 13′ S 37_ 47′ – 37_ 51′ E

30 km from Kimboza. Access is from the Kimboza to Mvuha road which traverses Chamanyani FR near the eastern boundary, and by foot up the southern side of the Mvuha river to Mvuha FR. The reserve covers hilly country to the east of the Uluguru mountains and part of the Mvuha river valley from an altitude of 140 to 400 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy soils over crystalline gneiss under the woodlands with more humus and occassionally flooded sandy loams in the Mvuha valley. Richly calcareous slopes are recorded from the eastern side of Bewa Hill.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Bwikira juu, Mkuyuni. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range 28_C max (Dec.), 23_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Most of the reserve is covered by woodland or wooded grassland, the more open areas of which appear to be maintained by fire. Valleys and valley heads are forested. Buffalo occur.

Woodland: Trees 5-10 m tall with: Albizia versicolor, Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Cassia abbreviata, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sclerocarya caffra.

Riverine forest: Canopy 20-25 m with: Antiaris toxicaria, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, Ricinodendron, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Sterculia appendiculata.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) occur, but most have already been exploited. Beside the river Mvuha there is a small trial plot of Mkangazi.

BIODIVERSITY:

The woodlands are composed of widespread species, but it is likely that the riverine forests contain some Eastern Arc and Coastal Forest species of restricted distribution. The Red Colobus (Mbega Nekundu) was reported by the local forester but was not seen. If it occurs then it is an important indicator of high biodiversity.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve protects a number of small catchments feeding into the Mvuha river, and the banks of the Mvuha river itself. There are seasonal water courses in the woodland.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Mvule and Mkangazi were extracted from the reserve many years ago. More recently the reserve was encroached due to lack of boundary marking. Building poles and firewood are taken for local use. Fire occurs every year. Ancient graves are marked on the 1910 border map on the western side of Mvuha FR.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

South of the river Mvuha the eastern boundary is marked by Cedrela sp. Otherwise the boundary needs to be cleared and planted.

Mvule and Mkangazi need regenerating in the riverine forest areas; and the trial plot for Mkangazi assessed and extended. In the woodlands enrichment planting of Mninga should be carried out.

Fire needs to be controlled and building pole and fuel wood plantations established on boundaries in areas of high population.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes of valley heads. Productive zone: Following regeneration of Mvule, Mkangazi, and Mninga; and establishment of building pole and fuelwood plots. Biodiversity zone: Following further survey on existence of Red Colobus and location of species rich riverine forest areas.

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NGURU YA NDEGE Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Proposal GN 487 of 23/2/62, gazettement not yet finalized. (this must have changed with the later survey)
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 2077 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical map : 183/1
Gazetted area : 94 367 acres (2407 ha), 3614 ha on Jb 2077
Gazetted boundary length : 25 km on Jb 2077
LOCATION: 6_ 41′ – 6_ 44′ S 37_ 35′ – 37_ 37′ E

10-15 km from Morogoro. Access is from the Morogoro to Dodoma road. The reserve covers the slopes and ridges of a isolated hill north of the Uluguru mountains on the west side of the Morogoro to Dodoma road from 700 to 1357 m.

SOILS:

Shallow lithosols are formed on the upper slopes and ferralitic latosols on the lower slopes under woodland. At the base of the hill, where sandy alluvial deposits are widespread, arenosols cover large area. The parent rocks are Precambrian muscovite-biotite migmatites and hornblende gneisses.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kingolwira Prison and Morogoro. Estimated rainfall: 850 mm/year over woodland; 1500-1800 mm/year with a mist effect over forest. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 25_C max (Dec.), 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Woodland is the main vegetation type on all slopes and covers about 60% of the reserve area. On the summit submontane forest occurs. On the foot of the hill, around the 600 m contour line, remnants of once more widespread rich dry semi-evergreen forests occur. The steep rock towers and cliffs bear an interesting vegetation rich in endemics.

Woodland: Canopy 7-25 m tall, dominated by Brachystegia microphylla, B. boehmii and Julbernardia globiflora. Other trees include: Albizia harveyi, A. versicolor, Brachystegia spiciformis, Dalbergiella nyasae, Parinari curatellifolia, Pericopsis angolensis, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia africana, S. quinqueloba and Xeroderris stuhlmannii. The shrub layer contains: Ozoroa reticulata, Heteromorpha arborea, Steganotenia araliacea and Pavetta crassipes. On both south west ridges between 800 and 1100 m there are stands of Monotes elegans. Above 800 m on east facing slopes there is a mist effect and rainforest epiphytes occur on the branches of the woodland trees, for example: Polystachya isochiloides, Oberonia disticha, Peperomia spp. and Lycopodium spp, Belvisia spicata, Drynaria laurentii and many bryophytes.

Submontane forest: Dominated by Newtonia buchannanii with Cassipourea gummiflua and Antidesma venosum. The forest goes down the northern valley where it is dominated by Albizia gummifera and Bequaertiodendron natalense with Canthium guenzei, Phoenix reclinata, Crassocephalum mannii and a Diospyros species.

Dry forest: With Afzelia quanzensis, Commiphora madagascariensis, Obetia radula and Euphorbia candelabrum in the canopy and with many other succulents in the lower strata.

Rocks and cliffs: On the cliffs Coleochate microcephala forms a community, while on the rock summits Aloe morogoroensis is dominant. At the edge of rock and forest Lobelia morogoroensis occurs in two places.

TIMBER VALUE:

Newtonia buchananii in the summit forest, Brachystegia spp., Monotes elegans and Pterocarpus angolensis in the woodland and Afzelia quanzensis in the dry forests.

BIODIVERSITY:

The Monotes elegans stand has a high seed production every year and so could be important in seed production and breeding of this prospective timber species. The many endemics of the huge rock faces have high genetic and conservational value.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Only very local with no permanent watercourses, though there will be a contribution to groundwater.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Fires occur every year on the slopes, pushing back the edge of closed forest. The north west slope of the summit is already completely deforested. The fires also damage many trees in the woodland. The lower slopes are being deforested for charcoal making. There is encroachment near villages.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary marking and planting is needed to stop encroachment. Patrolling needed to stop illegal logging and unnecessary burning. Fire control is needed to allow regeneration of the forest and woodlands. Woodlots should be planted on the lower slopes to provide fuelwood and building poles to the local villages and for charcoal production. Enrichment planting with Mninga should be carried out in the woodlands.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and ridge tops. Biodiversity zone: Vegetation of the rock faces. A Monotes elegans stand. Productive zone: Woodlots on lower slopes. Woodlands following enrichment planting.

LITERATURE:

Pócs, T. 1976. Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24: 477-498 + 1 map.

Pócs, T. 1976. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains Tanzania, East Africa) II. Correlations between orography, climate and vegetation. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

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NYANDIDUMA Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 132 p 1358
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 647 (1:5000) 1967
Topographical map : 201/1
Gazetted area : 118 acres (48 ha), 140 acres on Jb 647
Gazetted boundary length : 27 809 ft (8.5 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 06′ S 37_ 34′ E

8 km from Mgeta. Access is from Mgeta via Nyandira on the Luwale road which forms the upper boundary. The reserve is on a steep east facing slope above the Mbakama river covering an altitude of 1500 to 1600 m. There is a 14.6 ha (36 acre) enclave of public land.

SOILS:

Sandy brown loams over crystalline gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tchenzema Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1300 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature range: 20_C max (Dec.), 15_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Much of the reserve is a Cupressus sp. plantation with some Acacia melanoxylon, Podocarpus sp. and possibly Widdringtonia sp. Small patches of indigenous much disturbed secondary montane forest occur.

Secondary montane forest: Albizia gummifera trees up to 10 m tall over 2-3 m tall scrub. Trees include: Albizia gummifera, Cussonia spicata, Draceana steudneri, Ensete ventricosa, Halleria lucida, Millettia oblata, Myrianthus holstii, Trema orientalis.

TIMBER VALUES:

The planted Cupressus sp. is currently being logged.

BIODIVERSITY:

The reserve has no indigenous biodiversity values, but the planted Podocarpus sp. and other species might be useful seed sources.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve has limited catchment values, but does serve to protect some steep slopes from erosion.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is mostly a plantation. Although still rather small, the Cupressus sp. is being harvested by the village because it is infected by pests. 6000 seedlings of Grevillea robusta, Cupressus sp. and Black Wattle have just been planted in the tuangya system. Albizia gummifera poles are cut for building. Goats are grazed in the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The reserve is currently being managed by the District authorities. Most of the upper boundary is marked by a road, but the rest needs to be surveyed and marked. Replanting of timber trees on the reserve should continue, though it may be useful to work out a long term planting and harvesting plan and consider planting some indigenous and multipurpose trees in addition to Grevillea robusta and Cupressus sp. For example the trial plots established in the 1950’s could be extended. There is a nursery within walking distance of the reserve which is being used to restock the plantations. There is an old foresters house on the reserve which still has good walls but lacks a roof. This could be rehabilitated for a forest attendant.

LITERATURE: None known.

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RUVU Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1955
Declaration : GN 200 of 3/6/55
Variation order : Initiated in 1982 (Jb 2065) but not yet legally finalized
Border map : Jb 225, Jb 2065 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical map : 183/4, 201/2
Gazetted area : 7644 acres (3093 ha), 2983 ha on Jb 2065
Gazetted boundary length : 29 km on Jb 2065
LOCATION: 6_ 53′ – 7_ 02′ S 37_ 49′ – 37_ 54′ E

Access is from the Mkuyuni to Matombo road. The reserve is in the eastern Uluguru mountain foothills, covering a plateau on either sides of the Ruvu River gorge at an altitude of to 200 to 480 m.

SOILS:

Tropical rendzina on dolomitic marble (in the western half) and red ferralitic latosols on Precambrian granulite and gneiss (in the eastern half).

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kibungo. Estimated rainfall: 1800 mm/year on the western edge with peaks in Dec. and May, decreasing rapidly eastwards. Dry season: July to Sept. on the western edge, longer in the east of the reserve. Temperature: 28_C max (Dec.), 23_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The western half of the reserve is covered with seasonal lowland forest similar to that of Kimboza FR, but with fewer species.

Lowland forest: Canopy trees include: Albizia gummifera, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Milicia excelsa, Parkia filicoidea, with Barringtonia racemosa on the stream bank. Smaller trees include: Scorodophloeus fischeri with Acridocarpus cf. scheffleri, Meineckia fruticans, Pycnocoma macrantha, Rawsonia reticulata, Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Diospyros sp. Shrubs include: Dorstenia cameruniae and Psychotria cf. riparia.

TIMBER VALUE:

Mkungazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Albizia gummifera occur in exploitable amounts.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc and Coastal forest type and so will be rich in species of restricted distribution. An Eastern Arc endemic is Pycnocoma macrantha. Rawsonia reticulata occurs here below its normal altitudinal range. Ruvu Forest Reserve might be an important link in the chain of coastal lowland forests.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The area protects the banks of the Ruvu river, and is part of the catchment. The Ruvu River supplies Dar es Salaam with water.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The most serious disturbance in the forest is caused by ruby mining as the reserve is one of the most important localities for this gemstone in Tanzania. Licensed mining causes much damage, but is restricted to a licensed area. Unlicensed mining is carried out in many places in the reserve, the soil cover removed and the whole area much disturbed by the digging. Encroachment for small scale farming and fire also causes damage near the villages of Kibungo and Kibangile.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Proper boundary planting and regular patrolling is essential. Due to the gemstone mining business much stronger guarding is necessary.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes and stream banks. Biodiversity zone: To cover and area determined by survey. Productive zone: For licensed mining. Timber extraction.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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SHIKURUFUMI Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1948 or 1937 see cap 132
Declaration : GN 216 of 1948, GN 128 of 1937
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 44 (1:3960) 1937, traced 1956
Topographical map : 201/1
Gazetted area : 642 acres (260 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 29 753 ft (9.1 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 09′ – 7_ 11′ S 37_ 31′ E

20 km from Mgeta. Access is from Mgeta through Langali, Nyandira, Kibuko, Luale to Kidege. The road to the reserve is in poor condition, but the road to Kikeo mission passing through the reserve is in quite good condition and not under heavy pressure.

SOILS:

Sandy brown loams over gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kibuko Coffee Plantation. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature range: 22_C max (Dec.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly covered by submontane forest, part of which appears to be old secondary growth. The edges of the forest are scrubby regeneration and are probably influenced by fire. In the centre of the reserve is a clearing which may be edaphic or the site of an old village and is now influenced by fire. On the southern edge there is a Eucalyptus sp. plantation.

Submontane forest: Old secondary areas on the top of the ridge have a fairly open canopy 15-20 m high dominated by Macaranga kilimandscharica with: Alangium chinense, Albizia gummifera, Bridelia micrantha, Cussonia spicata, Harungana madascariensis, Polyscias fulva, Trema orientalis. Aframomum sp. dominates the herb layer. On more sheltered slopes, more mature areas of forest have a closed canopy 25-30 m high with: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Entandrophragma excelsum, Macaranga capensis, Myrianthus holstii, Newtonia buchananii, Odyendea zimmermannii, Parinari excelsa, Strombosia scheffleri, Trichoscypha madagascariensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis. On the forest edge, scrubby regeneration includes: Bersama abyssinica, Catha edulis, Cussonia spicata, Macaranga kilimandscharica. The clearing in the forest is covered by bracken with occasional Agauria salicifolia and Myrica salicifolia trees.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Shikurufumi stream originates in the reserve and flows through Lukungule village to Mbakana river through Kikeo mission. On the north east side water is taken from the forest via irrigation channels to Kododo Kitongoji Bomo.

TIMBER VALUES:

Timber values are low. The only Entandrophragma excelsum seen were moribund, and there were few Newtonia buchananii. The Eucalyptus sp. plantation contains many large trees.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and so potentially rich in species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

On the ridge tops the forest appears to be in an old secondary successional stage, and the central clearing in the reserve may be the result of former inhabitation. Local people do not remember cultivation or habitation within the reserve and disturbance may date back several hundred years.

The road to Kikeo mission (the Kibuko to Mkinha road as mentioned in the schedule) passes through the reserve, but is no longer used by motor vehicles. Formerly there was a mica mine and small farm on the southern edge of the reserve and this area is still cultivated by local people.

There is some cutting for firewood and building poles but this is not extensive. Eucalyptus sp. poles are taken for building from regeneration in the Eucalyptus sp. plantation. Medicine is taken from the reserve, notably bark from Entandrophragma excelsum and Myrica salicifolia trees.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

No encroachment was seen or reported, but the boundary needs to be cleared and planted. Fire control is needed on the forest edge and in the central clearing. Old secondary areas could be planted with species of commercial value, notably Ocotea usambarensis. In more mature forest enrichment planting with Entandrophragma excelsum should be considered. Firewood and building pole woodlots should be established on the boundary. As part of the important Uluguru mountain catchment, no exploitation should be permitted.

Proposed management zones: Catchment zone: On the steeper slopes, streamsides and upper catchment. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey, but likely to cover best developed forest along streams. Productive zone: Fuelwood and building pole plantations on the boundary.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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ULUGURU NORTH Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration :
Variation order : GN 219 of 23/6/61, GN 578 of 22/11/63
Border map : Jb 536 (1:50 000) 1986 (the survey for this map must have been much earlier as the data is in feet)
Topographical maps : 183/3, 201/1
Gazetted area : 20 649 acres (8356 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 223 628 ft (68 km)
LOCATION: 6_ 51′ – 7_ 01′ S 37_ 37′ – 37_ 45′ E

6 km from Morogoro. Access is from the Morogoro to Morningside road on the western side, and Tegetero on the eastern side. The reserve covers the steep summit ridge and easterly slopes of the northern half of Uluguru Mountains between Morogoro town and the Mgeta – Bunduki depression, within an altitudinal range of 1000 and 2340 m. From north east to south west the main summits are: Lupanga (2138m), Kinazi (2150m), Bondwa (2120m), Nziwane (2270m), Magari (2340m), Miwa (1900m), Mnyanza (2140m) and Kifuru (2010m).

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols and ferralitic red, yellow and brown latosols have developed over Precambrian granulite, gneiss and migmatite rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Kinole Primary School, Morningside Farm, Tegetero Mission. Estimated rainfall: 1200-3100 mm/year on the western slopes, 2900-4000 mm/year on the eastern slopes. Dry season: Not marked. Temperatures: 22_C max (Dec.), 17_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

With the exception of rock outcrops, the reserve is entirely covered in moist forest. Submontane forest occurs on the eastern slopes between 800 and 1500 m above sea level, with the best stands above Kinole and Tegetero villages. On the western slopes this forest type is restricted to valley bottoms near to the lower edge of the forest reserve. Montane forest occurs between 1500 and 1900 m altitude. Upper montane forest occurs above 1900 m altitude on wetter slopes and ridges in the cloud belt, with stunted elfin forest on the highest ridges. Landslips occur.

Submontane forest: Canopy 30-50 m tall with: Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Anthocleista grandiflora, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Funtumia africana, Myrianthus holstii, Sapium ellipticum, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum. Trees and shrubs include: Chlamydostachya spectabilis, Lagynias pallidiflora, Micrococca holstii, Psychotria spp. and Pavetta spp, Pseuderanthemum campylosiphon, Memecylon cognauxii and M. myrtilloides, Mesogyne insignis, Micrococca holstii, Oxyanthus speciosus, Peddiea fischeri and P. subcordata. Commelinaceae subshrubs include: Palisota orientalis, Pollia condensata and P. bracteata. Herbs include: the Zingiberaceae, Aframomum spp. and Renealmia engleri with broad leaved grasses such as Leptaspis cocleata. On shady cliffs the large Antrophium mannianum fern is typical, and a common canopy epiphyte is the giant nest fern, Asplenium nidus. In drier areas on the lower edge of the forest, usually below 1000 m, a semi-evergreen submontane forest type also occurs, dominated by Albizia gummifera and Milicia excelsa.

Montane forest: The canopy is much less complex than in the previous type and usually consists of a single layer of 15-30 m tall trees. The dominant species are: Bridelia brideliifolia, Cornus volkensii, Cussonia spicata, Ficalhoa laurifolia, Ocotea usambarensis, Podocarpus latifolius, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum and Zenkerella capparidacea. Shrubs include: Chassalia parviflora, C. violacea, Lasiodiscus usambarensis, Galineria coffeoides, Erythrococca usambarica, Euphorbia usambarica, Memecylon myrtilloides, Mostuea brunonis, Psychotria spp. and Pavetta spp, and along streamlets large stands of the treefern Cyathea manniana occur. There are many epiphytic ferns and even in the ground layer ferns are the dominants, for example: Asplenium hypomelas, Blotiella stipitata, Ctenitis lanuginosa, Diplazium pseudoporrectum. On drier slopes and ridges a drier type of montane forests occurs with Olea mildbraedii and Cussonia lukwangulensis in the canopy, and Blechnum ivohibense and P. punctulatum and Gleichenia species in the herb layer.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 15-20 m tall with: Allanblackia ulugurensis, Balthasaria schliebenii, Podocarpus latifolius, P. ensiculus, Rapanea melanophloeos, Rauvolfia volkensii, Schefflera myriantha and S. barteri. Epiphytes include the endemic orchids Stolzia spp. The trees and forest floor are thickly covered by bryophytes, which contribute to the catchment value. Shrubs include: Lasianthus spp. of which 8 are endemic, and the tree ferns, Cyathea manniana, the subendemic C. pumila and the endemic C. fadenii and C. schliebenii. On the mossy ground several endemic Impatiens spp. (like I. uluguruensis), Cincinnobotrys oreophila, endemic Linnaeopsis spp. and Streptocarpus spp. (like S. bullatus) are typical. Elfin forests cover the highest summits and sharp ridges above 2100 m (but at windy, misty habitat sometimes down to about 1800 m altitude), where the shallow soil is completely leached and peaty. The canopy is 2-6 m tall with: Agauria salicifolia, Allanblackia uluguruensis, Balthasaria schliebenii, Cussonia lukwangulensis, Garcinia volkensii, Podocarpus ensiculus, P. latifolius, Syzygium cordatum, Ternstroemia polypetala, Polyscias stuhlmannii and Lobelia lukwangulensis. The trees form a tight, dense canopy, with masses of bryophytes and tiny, endemic orchids, like Tridactyle brevifolia. Dwarf shrubs, like the monotypic endemic Dionychastrum schliebenii (on Magari peak), the endemic Stapfiella ulugurica and Streptocarpus hirsutissimus (on Lupanga peak), also occur in this habitat. Bamboo (Sinarundinaria alpina) thickets occur in the elfin forest on the sharp north ridge of Magari peak.

TIMBER VALUE:

Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Ocotea usambarensis, Newtonia buchananii, and Podocarpus spp. occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. More than 40 endemic species of woody plant are recorded from the Uluguru mountains. The genera of Impatiens, Lasianthus, Linnaeopsis and Stolzia contain many endemics and monotypic endemics and near endemics are; Chlamydostachya spectabilis, Dionychastrum schliebenii, Sooia macrantha and Urogentias ulugurica. The Uluguru mountains have three endemic or subendemic giant Lobelia species: L. morogoroensis in submontane forest, L. longisepala in montane forest and L. lukwangulensis in upper montane forest. There are many subendemic species which also occur in the Usambara or Nguru mountains.

CATCHMENT VALUES

The catchment value is very high as the area has one of the highest rainfalls in Tanzania without a marked dry season. On eastern side the reserve is part of the Ruvu river catchment, and supplies Dar es Salaam with water. On the western side it supplies Morogoro town and villages on the mountain slopes.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The area adjacent to the reserve is intensively cultivated. Although the forest boundaries are well marked and seemingly intact, many encroachments occur and illegal logging takes place. Pole collecting for building purposes has resulted in most regeneration being removed from areas near the edge of the reserve. Heavy rains have caused serious landslides several times in the area. Fires lit at the end of the dry season cause serious damage every year in the forest reserve. The steep slopes result in the fires spreading rapidly in dry bush and grasslands neighbouring the forest. The area most affected are the slopes of Lupanga above Morogoro town.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The number of forest guards should be increased and proper patrolling of the forest is essential. To meet the local need for building poles and firewood, agroforestry should be encouraged and plantations establishing on the slopes. This should also increase catchment capacity and control erosion.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes and ridges. Biodiversity zone: To cover the forest and ridges.

LITERATURE:

Jackson, I.J. 1970. Rainfall over the Ruvu Basin and surrounding area. BRALUP Report, Dar es Salaam, lithogr;, 11 pages + 20 maps.

Pócs, T. 1974. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa) I. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20: 115-135.

Pócs, T. 1976a. Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24: 477-498+ 1 map.

Pócs, T. 1976b. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa) II. Correlations between orography, climate and vegetation. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

Pócs, T. 1980. The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 26: 143-167.

Polhill, R.M. 1968. Tanzania. In Hedberg, I.& O.(Eds.): Conservation of Vegetation in Africa South of the Sahara. Acta Phytogeogr. Suecica 54: 166-178.

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ULUGURU SOUTH Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 219 of 23/6/61
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 579, Jb 585 (1:50 000) 1963
Topographical maps : 201/1
Gazetted area : 42 731 acres (17 293 ha), 40 594 ha on Jb 585
Gazetted boundary length : 360 490 ft (36.6 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 01′ – 7_ 12′ S 37_ 36′ – 37_ 45′ E

10 km from Morogoro, 5 km from Mgeta. Access is from Mgeta via Tchenzema. The reserve covers the southern half of the Uluguru mountains from about 1200 m upwards on the east and from 1800 m on the western slopes to the summits of Makumbaku (2420m), Kimhandu (2638m) and Lukwangule Peak (2634m). The 20 km2 Lukwangule Plateau lies between two parallel north – south ridges at an altitude of over 2300 m.

SOILS:

A wide range of acidic lithosols and ferralitic red, yellow and brown latosols have developed on Precambrian granulite, gneiss and migmatite rocks. A large area of the Lukwangule Plateau is covered by peat deposits.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Bunduki Kibungo mission, Tchenzema Mission. Estimated rainfall: 2500-4000 mm/year on the eastern slopes and summit to 2000 mm/ year on the western slopes. Dry season: On the eastern slopes there is no marked dry season, on the western slopes there is a dry season of from June – July. Temperature: 20_C max (Dec.), 15_C min (July) at lower altitudes. On the Lukwangule plateau frosts are common on clear nights during the cool season (measured down to -7_C).

VEGETATION

The eastern and western slopes are covered by moist forest, which surrounds the upland grassland, swamps and forest patches of the Lukwangule plateau. Montane forest occurs from 1500-2400 m, and upper montane forest above 2000 m. Bamboo thickets cover large areas in the upper Mgeta valley and on Kimhandu summit, usually above 2000 m, but also as low as 1600 m in the Mgeta River Valley above Hululu Falls. Landslips occur.

Montane forest. No data, but presumably similar to Uluguru North montane forest.

Upper montane forest: Canopy 10-15 m tall. Trees on the eastern side include: Bersama abyssinica, Cassipourea malosana, Cornus volkensii, Cussonia lukwangulensis, C. spicata, Dombeya torrida, Draceana afromontana, Garcinia volkensii, Halleria lucida, Podocarpus latifolius, Rapanea melanophloeos, Maesa lanceolata, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Nuxia congesta, Ocotea usambarensis, Polyscias stuhlmannii and Xymalos monospora. . Bamboo thickets form dense stands of Sinarundinaria alpina 12-15 m tall and 15 cm diameter, with the commonest species in the ground flora being Selaginella kraussiana.

Grasslands and tree clumps: Grasslands on the Lukwangule plateau consisting of Panicum lukwangulense and Andropogon thystinus with scattered trees of Agauria saliciflora, Adenocarpus mannii, Myrica salicifolia and Berberis sp. are thought to have replaced upper montane forest following fire. Forest patches contain the trees: Apodytes dimidiata, Cussonia lukwangulensis, Ochna oxyphylla, Olea capensis, Pittosporum goetzei, Syzygium cordatum, S. parvulum; and the giant herb Lobelia lukwangulensis. At the Ruvu river springs, peat bogs formed by Sphagnum spp, Eriocaulon schimperi and Pycreus nigricans occur. In boggy places afroalpine species, such as Ranunculus oreophytus and Alchemilla johnstonnii occur.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The catchment value of the reserve is extremely high. It covers one of the highest rainfall areas in Tanzania, feeding the Ruvu river which supplies Dar es Salaam. The locally important Mgeta river also originates in the reserve.

TIMBER VALUE:

East African Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) and Podo (Podocarpus spp.) occur, but no valuable timber trees occur in exploitable amounts. There are large stands of the African mountain bamboo (Sinarundinaria alpina).

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. The Uluguru mountain forests contain more than 40 endemic woody species, and they are particularly rich in endemic species of the genera; Impatiens, Lasianthus, Linnaeopsis and Stolzia. Monotypic endemics are; Dionychastrum schliebenii and Sooia macrantha. Moraea callista occurs on the Lukwangule plateau. The wetter eastern part of the reserve is not known botanically and is likely to contain many species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is surrounded by cultivation. The Mgeta valley is an important agriculture area producing vegetables which supply Morogoro and Dar es Salaam, the slopes above Tchenzema are cultivated up to 2000 m altitude. Building poles are intensively collected in areas adjacent to cultivation. Encroachment is common and logging is carried out. Heavy rainfall on steep deforested slopes has resulted in serious landslips.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS

On the western side the boundary is well marked by Cupressus and Eucalyptus. Planting and clearing of the boundary is continuing. Proper patrolling of the forest is essential. To meet local needs for building poles and firewood, agroforestry should be encouraged and woodlots established on the slopes. This should also increase catchment capacity and to control erosion. Successful agroforestry is currently practised near Bunduki and Tchenzema villages.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: To cover the steeper slopes and Lukwangule plateau. Biodiversity zone: To cover the forest.

LITERATURE:

Jackson, I.J. 1970. Rainfall over the Ruvu Basin and surrounding area. BRALUP Report, Dar es Salaam, lithogr;, 11 pages + 20 maps.

Pócs, T. 1974. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa) I. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20: 115-135.

Pócs, T. 1976a. Vegetation mapping in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Boissiera 24: 477-498+ 1 map.

Pócs, T. 1976b. Bioclimatic studies in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa) II. Correlations between orography, climate and vegetation. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 22: 163-183.

Pócs, T. 1980. The epiphytic biomass and its effect on the water balance of two rain forest types in the Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania, East Africa). Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 26: 143-167.

Polhill, R.M. 1968. Tanzania. In Hedberg, I.& O.(Eds.): Conservation of Vegetation in Africa South of the Sahara. Acta Phytogeogr. Suecica 54: 166-178.

Temple, P.H. & A.Rapp 1972. Landslides in the Mgeta area, Western Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Geomorphological effects of sudden heavy rainfall. In Rapp, A., L. Berry, P. Temple (Eds.): Studies of soil erosion and sedimentation in Tanzania. BRALUP, Dar es Salaam. Dept. Phys. Geogr. Uppsala: 157-193.

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VIGOZA Catchment Forest Description

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Morogoro Division
Year of establishment : 1947
Declaration : Cap. 132 P 1256 of 1947
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 681 (1:2500) 1968
Topographical map : 201/1
Gazetted area : 23 acres (9 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 5487 ft (1.7 km)
LOCATION: 7_ 06′ S 37_ 35′ E

12 km from Mgeta. Access from Mgeta to Nyandira and then to Tchenzema and by foot on the old road to the mission. The reserve covers a slope above the Vigoza river from an altitude of 1700 m.

SOILS:

Sandy brown loams over gneiss.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Tchenzema. Estimated rainfall: 1200 mm/year. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperature range: 20_C max (Dec.), 15_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve was formerly a Cupressus plantation which was harvested and is now a vegetable garden. There is a Polyscias fulva tree still standing in the reserve.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is bounded by the Vigoza river on the north west side and the Mhongolo river on the south side. Reforestation would help control runoff and soil erosion into these rivers.

TIMBER VALUES:

None.

BIODIVERSITY:

None.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is a cultivated field. The Mgeta to Tchenzema road traverses the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary of the reserve is marked with Cupressus sp. There is an old foresters house in the middle of the reserve which could be used by a forest attendant.

The reserve should be planted with a mixture of Grevillea robusta and Pinus spp. for timber, and Black Wattle for fuelwood, charcoal and building poles.

Proposed zonation: Productive zone.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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DUNDUMA Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration :
Variation :
Border map : Jb 594 (1:10 000) 1964
Topographical map : 166/1
Gazetted area : 130 acres (53 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 9533 ft (2.9 km)
LOCATION: 6_ 10′ S 37_ 37′ E

2 km from Turiani. Access is from Kilimanjaro village just north of Turiani on the Kisara road. The reserve covers a small area of level ground surrounded by cultivation at an altitude of 360 m.

SOILS:

Seasonally inundated.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperature. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1200 mm/year with groundwater. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 27_C max (Feb.), 22_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is a small area of much disturbed lowland groundwater forest edged by fire maintained wooded grassland.

Lowland forest: Broken open canopy to 20-30 m tall with tangled shrub layer to 10 m. The dominant tree is Antiaris toxicaria, with Parkia filicoidea and Grewia sp.

Woodland: Scattered trees to 3 m tall in 2 m tall grass.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is reported to have been abundant, but stocks are now exhausted. Antiaris toxicaria is common. Some Cedrela sp. was planted in 1983 and is doing well.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest should be of the Eastern Arc type, and although much disturbed, may contain species of restricted distribution.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

None.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is reported to have been formerly logged for Mvule. Currently it is utilized as a source of firewood and building poles as there is no other source nearby. Fire occurs every year at the forest edge.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary on the north side was planted in 1981 with Grevillea robusta and Cassia sp. to prevent encroachment. On the east side adjacent to a private sugar plantation the boundary is marked by a fire break and teak planting carried out. The rest of the boundary still needs to be cleared and planted.

Mvule needs to be regenerated and enrichment planting done in the forest. Fire needs to be controlled on the forest edge, and the fire maintained grassland planted with suitable species such as teak and Cedrela sp. for building poles and firewood.

Proposed zones: Biodiversity zone: May or may not be needed following a survey. Productive zone: Regeneration of Mvule.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KANGA Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 410 of 3/12/54
Variation order : None, is there one?
Border map : Jb 208, ?Jb 1059, Jb 2138 (1:25 000) 1988
Topographical maps : 147/3, 166/1
Gazetted area : 16 467 acres (6664 ha). Area on Jb 2 138 is 11 040 ha, has this area changed with variation order?
Gazetted boundary length : 47 km (Jb 2138)
LOCATION: 5_ 53′ – 6_ 03′ S 37_ 40′ – 37_ 45′ E

25 km from Turiani. Access is from the Turiani to Handeni road near Kanga village. The reserve covers a steep rocky hill with three peaks north of the main Nguru range from an altitude of 500 m to 2019 m.

SOILS:

Acidic lithosols, ferralitic latosols, with deeper fluvisols at the base, over Precambrian crystalline gneisses, graniolite and migmatite.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1500-2000 mm/year with groundwater at the base and mist on the higher parts. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperatures: 26_C max (Feb.), 22_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by a wide range of forest types on the wetter eastern side from lowland through submontane, montane to upper montane forest. There is a short heath on the summit, and large rock outcrops on the steeper slopes. Woodland occurs in the drier areas in the foothills and on the western side from 380 to 600 m. Buffalo are reported from the western side.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m tall with: Annona senegalensis, Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla, B. spiciformis, Diplorhyncus condylocarpon, Julbernardia globiflora, Kigelia africana, Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia appendiculata and Stereospermum kunthianum. Along watercourses riverine and groundwater forests occur with Sterculia appendiculata, Ficus exasperata, Monanthotaxis trichocarpa, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Ricinodendron heudelotii and Ziziphus pubescens. The ground layer is dominated by Aframomum angustifolium and Olyra latifolia.

Lowland forest. From 500 to 800 m, canopy 25 m with emergents to 35 m. Trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Antiaris toxicaria, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cola greenwayii, C. stelecantha, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Parinari excelsa, Parkia filicoidea, Sapium ellipticum, Scorodophloeus fisheri, Terminalia sambesiaca, Euphorbia candlabrum and E. quadrialata (both tree size up to 20 m), Tabernaemontana pachysiphon and Erythrina sacleuxii. In the lower canopy Dracaena deremensis, Garcinia buchananii, Pandanus engleri and Harungana madagascariensis occur with Schlechterina mitostemmatoides, Nephrolepis biserrata, Phymatodes scolopendria and Hilleria sp. in the ground layer.

Submontane forests: From 750 to 1300 m. Canopy 30-35 m. With: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Leptonychia usambarensis, Myrianthus holstii, Macaranga capensis, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa and Strombosia scheffleri. On rocky ridges and boulders between 1000 to 1300 m on the eastern and southern ridges, an evergreen rock forest occurs with a cycad, Drypetes reticulata, Ficus sur, Xymalos monospora and on the shady cliffs, African violets, Saintpaulia brevipilosa (endemic to the Nguru mountains) with S. nitida.

Montane forests: From 1300 to 2000 m. With: Agauria salicifolia, Aphloia theiformis, Cryptocarya liebertiana, Ilex mitis, Maesa lanceolata, Myrica salicifolia, Nuxia congesta, Ocotea usambarensis, Parinari excelsa, Schefflera goetzenii, Podocarpus milanjianus, Polyscias stuhlamnnii and Rapanea melanophloeos. On the summit the forest trees are covered in moss and the canopy is 5-10 m tall with: Allanblackia ulugurensis, Cussonia lukwangulensis, Garcinia volkensii and Syzygium cordatum. On the huge cliffs forming the south face of the main summit the rocks are covered either by a heathlike bush of the 3 m tall Xerophyta spekei with the creeping orchid Neobenthamia gracilis; or large clumps of Aloè schliebenii with Pentas longituba and Urogentias ulugurica. Peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) also occurs on the rocks, indicating a moist environment.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is part of the Wami river catchment and supplies water to the Mtibwa Teak Project and the densely populated area between Mtibwa and Mziha along the Handeni to Turiani road. The Mziha river flows from the northern side, the Mkowongelo and Mtomkulu rivers from the eastern side, and the Lusonge river from the western side.

TIMBER VALUES:

A number of valuable timber trees occur in Kanga Forest Reserve, though none occur in quantity. For example; in woodland: Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis), in lowland forest: Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and in montane forest: Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis), Mbokoboko (Entandrophragma excelsum) and Podo (Podocarpus sp.). More common low grade timbers include Brachystegia spp. and Newtonia buchananii.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. Similar to other parts of the Nguru Mountains, Kanga FR is very rich in endemic and rare species, especially the submontane forest and the steep rocky slopes and cliffs below the summits. For example, Aloè schliebenii, Encephalartos kanga, Memecylon verruculosum, Saintpaulia brevipilosa, Lobelia morogoroènsis, Neobenthamia gracilis, Streptocarpus hirsutissimus, and Urogentias ulugurica.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forests are relatively undisturbed in comparison to the nearby Nguru South FR, probably due to traditional cultural values which restrict access. Near to Kanga village there is intact forest where only minimal palm leaf and wood collecting was observed. Phoenix reclinata leaves are used to thatch houses.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The borders need to be cleared and planted. The cultural importance of the forest, together with a high biodiversity and catchment value suggest that exploitation should be restricted to gathering of forest products for local use. Woodlots for fuel wood, building poles and thatching should be planted along the borders and in the villages.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes and along rivers. Biodiversity zone: To cover the whole reserve, though gathering of minor forest products should be permitted.

LITERATURE:

Chamshama, S.A.O., Nsolomo, V.N. and Persson, A. 1990. Human impact on the forest vegetation of Nguru Mountains. Pp 150-154 in I. Hedberg and E. Persson (editors), Research for Conservation of Catchment Forests. Proceedings of a workshop held in Morogoro, Tanzania March 13-17, 1989. Uppsala.

Lovett, J.C. and Thomas, D.W. 1988. Report on a visit to Kanga Mountain, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 18/2: 19-22.

Pócs, T., R.P.C. Temu and T.R.A. Minja 1990. Survey of the natural vegetation and flora of the Nguru Mountains. Pp 135-149 in I. Hedberg and E. Persson (editors), Research for Conservation of Catchment Forests. Proceedings of a workshop held in Morogoro, Tanzania March 13-17, 1989. Uppsala.

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MAFLETA Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration :
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 103 (1:10 000) 1904, renumbered Jb 1584, retraced 1955
Topographical map : 166/1
Gazetted area : 1026 ha
Gazetted boundary length : No schedule, estimated 12 km
LOCATION: 6_ 10′ S 37_ 43′ E

25 km from Turiani. Access is from Kidudwe from Mtibwa sugar plantation. The reserve covers a swampy area and patches of woodland on level ground north west of Kidudwe Hill at an altitude of 360 m. The reserve is incorrectly positioned on map sheet 166/2.

SOILS:

Seasonally inundated in swampy valleys and sandy brown loams under woodland.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1000 mm/year. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 27_C max (Feb.), 22_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Seasonally inundated grassland is now replaced by rice farms. Some woodland still exists with: Acacia sp., Balanites aegyptica, Combretum spp., Lonchocarpus sp. and Tamarindus indica, but most has been replaced by cultivation.

TIMBER VALUES:

None.

BIODIVERSITY:

Low.

CATCHMENT VALUES.

None.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve has largely been replaced by cultivation as a result of resettlement of villagers moved from the area now occupied by Mtibwa sugar plantation.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSAL:

Local villagers reported that the reserve was marked by direction trenches. The reserve was allocated for resettlement of villagers by the District authorities following establishment of sugar plantations, effectively revoking the reserve. It is difficult to see why the area was reserved initially, possibly there were some stands of Mninga. More likely the boggy areas made it quite a good spot for hunting in 1904 when the border map was drawn.

Proposed zones: None, the reserve should be legally revoked.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAGOTWE Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 2137 (1:10 000) 1988
Topographical map : 166/1
Gazetted area : 709 ha
Boundary length : 15 km
LOCATION: 6_ 02′ S 37_ 39′ E

16 km from Turiani. Access is from the Turiani to Kibati road. The reserve lies in the valley and undulating hilly ground between the southern Nguru mountains and Kanga mountain at an altitude of 500 m.

SOILS:

Areas of seasonally inundated ground in the valleys and well drained sandy brown loams over crystalline gneiss on the hills.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/year with ground water in the valleys. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 26_C max (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

In the valleys groundwater gives rise to the development of lowland forest, whereas on the hills the forest is dry lowland forest.

Lowland forest: Broken canopy 20-30 m with emergent Sterculia appendiculata to 40 m. Trees include: Drypetes natalensis, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Celtis sp., Malacantha alnifolia, Pachystela brevipes, Parkia filicoidea, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Uvariodendron sp. and Ziziphus pubescens. Milicia excelsa and Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) are reported to occur.

Dry lowland forest: Canopy 15-20 m. Trees include: Antiaris toxicaria, Combretum schumannii, Scorodophleus fischeri and Tamarindus indica.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) were reported to occur but stocks are now exhausted.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc and Coastal forest type. Both types are rich in species of restricted distribution. The lowland groundwater forest in particular appears to contain some unusual species, for example a blue flowering Zingiber.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve protects rivers passing through the valley to the sugar estates east of the Nguru mountains.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Mvule and Mkangazi were extracted in the past. There are many paths in the forest and building poles are being cut. Parts of the reserve have been encroached for agriculture.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be cleared and marked. Recent planting of teak as a boundary marker was not successful.

Mvule and Mkangazi should be regenerated and planted. Building pole plantations should be established along the edge of the reserve adjacent to areas of cultivation.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: along the river banks on steeper slopes. Biodiversity zone: covering wetter valleys and adjacent slopes. Productive zone: for building poles along the edges of the reserve; for timber following regeneration of Mvule and Mkangazi.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MKINDO Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment : 1954
Declaration : GN 409 of 3/12/1954
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 212, Jb 2034 (1:25 000) 1980
Topographical map : 165/2, 165/4, 166/1, 166/3
Gazetted area : 18 635 acres (7451 ha), Jb 2034 gives 5244 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 33 km
LOCATION: 6_ 12′ – 6_ 16′ S 37_ 28′ – 37_ 34′ E

10 km from Mvomero, 12 km from Turiani. Access is from the Mvomero to Turiani road via Mkindo village on an old logging road which enters the reserve. The reserve covers the southern foothills of the Nguru mountains around the Mkindo river from an altitude of 380 to 800 m.

SOILS:

Sandy brown loams over gneissic basement rock with some areas of seasonal inundation and rock outcrops on the hills.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1500 mm/year with groundwater. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 26_C max (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is lowland and riverine forest with grassland clearings on level ground and along rivers, with woodland on the hills in drier areas. Mango trees indicate past cultivation.

Lowland and riverine forest: Broken to intact canopy 20-30 m tall with emergents (Sterculia appendiculata) to 40 m. Trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Albizia sp., Antiaris toxicaria, Anthocleista grandiflora, Breonadia salicina, Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica), Malacantha alnifolia, Milicia excelsa, Pachystela brevipes, Sterculia appendiculata, Trilepisium madagascariensis.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m, including: Anonna senegalensis, Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Combretum molle, Cussonia arborea, Pterocarpus angolensis.

TIMBER VALUES:

In the forest Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca (formerly K. nyasica) occur but are mostly already extracted. Antiaris toxicaria is dominant in places. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs in the woodland, but good trees have already been extracted.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so should contain species of restricted distribution. Lowland forests are mostly cleared, so this area is of biological interest.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the Mkindo river catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The presence of old Mango trees in the reserve indicate that it was formerly inhabitated. Areas of grassland within the forest may be relicts of fields. In the past Mvule and Mkangazi were harvested, and Mvule is still being extracted by pitsawing. There is some collection of firewood and building poles from the woodland, though this is not a great pressure as woodland still exists on public land on the edge of the reserve. Fire occurs every year in the woodlands.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The south east boundary is marked by teak, but needs clearing and gaps planting. In the lowland and riverine forest Mvule and Mkangazi regeneration needs to be encouraged and enrichment planting carried out; and areas of old cultivation could be planted with Mvule. In the woodlands fire needs to be controlled and regeneration and enrichment planting of Mninga carried out.

Pressure on the forest is currently low and villages are some distance away, but shifting cultivation is approaching the south east boundary. Building pole and firewood plantations need to be established along this boundary in anticipation of future pressure.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On the steeper hillsides and along the streams. Biodiversity zone: In a selected area of the lowland forest. Productive zone: In the lowland forest, woodlands and along the south east boundary.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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NGURU (SOUTH) Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : Cap 132, p 1357
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 84 (lost); Jb 1069 (1:50 000) 1955
Topographical maps : 165/2, 166/1
Gazetted area : 46 436 acres (18 797 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : No schedule
LOCATION: 6_ 01′ – 6_ 13′ S 37_ 26′ – 37_ 37′ E

6 km from Turiani. Access is from Turiani through Mhonda mission on the eastern side, or Maskati mission on the western side. The reserve covers the summit ridge and the eastern slopes of Nguru Mountains, north west of Turiani village, with an altitudinal range of 400 to 2400 m.

SOILS:

A wide range of acidic lithosols, ferralitic latosols, and in valleys deeper fluvisols, over Precambrian crystalline gneisses, graniolite and migmatites.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mhonda Mission, Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: On the eastern slopes, 2100 mm/year to 3000-4000 mm/year at 2000 m altitude; on the western slopes, 1000-2000 mm/year. Dry season: Not marked on the eastern side. Temperatures: Varies with altitude from 24_C to 12_C mean annual temperature.

VEGETATION:

The very dissected orography, with steep slopes, deep valleys, high summits, rocky cliffs, and wide range of climatic and soil conditions have resulted in a wide range of vegetation types. Lowland rain forest occurs between 300-900 m in valleys of the eastern slopes, between 300 and 900 m altitude. Submontane forest covers a large area between 900 and 1400 m in the eastern valleys with fragments on the western slopes at 1400-1500 m. Montane forest occurs between 1400 and 1800 m with moss covered upper montane forest at higher altitudes, and drier montane forests on the western side above Maskati mission at 1600-2000 m. Heath occurs on the upper ridges above 2000 m, with some isolated stands as low as 1200 m where soil conditions do not permit forest growth. Woodlands and dry forests occupy large areas in the drier slopes of the Nguru mountains between 400-1500 m though very little occurs within the reserve. Dry semi-evergreen forests are most typical of the northern and southern end of Nguru Mountains, again outside the reserve.

Lowland forest: Canopy with: Bombax rhodognaphalon, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Erythrophloeum suaveolens, Tetrapleura tetraptera and Uapaca paludosa. Lower canopy with: Memecylon erythranthum, Dicranolepis usambarica and Mesogyne insignis. Ground layer with: Hypolytrum testuim, Marantochloa leucantha, Calvoa orientalis, Geophila obvallata subsp. ioides, Psychotria pocsii, P. tanganyicensis and the West African Palisota schweinfurthii. Riverine forests at this altitude are dominated by Breonadia salicina, Bridelia micrantha, Ficus spp. and Harungana madagascariensis.

Submontane forest: The dominant emergents are: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Beilschmiedia kweo, Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cylicomorpha parviflora (usually indicating former pitsawing), Drypetes reticulata, Entandophragma excelsum, Isoberlinia scheffleri, Mesogyne insignis, Myrianthus holstii, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva and Strombosia scheffleri. In the lower canopy: Alsodeiopsis schumannii, Garcinia kingaensis, Lasiodiscus usambarensis, Uvariodendron usambarense and Zenkerella egregia. In the ground layer: Brachystephanus africanus, Leptaspis cochleata, Palisota schweinfurthii, Renealmia engleri, Stenandripsis afromontana and Whitfieldia stuhlmannii occur. On shady cliffs the Nguru endemic African violets Saintpaulia pusilla and S. nitida occur.

Montane forest: Canopy 20-25m dominated by: Allanblackia uluguruensis, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Ficalhoa laurifolia, Garcinia volkensii, Ocotea usambarensis and Podocarpus milanjianus. In the lower stories treeferns, Cyathea manniana and C. humilis occur with: Agauria salicifolia, Peddiea subcordata, Polyscias stuhlmannii, Rapanea melanophloeos and Xymalos monospora. In the ground layer Blotiella stipitata, Blechnum attenuatum, B. punctulatum, Dorstenia schliebenii, Impatiens keilii, I. massumbaensis, Plectranthus luteus and Streptocarpus bambuseti occur.

Upper montane forest. The canopy lower than montane forest with: Balthasaria schliebenii, Garcinia volkensii, Ocotea usambarensis, Podocarpus milanjianus and Schefflera myriantha. The tree trunks are covered in mosses and epiphytes are common including: Stolzia viridis, Mystacidium nguruense, Lycopodiums and filmy ferns. In the ground flora along the many ferns Cincinnobotrys oreophilum and Cincinnobotrys ranarum are common. Elfin forest covers the summits and ridges above 2000 m in the highest rainfall area of the eastern side. Canopy 2-4 (-6) m tall with: Balthasaria schliebenii, Garcinia volkensii and Syzygium cordatum,. The trees are covered by mosses and ferns. The ground is also covered by bryophytes, with cushions of Mastigophora diclados, Sphagnum spp., Dicranoloma billarderi and Syrrhopodon stuhlmannii. A characteristic shrub is Dissotis dichaetantheroides. On small canopy branches a common orchid is the Nguru and Uluguru endemic, Tridactyle brevifolium. The montane bamboo (Sinarundinaria alpina) forms extensive stands 4-10 m tall between 2000-2400 m on the western slopes of Mafulumula summit and on some of the higher western ridges. It replaces elfin forests in drier areas. Undergrowth is sparse and includes: Streptocarpus bambuseti, Peddiea subcordata, Rauvolfia mannii, Teclea simplicifolia and T. trichocarpa. A characteristic fern is the large Asplenium linckii.

Dry montane forest: Canopy 18-20 m with: Allophylus pervillei, Bridelia brideliifolia, Drypetes reticulata, Flacourtia indica, Leptonychia usambarensis, Mussaenda microdonta, Parinari excelsa, Podocarpus milanjianus, Sapium ellipticum, Turraea holstii, T. floribunda and Teclea amaniensis. Shrubs include: Coffea mufindiensis, Pavetta holstii, P. mshigeniana, P. sparsipila, Psychotria goetzei and Solanum kitivuense. In the ground layer: Aneilema leiocaule, Barleria amaniensis, Impatiens kentrodonta, I. nana and Streptocarpus caulescens occur.

Heath: Erica arborea and Philippia usambarica form small stands on exposed, rocky ridges with shallow soil. In the loose, open stand of Ericaceous shrubs very interesting plants occur such as: Lobelia sp. nov., Struthiola thomsonii, Eulophia odontoglossa, Rangaeris muscicola, Notonia amaniensis, Polystachya adansoniae and Sticherus inflexus.

Woodlands: Dominants: Brachystegia boehmii, B. microphylla, B. spiciformis, Pterocarpus angolensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The catchment value is high. The reserve supplies water to Mtibwa sugar plantations, the largest sugarcane project in Tanzania. In addition, it supplies water to the densely populated agricultural belt along the south eastern edge of the Nguru mountains.

TIMBER VALUES:

A large number of valuable timbers are present. The most utilised are: Cephalosphaera usambarensis, Newtonia buchananii, Entandophragma excelsum, Podocarpus spp., Ocotea usambarensis, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii and Erythrophleum sauveleons.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and rich in species of restricted distribution. Nguru South FR is one of the largest and richest intact rainforest areas of the Eastern Arc. It contains over 40 endemic woody species and recent exploration has revealed a number of new species. Examples of endemics include: Thulinia, Streptocarpus bambuseti, S. schliebenii, Impatiens massumbaensis, I. nguruensis, Saintpaulia nitida and numerous bryophytes. Interesting lowland forest stands remain in Divale or Duale Valley at Manyangu.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Chamshama and Nsolomo (1989) describe human impact on the Nguru forests. The village of Mabili developed within the boundaries resulting in degazettment of the area. Large scale logging took place before the 1950’s in the Manyangu area, which was then planted with teak, Maesopsis eminii and Cephalosphaera usambarensis. At present pitsawing takes place in many areas to feed the sawmills near Turiani. As the boundary is generally well marked, encroachment is not common. Forest fires within the boundaries do not occur, as the area is very wet. The seeds of Allanblackia stuhlmannii and A. uluguruensis yield vegetable oil and are gathered.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundaries need surveying, clearing and planting. The most serious problem is large scale illegal pitsawing. For such a large area, the present guarding is inadequate. Logged areas need to be regenerated with valuable species. A resurvey is needed.

Proposed zonation: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, upper ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover most of the forest. Productive zone: Boundary plantations to supply building poles, fuelwood and timber. Amenity zone: Suitable paths to the summits.

LITERATURE:

S.A.O. Chamshama, V.R. Nsolomo & A. Persson. 1990. Human impact on the forest vegetation of the Nguru mountains. Pp. 150-154 in: I. Hedberg and E. Persson (editors). Research for Conservation of Catchment Forests. Proceedings from a workshop held in Morogoro, Tanzania March 13-17, 1989. Uppsala, 1990.

Lovett, J.C. & D.W. Thomas. 1988. Report on a visit to Kanga mountain, Tanzania. East Africa Natural History Society Bulletin 18(2): 19-22.

R.M. Polhill 1968. Tanzania. In: I. Hedberg and O. Hedberg (eds.). Conservation of Vegetation in Africa South of the Sahara. Acta Phytogeogr. Suecica 54: 166-178

T. Pócs, R.P.C. Temu & T.R.A. Minja 1990. Survey of the Natural Vegetation and Flora of the Nguru mountains. Pp. 135-149 in: I. Hedberg and E. Persson (eds). Research for Conservation of Catchment Forests. Proceedings from a workshop held in Morogoro, Tanzania March 13-17, 1989. Uppsala, 1990

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PAGALE Catchment Forest Reserve

Morogoro District, Morogoro Region
Turiani Division
Year of establishment : 1959
Declaration : GN 81 of 13/3/59
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 444 (1:50 000) 1958 retraced 1979, Jb 1267 (sketch) 1955
Topographical maps : 166/2, 166/3, 166/4
Gazetted area : 32 000 acres (12 950 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 193 497 ft (59 km)
LOCATION: 6_ 07′ – 6_ 14′ S 37_ 43′ – 37_ 58′ E

24 km from Turiani. Access is from Mtibwa sugar estates through Kunke to Kidudu and then via an old logging road to Pagale Hill. The reserve covers woodland in the plains east of the Nguru mountains and east of Pagale Hill between the Wami and Lusonge rivers with an altitudinal range of 300 to 500 m.

SOILS:

Brown with humus over quartzite granite. Lower slopes more fertile than upper slopes. Exposed rocks on the upper slopes.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mtibwa Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1000 mm/year. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 26_C max (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The wetter eastern side Pagale hill is covered by dry lowland forest which becomes increasingly tangled with altitude. The drier western slopes are wooded grassland.

Dry lowland forest: Dense thicket 6 m tall with emergent trees 10-12 m tall, to closed forest with a canopy 15-20 m. Large cyads occur on the upper ridges. Trees include: Adansonia digitata, Afzelia quanzensis, Blighia unijugata, Cussonia zimmermannii, Euphorbia sp., Manilkara sp., Scorodophleus fischeri, Sterculia quinqueloba, Uvaria sp.

TIMBER VALUES:

Afzelia quanzensis occurs, but no trees of any size were seen. No heavy forest is reported.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Coastal Forest type and are likely to be rich in species of restricted distribution as indicated by the occurrence of Schlecterina mitostemmatoides. The undisturbed nature of the forest is unusual for forests of this type.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seasonal streams. Ground water supplies to the surrounding lowlands. One permanent spring is reported.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is undisturbed and the many hyraxes and duikers seen indicate that there is also little hunting. Fire occurs every year in the woodland on the western side of the reserve. The woodlands below the reserve are now being cultivated, so pressure on the reserve is likely to increase in the near future.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be cleared and marked. A strip of building pole and fuelwood trees should be planted along the eastern boundary to anticipate increasing local need. The whole of Pagale Hill should be included in the reserve.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes. Biodiversity zone: Covering the forest.

LITERATURE: None known

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Last Updated: 21 March 2017