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Tanga Region

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The Catchment Forest Reserves in Tanga Region are administered by a number of different projects: The Catchment Forestry Project; The East Usambara Catchment Forest Project; and the Magamba Project. Data presented here is for those reserves administered by the Catchment Forestry Project, information on the other reserves is only partially compiled at the present time.

The twenty one catchment forest reserves administered by the Catchment Forestry Project in Tanga Region are in four districts, Handeni, Korogwe, Lushoto and Muheza. Most of the catchment forest reserves in Lushoto district are administered by the Magamba Project, but three (BUMBA MAVUMBI, KISIMA GONJA and MWENI-GOMBELO) are administered by the Korogwe Catchment Forest office. Most of the catchment forest reserves in Muheza District are administered by the East Usambara Catchment Forest Project, but one (TONGWE) does not appear to be under any office. The East Usambara Catchment Forest Project also now administers a number of reserves which were formerly under the Korogwe District Catchment Forest office. A number of other reserves in Tanga region are recorded as being protective reserves under Central Government control, but are under Local Authority administration. The administrative status of these reserves needs to be clarified.

Many catchment reserves in the region cover mountainous areas under a high rainfall and so are important catchments. The North Nguru mountains and outlying hills are covered by nine reserves (NGURU NORTH, KILINDI, DEREMA, PUMULA, MBWEGERE, MKULI, KWEDIBOMA, RUDEWA and MKONGO) which supply water to local agricultural communities within the mountain range and to pastoralists on the dry western side. On the eastern side, runoff feeds into the Wami and Msangasi river systems. On the West Usambara mountains and outlying hills there are six reserves (KISIMA GONJA, MAHEZANGULU, VUGIRI, MAFI HILL, BUMBA MAVUMBI and MWENI-GOMBELO) administered from Korogwe. They supply local communities and runoff from them feeds into the Pangani river system. Below the West Usambara, in the dry Lwengera valley, the groundwater forest of MIGOMBANI has a protective function, but the larger BOMBO-WEST has little catchment value. Near Handeni and covering Handeni Hill, HANDENI HILL, is in a relatively low rainfall area but is the catchment for Handeni town and so is an important reserve. In the east of Handeni District, on the coastal plain, GENDA GENDA SOUTH and to a lesser extent GENDA GENDA NORTH, are important local catchments. TONGWE covers an isolated hill south of the East Usambara mountains and is an important local catchment.

Many of the Tanga region reserves contain valuable timbers. Those on the North Nguru and West Usambara contain moist forest of various types with stocks of Mvule, Mbokoboko, Nyasa, Mninga Maji and Mkangazi. In many areas these stocks have already been exploited, so regeneration is a priority. Groundwater areas, such as MIGOMBANI and the lower eastern parts of PUMULA and DEREMA, are first class sites for Mvule growth. In the drier reserves such as BOMBO WEST and HANDENI HILL there are stocks of Muhuhu, again already much exploited and in need of regeneration. In woodland areas on the North Nguru there is some Mninga and Miombo.

Biodiversity values of the forests are high. The northern part of the Eastern Arc is in Tanga region and has two rainy seasons with peaks in November and April. This gives rise to a very humid climate on east facing mountain slopes, which is strongly correlated to areas of species richness. From a management perspective this means that areas of the greatest catchment value are correlated with areas of high biodiversity value. All reserves containing moist forest have high biodiversity values, but in particular, large reserves with a wide altitudinal range such as KILINDI, DEREMA, PUMULA and NGURU NORTH are important. Some reserves such as VUGIRI, MAHEZANGULU, KISIMA GONJA and MIGOMBANI have been heavily disturbed by timber extraction and high population pressure, and their remaining biodiversity values should be assessed by surveys. Reserves on outlying peaks capped by moist forest, such as MAFI HILL, MWENI-GOMBELO and BUMBA MAVUMBI near the West Usambara; TONGWE near the East Usambara; and KWEDIBOMA, MKULI, RUDEWA and MBWEGERE near the North Nguru are relatively undisturbed and are also important. Reserves near the West and East Usambara are wetter than those near the North Nguru and are so likely to have higher biodiversity values. GENDA GENDA SOUTH is largely covered by coastal forest which, like the Eastern Arc forests, is rich in species of restricted distribution and so is of high biodiversity value. Other areas of biodiversity value are stands of valuable timber trees of good form which can be used as seed trees. Although most areas in Tanga region have been logged, there are still some fine Mvule, Mbokoboko and Mninga maji trees in the remoter reserves in the North Nguru. These should be marked and protected. Similarly, good stands of Muhuhu in HANDENI HILL and BOMBO WEST should be earmarked for protection.

Population pressure on the reserves varies. The West Usambara reserves (VUGIRI, MAHEZANGULU and KISIMA GONJA) have the highest pressure as they are in an area of very high population density. In contrast, reserves in the North Nguru are generally in areas of low population and correspondingly low pressure. Most reserves are directly in contact with agricultural land use, and when adjacent to high population densities local requirements for forest products are primarily for firewood and building poles. These needs should be supplied from boundary plantations. BOMBO WEST is used by pastoralists, and a system of integrating grazing with fire control and regeneration of Muhuhu needs to be worked out.

Handeni District

Handeni District Catchment Office administers 12 reserves. Nine of these reserves are on or around the ridges and peaks that make up the north Nguru mountains. The largest (NGURU NORTH) covers the Nguru North mountain ridge, and the second largest (KILINDI) covers a parallel ridge to the east. South of the Nguru North ridge a series of reserves (DEREMA, PUMULA, MBWEGERE and MKULI) cover peaks separated from the main ridges and each other by valleys. KWEDIBOMA and RUDEWA cover small outlying peaks to the north and south of the larger mountain areas, and MKONGO covers a woodland ridge between KWEDIBOMA and NGURU NORTH.

Two reserves (GENDA GENDA NORTH and SOUTH) are adjacent to each other and cover hills in the coastal plain close to Pangani District. HANDENI HILL covers an isolated hill near Handeni town.

Korogwe District

There are eight Catchment Forest Reserves administered by Korogwe Catchment Forest Office. Three of them (KISIMA GONJA, MAHEZANGULU and VUGIRI) are in high rainfall areas on the West Usambara mountains. MAFI HILL covers an outlaying isolated peak west of the West Usambara mountains; and BUMBA MAVUMBI and MWENI-GOMBELO cover an outlying ridge to the south east. MIGOMBANI is a small area of groundwater forest at the foot of the West Usambara in the dry Lwengera valley; and BOMBO WEST, also in the Lwengera valley is woodland and thicket.

Some of the reserves administered by Korogwe District are in Lushoto District (BUMBA MAVUMBI, KISIMA GONJA and MWENI-GOMBELO) and others are within Korogwe District but are administered by the East Usambara Catchment Forestry Project (KILANGA, LUTINDI and MNYUZI SCARP).

Muheza District

There are thirteen Catchment Forest Reserves in Muheza District. Twelve of these cover high rainfall areas on the East Usambara mountains and are administered by the East Usambara Catchment Forestry Project (NKOMBOLA, KAMBAI (proposed), SEGOMA, BAMBA, NGAMBO (proposed), MTAI, AMANI SIGI, AMANI WEST, KWAMGUMI, KWAMARIMBA, MLUNGUI (proposed), MLINGA PEAK (proposed).

The other reserve, TONGWE, is on an outlying peak to the south of the East Usambara and it is not clear which office is responsible for its management.

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DEREMA Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1934
Declaration : GN 133 of 1934
Variation order : None
Border maps : Jb 28 (1:50 000) 1961; Jb 788 (1:10 000) 1963
Topographical maps : 146/2, 147/1
Gazetted area : 9706 acres (3928 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 43 km.
LOCATION: 5_ 42′ – 5_ 37′ S 37_ 32′ – 37_ 27′ E

68 km from Handeni, 40 km from Kwediboma, 7 km from Tamota, 5 km from Lwande. Access is via Tamota and Misufini on the eastern side, Lwande on the western side, and Lulago on the northern side. The reserve covers a north-south ridge with an altitudinal range of 760 m to 1620 m.

SOILS:

Well drained sandy dark brown loam rich in humus over gneissic basement rocks. Seasonally waterlogged areas at the base of the reserve.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Mtibwa and Handeni. Estimated rainfall: Wetter eastern slopes and drier western slopes with 1500 mm/yr on moist forest to 1000 mm/yr on woodland; with mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season June – Sep. Estimated temperature range 25_C max (Feb.) 20_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered by lowland (760-800 m), submontane (800-1250 m) and montane forest (above 1250 m) on wetter parts of the eastern side, and forest patches, woodland and grassland in drier parts. The woodland and forest have rock outcrops on the upper slopes and seasonally waterlogged grassy valleys below the lower slopes. The moist forest is in good condition with the exception of heavy disturbance following logging at lower altitudes.

Woodland: Open grassy woodland 5-10 m tall with: Acacia spp, Annona senegalensis, Combretum molle, Piliostigma thonningii, Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Pterocarpus angolensis.

Lowland forest: Broken canopy 30 m, emergents to 45 m. Large trees: Antiaris toxicaria, Ricinodendron heudelotii. Other trees: Albizia spp., Lettowianthus stellatus, Malacantha alnifolia, Milicia excelsa, Pachystela brevipes, Parkia filicoidea, Schefflerodendron usambarense, Sorindeia madagascarensis, Sterculia appendiculata, Trema orientalis. Herbs: Aframomum angustifolium, Costus spp., Olyra latifolia, Piper umbellatum.

Submontane forest: Continuous canopy 30-40 m, emergents to 45-50 m. Large trees: Albizia spp., Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Craibia brevicaudata, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Entandrophragma excelsum, Ficus lutea, Isoberlinia scheffleri, Newtonia buchananii. Other trees: Afrosersalisa cerasifera, Alangium chinense, Aningeria sp., Bequaertiodendron natalense, Bersama abyssinica, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Drypetes gerrardii, Leptonychia usambarensis, Odyendea zimmermannii, Oxyanthus sp., Sapium ellipticum, Strombosia scheffleri, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Macaranga capensis, Myrianthus holstii, Pandanus sp., Parinari excelsa, Polyscias fulva, Uvariodendron usambarense. Herbs: Acanthaceae, Leptasis cochleata. Cycads on higher ridges.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve supplies permanent surface water to the surrounding villages, for example from the Lwemluzi river.

TIMBER VALUES:

Moist forest: Most of the valuable species, Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) have been logged. There are still stocks of Mbokoboko (Entandrophragma excelsum) of good form, and these are currently being exploited. Other less valuable timbers include Bombax rhodognaphalon, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Isoberlinia scheffleri, Newtonia buchananii. Mfimbo (Beilschmeidia kweo) is reported. Woodland: Good quality stands of Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) are reported.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so are rich in species of restricted distribution. Characteristic Eastern Arc species such as Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia scheffleri and Uvariodendron usambarense occur in valleys with permanent water.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

In the lowland forest there is logging for Mvule and Mkangazi. In the submontane forest there is logging for Mbokoboko and cutting for locally used building poles. In the woodland fires occur from Ndezi (Cane rat) hunters. Apart from logging the forest is relatively undisturbed and in good condition.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries are marked with teak planted in the early 1960’s and was last cleared in the late 1960’s. Boundary clearing is needed and a check on the condition of the boundary marking made with replanting where necessary. Regeneration of Mvule and Mkangazi is needed in the lowland forest. Selective exploitation of Mbokoboko and other timbers is possible. Enrichment planting of valuable species in old natural secondary areas (as indicated by Cylicomorpha parviflora) should be considered. Regeneration and enrichment planting of Mninga should be carried out in the woodlands. Fire control is needed in the woodlands. Access roads need maintenance. Population pressure is currently relatively low with extraction of minor forest products such as building poles and medicines. Building pole woodlots need to be established in adjacent villages to prevent over extraction of canopy tree regeneration.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: Covering a wide altitudinal range of the wetter forest types. Productive zone: Selective logging of valuable species with regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable species in logged areas in the woodland and moist forest.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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GENDA GENDA (NORTH) Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 132 p1335
Variation order : GN 24 7/3/80
Border map : Jb 526
Topographical maps : 149/1, 130/3
Gazetted area : 4050 acres (1639 ha) (or 890.7 ha following variation order?)
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION: 5_ 32′ – 5_ 24′ S 38_ 37′ – 38_ 41′ E

100 km from Handeni, 8 km from Genda Genda. Access is from the Mumbwi to Pangani road, northwards along the railway track from Genda Genda. The reserve covers an east facing escarpment west of the Dar es Salaam to Tanga railway line and level ground along the Mkalama river to the east of the railway line from an altitude of 20 to 220 m. The reserve is incorrectly marked on map sheet 130/3.

SOILS:

Loams over neogene sediments.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall and oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Pangani. Estimated rainfall: 1000-1300 mm/yr. Wetter on the escarpment than on level ground to the east. Dry season: Jan. – Feb. and June – Sep. Estimated temperatures: 28_C max (Feb.) 24_C min (Aug.).

VEGETATION:

Wooded grassland covers much of the reserve, with riverine forest in stream valleys and areas of dry forest or thicket on the escarpment. It is likely that the east facing escarpment was formerly completely covered with a dry forest or thicket and this has been replaced by wooded grassland following the effects of fire.

Woodland: Trees to 4-5 m tall with: Annona senegalensis, Commiphora africana, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Dichrostachys cinerea, Lannea sp., Stereospermum kunthianum.

Riverine forest: Trees to 20 m tall with: Cynometra sp., Euphorbia sp., Ficus kirkii, Grevea sp., Scorodophloeus fischeri, Sterculia appendiculata, Uvariodendron sp. Shrubs: Coffea sp., Grandidiera boivinii, Mostuea sp. Herbs: Araceae, Dorstenia sp., Saintpaulia sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

A number of seasonal streams originate on, or flow through the escarpment, feeding into the Msilwa river.

TIMBER VALUES:

The reserve was formerly classified as productive, and this must refer to timber stocks on land east of the escarpment, or possibly to former Mvule (Milicia excelsa) stocks on the escarpment.

BIODIVERSITY:

The riverine forests are of the coastal forest type and are rich in species of restricted distribution, for example: Saintpaulia sp. and Grandidiera boivinii. The wild coffee (Coffea sp.) populations are of potential value in crop breeding.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The Dar es Salaam to Muheza railway crosses the reserve. Fire occurs every year, and the escarpment woodland is a fire climax. Otherwise the reserve is in a relatively remote area with a low population density.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary needs to be surveyed, cleared and marked. Fire needs to be controlled. Timber stocks need to be assessed and any logged areas regenerated with Mpingo, Mninga and Mvule.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Covering steeper slopes, valleys and ridges on the east facing escarpment. Biodiversity zone: To cover the riverine forest areas. Productive zone: To cover level ground east of the escarpment and consist of enrichment planting of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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GENDA GENDA SOUTH Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap 132 of 1947
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 785 (1:10 000) 1910
Topographic map : 149/1
Gazetted area : 4717 acres (1910 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 18 km
LOCATION: 5_ 32′ – 5_ 35′ S 38_ 38′ E

90 km from Handeni, 20 km from Mumbwi. Access by road is from the main road at Mumbwi to the JKT camp and then on the old Handeni to Pangani road to Genda Genda. The northern railway line has a station at Genda Genda and this is the main form of transport to and from the area. The reserve covers a hill in the coastal plain just south of Genda Genda North FR with an altitudinal range of 120 m to 525 m.

SOILS:

Forest: Red-brown sandy-clay loam over cemented Neogene sediments. On the upper ridge the soil is dark brown to black with humus. There are bare rock faces near the peak.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic climate with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Pangani. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/yr near the peak; 1000 mm/yr over the woodlands. Wetter eastern side and drier western side; 1300 mm/yr over the forest with mist effect. Dry season Jan. – Feb. and June to Sep. but it is not marked. Estimated temperatures: 28_C max (Feb.) 24_C min (Aug.).

VEGETATION:

The eastern and southern side of the peak is covered in dry lowland forest. The southern slope canopy is mainly of deciduous trees with riverine vegetation in valley bottoms, whilst that of the eastern slope is mostly evergreen. The forest gives way to woodland on hilly country to the north of the reserve. The forest on steeper slopes looks relatively undisturbed, but at the base of the slope on more level ground it has been cultivated in the past. On the peak the occurrence of epiphytic orchids and ferns indicates a mist effect. The western slopes are grassland. Buffalo are reported from the woodlands.

Lowland forest: Below lower slopes canopy to 10-15 m with emergent Adansonia digitata to 20-25 m: Cynometra webberi, Manilkara sulcata, Scorodophloeus fischeri, Strychnos henningsii, Teclea sp. and Uvaria sp. with Grewia goetzeana, Ficus sur and Terminalia sambesiaca near the river. On the lower slopes: Diospyros greenwayi, Cola sp., Dialium sp., Julbernardia magnistipulata, Ludia mauritiana, Manilkara sulcata, Tamarindus indica. On the southern slopes: Afzelia quanzensis, Combretum schumannii, Sterculia appendiculata. Upper slopes, canopy to 20 m: Ficus kirkii, F. lutea, Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius, Macphersonia hildebrandtii. On the upper ridge Xylopia parvifolia is dominant. There is scrub on the peak around the spot height.

Woodland: On undulating hills. Open woodland grassland and thickets with Adansonia digitata and Sterculia appendiculata.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Two seasonal streams flow down the eastern side and provide dry season water to local people from wells in the stream beds. There is permanent water in a water hole on the old Pangani-Handeni road at Kwelukuta. The Msilwa river passes through the southern part of the reserve.

TIMBER VALUES:

Formerly logged for Mvule (Milicia excelsa) was reported, but stocks have long been exhausted. Terminalia sambesiaca is reported.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the coastal forest type and contain species of restricted distribution in wetter areas, for example: Diospyros greenwayi, Grandidiera boivinii and Julbernardia magnistipulata.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Mvule was logged here many years ago. There are pot shards and climber tangles in the forest indicating historical disturbance and secondary nature of lower parts of the forest on level ground. Heavy disturbance with extensive destruction for charcoal with limited timber and pole removal was reported by Hawthorne (1984). On the south-east side fire has entered the reserve. There is encroachment for cultivation.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing and planting is needed. Discussions with village and district authorities should be initiated to deal with the encroachment problem. Fire control in the woodlands is needed. Old stumps of Mvule should be located and assessed for regeneration. Enrichment planting with Mvule is a possibility. Secondary areas near the boundary could be planted to provide fuel wood and building poles for local use. Tree planting by villagers should be encouraged.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridge tops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover a wide altitudinal range of forest on the wetter slopes. Productive zone: Lower slopes to be enriched with Mvule and plantations established near the boundary for local use.

LITERATURE:

Hawthorne, W.D. 1984. Ecological and biogeographical patterns in the Coastal Forests of East Africa. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oxford.

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HANDENI HILL Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 422 of 23/9/1960 This might be a variation order
Variation order :
Border Map : H 490 (1:25 000) 1960 There should be an earlier map
Topographic Map : 129/3
Gazetted area : 1672 acres (677 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 10 km
LOCATION: 5_ 27′ S 38_ 3′ E

2 km from Handeni. Access is from Handeni town, and there is a track around the reserve. The reserve covers the cone-shaped 1030 m high Handeni Hill, a gently sloping gneissic inselberg north east of Handeni town, from 790 to 1040 m.

SOILS:

A brown coloured sandy loam (eutrophic brown ferralitic soil) over gneissic basement rocks. At the foot of the hill it develops into yellow and red latosols. The depth of the soils increases from the hilltop to the foot of the slope.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/yr over the forest; 1000 mm/yr over the woodland; with a mist effect at higher altitudes. Wetter eastern and drier western slopes. Dry season June to Sept. Estimated temperature: 24_C max (Feb.) 20_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Woodland covers the drier south west, west and north west slopes. Dry deciduous and evergreen lowland forest covers the wetter north east, east, south and south east slopes.

Woodland: Dominated by: Brachystegia spiciformis, B. boehmii, B. microphylla, Julbernardia sp., Pterocarpus angolensis, with a dense grass layer of: Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum and Themeda triandra.

Dry Lowland forest: Dry semi-evergreen forest, with dry evergreen forest on the upper part of the slope. Canopy 15-25 m, dominated by Brachylaena huillensis with: Bombax rhodognaphalon, Cussonia arborea, Ficus thonningii, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Scorodophloeos fischeri. In the ground layer the shrub Croton pseudopulchellus and herb Schlechterina mitostemmatoides occur. Dry deciduous forest occupies a small area between the woodland and wetter forest types with: Terminalia sambesiaca, Ricinodendron heudelotii and Brachystegia spp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Handeni Hill is an important catchment reserve supplying Handeni town with water. In the 1950’s a dam and water reservoir was constructed to supply the town. Deforestation and cultivation around the reservoir has resulted in siltation and only underground water coming from the reserve is available. There are plans to rectify this problem. The closed, tall forest on the eastern side is the most important for catchment, although it occupies the slopes further from the town.

TIMBER VALUES:

Muhuhu (Brachylaena huillensis) forms a large stand in the dry semi-evergreen forest; Terminalia sambesiaca occurs in the dry deciduous forest. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Miombo (Brachystegia spiciformis) occur in the woodland. Other woodland species are used mostly for charcoal production.

BIODIVERSITY:

The good stand of Brachylaena huillensis is a useful provenance for seed. Coastal forest species of restricted distribution occur, for example: Schlechterina mitostemmatoides.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Deforestation and degradation has taken place on the town side of the forest reserve at the southern edge. Illegal logging takes place on quite a large scale, primarily for Brachylaena huillensis for building poles. The trees are cut by axes at breast height and split into building pole size on the spot. Grazing damage was not observed. There is a large fire scar in the dry deciduous forest on the southern slope.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to cleared and marked with Eucalyptus spp. or teak. The District Authorities have agreed to declare a catchment area 50 m either side of the stream leading to the dam. This area needs surveying, and including in the forest reserve. In dry lowland forest on the southern slopes logging should be stopped and patrolling increased. There is good regeneration of Brachylaena huillensis, and the stand should recover naturally if left undisturbed. Fuel wood and building pole plantations should be established between public land and the reserve in order to supply surrounding villages and Handeni. Proximity of the reserve to Handeni town offers the possibility for amenity and education.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, the hill top and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Covering the wetter forest to protect the Brachyleana huillensis stand and coastal forest endemic species. Amenity zone: A suitable route to the top of the hill passing through the forest. Productive zone: Building pole and fuelwood plantations between the reserve and public land.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KILINDI Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1969
Declaration : GN 45 of 28/2/1969
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 520 (1:25 000) 1962
Topographic map : 147/1
Gazetted area : 10 623 acres (4299 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 47 km
LOCATION: 5_ 33′ – 5_ 40′ S 37_ 33′ – 37_ 36′ E

66 km from Handeni, 25 km from Kwediboma. Access from the eastern side is by the road passing through Kilindi village, and from the western side from the road passing through Tamota. The reserve covers a north-south running ridge, with steep open rock faces and two large rock outcrops, Kilinga and Kilindi. The steep hills with overhanging cliffs are visible from 100 km away, being the first major outcrops from the coast. The reserve covers an altitudinal range of 760 m to 1520 m.

SOILS:

In the Kilinga area there is a black sandy loam rich in humus (humic latosol) on gneissic basement rocks. The soil is deep in the valleys and shallow on the ridges. There are extensive rock outcrops.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations Mtibwa and Handeni. Estimated rainfall: 1500-2000 mm/yr on the eastern side, 1000-1200 mm/yr on the western side; wetter eastern side and drier western side with mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sept., though not marked on the eastern side. Estimated temperature: 24_C max (Feb.) 19_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The eastern side faces the rain carrying winds, with the tallest forests of the area occurring on more gentle slopes and valleys. Forest cover extends from 820 to 1520 m altitude, ranging from riverine to lowland (up to 1000 m on the south-east slopes), submontane and montane with increasing altitude. On the western side woodland and scrub occurs on the steeper slopes and ridges, with riverine to submontane forest in the valleys and around the base of the hills.

Evergreen riverine forest: At the base of the south east slopes. Emergents to 50 m. Trees include: Albizia versicolor, Antiaris toxicaria, Diospyros sp. cf. squarrosa, Grewia sp., Malacantha alnifolia, Milicia excelsa, Pterocarpus sp., Sterculia appendiculata and Tabernaemontana ventricosa.

Lowland rainforest: Emergent Newtonia buchananii and Entandrophragma excelsum to 60 m., canopy with: Parkia filicoidea (along streams), Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Aningeria sp., Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Diospyros sp. and Pachystela msolo. Smaller trees include: Dracaena steudnerii, Funtumia africana, Malacantha alnifolia and Pterygota mildbraedii. Shrubs include: Memecylon sp., Pandanus sp., Sloetiopsis usambarensis and Uvariodendron sp., with Scorodophloeos fischeri more common in drier types on rocky ridges. In the undergrowth Psychotria tanganyicensis, Leptaspis cochleata and Pollia condensata occur.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Water from the eastern side feeds into the Msiri river which is used by Kilindi river. On the western side ground water originating from the forest feeds the rice field of Tamota prison farm.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occurs. Newtonia buchananii and Entandophragma excelsum are valuable timber and trees of excellent form occur. In the riverine forest Mninga maji (Pterocarpus sp.) is valuable. Less valuable timber includes Aningeria sp.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in species of restricted distribution. The relatively wide altitudinal range and presence of lowland forests are important for biodiversity. Pterygota mildbraedii is a rare Central African forest tree currently only known in Tanzania from Handeni District. Psychotria tanganyicensis is a rare endemic. Sloetiopsis usambarensis is an endemic species of coastal Tanzania.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

On the western side near Tamota, rubber plantations were established during German times and extraction of valuable species probably dates from then. During the 1950’s the former Game Research station at Tamota was used as a prison camp for Mau Mau prisoners from Kenya. Many of these prisoners were skilled loggers and were used to extract Mvule from the forest. Allanblackia stuhlmannii yields vegetable cooking fat (locally known as ‘Kimbo trees’).

Currently there is no sign of encroachment, illegal logging or grazing. There are scars on the lower edge, probably resulting from cultivation before gazetting, which took place only in 1969. Mninga maji is only logged on public land. Fires occur on the western side, reportedly started by Ndezi (Cane rat) hunters.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS

Boundary clearing has started and needs to be continued with boundary planting. Regeneration of valuable species (especially Mvule) should be started with enrichment planting of valuable species in secondary areas. Future pressure for building poles and fuel wood should be anticipated and suitable sites near the boundary where there are villages should be chosen.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steep slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover a wide altitudinal range of the wetter forest types. Productive zone: On less steep slopes, selective logging and regeneration of valuable species. Fuel wood and building poles for local use planted on the border near villages.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KWEDIBOMA Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap 132 p 1335
Variation order : none
Border map : Jb 466 (1: 10 000) 1959
Topographic map : 128/3
Gazetted area : 703 acres (285 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 7 km
LOCATION: 5_ 26′ S 37_ 33′ E

60 km from Handeni, 1 km from Kwediboma. Access is by foot from tracks near Kwedimboma. The reserve covers a steep rocky hill from an altitude of 915 m to 1300 m.

SOILS:

Shallow dark brown or blackish sandy loam rich in humus with good drainage (humic latosol) over gneissic basement rock. There are large areas of exposed rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1400 mm/yr on the forested eastern slopes and peak with a mist effect at higher altitude; 1000-1200 mm woodland with a lower rainfall on the western slopes. Dry season: June to Sept. Estimated temperature: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Submontane forest occurs on the deep soils of the lower slopes from 950 to 1050 m with dry submontane forest on shallower soils of the steep rocky south east and north west slopes from 1050 to 1150 m. A small cap of forest occurs on the 1270 m summit. Open grassy woodland occurs on less steep slopes on the eastern and northern sides. The eastern slope is a steep rock face.

Submontane forest: Canopy 20-30 m, multilayered, dominated by Newtonia buchananii and Albizia gummifera. Co-dominants are Milicia excelsa and Pachystela msolo. Other large trees include: Ficus sp., Pterocarpus sp. and Rauvolfia caffra. Smaller trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Diospyros sp., Pandanus sp., Pterygota mildbraedii and Scorodophloeos fischeri. Shrubs and herbs include: Psychotria spp., Pavetta spp. and Olyra latifolia.

Dry submontane forest: The canopy is dominated by Bequaertiodendron natalense and Scorodophloeos fischeri.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Kwediboma Forest Reserve is the main source of the Msangasi river which supplies a number of water reservoirs in Handeni District for rural water supply (eg. Kwakombo); in addition to Kwediboma Mission and Hospital, and the fertile agricultural land just below the hill.

TIMBER VALUES:

Newtonia buchananii and Pterocarpus sp. are logged by licensed pitsawing. Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is already mostly exploited. According to forestry records Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica) and Bokoboko (Entandophragma excelsum) also occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and contain species of restricted distribution. Pterygota mildbraedii is a tall Central African tree species otherwise only known in Tanzania from the nearby Nguru North FR and Kilindi FR.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Farms dating from the German period exist in the area, so timber extraction of valuable species probably dates from that time. Felling of Newtonia buchananii has caused large canopy gaps. The borders are subject to fire.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is well marked by teak except in areas of hardpan, but needs clearing. Valuable species should be regenerated, especially Mvule. There are many Newtonia buchananii seedlings, so regeneration will occur naturally if disturbance is reduced by patrolling. 6 ha of Afzelia quanzensis, Cassia sp., Terminalia superba, Albizia versicolor, and Syzygium cumminii has been planted on the eastern side. This area is susceptible to fire, and management is needed to clear firebreaks and grass growth around the saplings. Further areas should be selected for fuelwood and building pole plantation.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: Covering a wide altitudinal range of wetter forest types. Productive zone: Selective logging of valuable species following regeneration and boundary plantations of fuel wood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MBWEGERE Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1960
Declaration : Cap. 132 p. 1335
Variation order : GN 392 of 2/9/1960
Border map : Jb 484 (1:10 000) 1959
Topographical maps : 146/2, 147/1
Gazetted area : 910 acres (368 ha)
Gazetted border length : 13 km
LOCATION: 5_ 45′ S 37_ 29′ E

105 km from Handeni and 45 km from Kwediboma. Access is via Tamota and Misufini along a track between Mbwegere and Pumula FRs; formerly access was also possible from Vyadigwa. The reserve covers a peak with forest on the eastern side and woodland on the other sides from an altitude of 780 to 1160 m. To the north it is separated from Pumula FR by a narrow valley, and is adjacent to Mkuri FR to the south. The reserve is incorrectly located on topographical map 146/2 and 147/1, and is marked as Mbwegere mountain on 146/2.

SOILS:

Well drained sandy light brown loam over gneissic basement rocks. Seasonally waterlogged soils in valleys on the reserve edge. Termite mounds in woodlands. Some bare rock outcrops on the eastern side.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni and Mtibwa. Estimated rainfall: Wetter eastern and drier western sides; 1200 mm/yr on moist forest; 1000 mm/yr on woodland. Dry season: June to Sep. Estimated temperature: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is woodland on the western and northern side, with a forested eastern slope and forests in valleys and at the edge of the reserve at 780 m where there is sufficient groundwater. There is little disturbance. Buffalo occur. The western edge of the forest is maintained by fire, and to some extent by buffalo grazing.

Woodland: Trees include: Combretum molle, Markhamia obtusifolia, Pterocarpus angolense, Sterculia quinqiloba. At higher altitudes (1050 m), Cussonia arborea, Dalbergia melanoxylon and Strychnos innocua occur. On the peak at 1140 m, Dombeya rotundifolia, Markhamia obtusifolia and Psorospermum febrifugum occur.

Forest: Canopy 15-20 m, emergents 30 m. Large trees: Albizia sp., Milicia excelsa, Ricinodendron heudelotii and Sterculia appendiculata. Other trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cola sp., Combretum schumannii (dominant on slopes), Euphorbia sp. and Sorindeia madagascariensis. Herbs inlcude: Olyra latifolia and Sansevieria sp. At 980 m Brachyleana huillensis regeneration occurs at the forest edge. On the peak at 1140 m the fire affected forest edge contains: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Albizia gummifera, Bridelia micrantha. On the eastern side the forest is dominated by Albizia sp. and at lower altitudes where it becomes riverine forest it contains Sterculia appendiculata.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

A seasonal stream flows from the eastern forest into a north east flowing river bordered by riverine forest, and into a seasonally waterlogged valley used for shifting cultivation. The woodland prevents soil erosion during storm flow and channels water into the seasonally waterlogged valleys surrounding the reserve which have been used for shifting cultivation in the past.

TIMBER VALUES:

Forests: Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occurs, and may be present in quantity on the lower eastern side if not already extracted. Muhuhu (Brachyleana huillensis) regeneration indicates the possibility of timber stocks elsewhere in the reserve. Woodland: Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs at quite high densities, but no large trees of good form were seen. Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) occurs at low densities at higher altitudes.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is within the range of the Eastern Arc type, but is probably too dry to contain many species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The woodland and forest edge are affected by fires set by hunters, otherwise there is minimal disturbance.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing and marking is needed. There is some confusion over the exact position of the boundary. The adjacent southern boundary of Pumula is marked by a line of teak, but there does not appear to be a corresponding line on the northern boundary of Mbwegere. No exploitable stocks of timber were seen. Enrichment planting of Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is possible in ground water forest on the reserve edge. Population pressure is low. Access roads need clearing and maintaining.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Productive zone: Planting of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MKONGO Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1959
Declaration : Cap 389 p 33/1959
Variation order : GN 187 of 20/3/1964
Border map : Jb 523 (1:10 000) 1964
Topographical map : 128/3
Gazetted area : 2433 acres (985 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 14 km
LOCATION: 5_ 27′ – 5_ 29′ S 37_ 33′ E

62 km from Handeni and 3 km from Kwediboma. Access to the northern edge is from a track between Kwediboma FR and Mkongo FR, and to the eastern edge from tracks leading eastwards from the Kwediboma to Tamota road. The reserve is a rounded, north-south, hilly ridge lying south of Kwediboma FR and east of Nguru North FR with an altitudinal range of 870 m to 1130 m.

SOILS:

Well drained light brown sandy loam over gneissic basement rocks. Seasonally waterlogged soils occur on the eastern edge. Occasional rock outcrops.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni. Estimated rainfall: 1000 mm/yr; slight mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly woodland with a small patch of ground water forest on level ground on the eastern edge of the reserve at 870 m. Bush pig, antelope and cane rat trails occur. The northern and eastern edges are surrounded by cultivation.

Woodland: Trees 8-10 m tall dominated by Brachystegia microphylla. Other trees: Acacia sp., Annona senegalesis, Combretum molle, Pteleopsis myrtifolia and Dicrostachyus cinera. On top of the ridge there is a rock outcrop surrounded by trees 4-5 m tall with: Cussonia arborea, Entada abyssinnica, Erythrina abyssinica, Faurea saligna, Lannea sp., Ormocarpum sp., Psorospermum febrifugum and Strychnos innocua. Epiphytes along the ridge indicate a slight mist effect.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve prevents soil erosion. There are storm flow gullies and seasonal streams on the western side. The seasonal stream beds are used as a source of dry season ground water by the local people.

TIMBER VALUES:

Regeneration of Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) occurs. Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and regeneration occurs, but no trees of good form were seen. Brachystegia microphylla is abundant.

BIODIVERSITY:

The species seen are widespread. No timber trees of good form suitable for seed sources were seen.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Some cutting of Brachystegia microphylla for building poles. Fire occurs every year.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearance and marking with Cassia sp. needs to be continued. Timber densities are low, with the exception of Brachystegia microphylla which has good regeneration in some areas. Enrichment planting with Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) should be done. Enrichment planting of Albizia sp., Afzelia quanzensis and Schinus molle has started.

Population pressure is currently low, but is likely to increase as fields now surround the northern and eastern boundaries of the reserve. Building pole and firewood plantations should be started on the boundary. If fire is controlled Brachystegia microphylla regeneration will be prolific enabling harvesting of building poles and firewood.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes and ridge top. Productive zone: Border areas for fuelwood and building pole plantations; woodland regeneration for building poles and fuelwood.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MKULI (MKURI) Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 389 pp 32-33
Variation order : GN 576 of 22/11/1963
Border map : JB 524 (1:10 000) 1963
Topographical map : 147/1, 147/3, 146/2, 146/4
Gazetted area : 7243 acres (2931 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 26 km
LOCATION: 5_ 47′ S 37_ 28′ E

125 km from Handeni and 20 km from Kimbe. Access is from the Handeni to Morogoro road from Kimbe to a track a few km west of Vyadigwa. Formerly access from Tamota was possible from Vyadigwa. The reserve is adjacent to Mbwegere FR on the northern side and covers a ridge with forest on the eastern and northern sides and woodland on the southern and western sides from an altitude of 760 to 1260 m.

SOILS:

Woodlands: Well drained light brown sandy loam over rotten gneissic basement rock. Forests: Well drained light brown sandy loam with humus over gneissic basement rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni and Mtibwa. Estimated rainfall: Wetter eastern side and drier western side; 1500 mm/yr on the eastern slopes; 1000-700 mm/yr on the western and southern slopes. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Dry submontane forest covers the wetter northern and eastern slopes with forest coming down valleys on the south eastern slopes at the north eastern end. Woodland covers the drier southern and western slopes.

Woodland: Trees 5-10 m tall dominated by Brachystegia microphylla, with: Brachystegia spiciformis, Combretum molle, Dalbergia melanoxylon, Diplorhyncus condylocarpon, Pteleopsis myrtifolia and Pterocarpus angolensis.

Dry submontane forest: Canopy 30-40 m with emergents to 45-50 m. Large trees include: Albizia spp., Antiaris toxicaria, Ricinodendron heudelotii. Smaller trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cola sp., Ficus sur, Scorodophleus fischeri, Teclea simplicifolia, Vepris stolzii. On the ridge top the forest is replaced with secondary fire maintained grassland with: Erythroxylon emarginatum and Flacourtia indica.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

On the southern slopes seasonal streams drain into the Mpua river and are a source of dry season groundwater for local people cultivating in the area. On the wetter eastern slopes the Bohero river is reported to contain permanent surface water.

TIMBER VALUES:

Forests: Mvule (Milicia excelsa) occurs, and commercial stocks may still exist in remote parts of the forest. Less valuable timbers include Antiaris toxicaria.

Woodland: Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs, but no trees of good form were seen. Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) trees occur, but no trees of extractable size were seen. Brachystegia spp. represent stocks of low grade timber.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so potentially contain species of restricted distribution. The wetter eastern forests may be of interest.

HUMAN IMPACT:

There has been recent commercial extraction of Mvule from the forest, but otherwise the vegetation is largely undisturbed. Fire occurs in the woodlands.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to cleared and marked. The remaining stocks of Mvule need to be inventoried. Logged areas need to be regenerated. Enrichment planting of Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) in the woodlands should be carried out. Local population pressure is low.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Productive zone: Selective extraction of valuable species with enrichment planting and regeneration.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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NGURU NORTH Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1934
Declaration : GN 133 of 1934
Variation order : None
Border map : Jb 619 8 sheets (1:10 000) 1965
Topographic map : 146/2, 127/4, 128/3, 147/1
Gazetted area : 34 696 acres (14 042 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 84 km
LOCATION: 5_ 27′ – 5_ 38′ S 37_ 36′ – 37_ 32′ E

66 km from Handeni and 6 km from Kwediboma. Access to the northern edge is from the Kwediboma to Kibirashi road, to the eastern edge from the villages of Kilwa and Lulago, to the western edge from the village of Gombero, and to the south from the village of Lwande. The reserve covers several parallel, north-south running ridges on the eastern edge of the Maasai steppe from an altitude of 860 to 1550 m.

SOILS:

Blackish sandy loam, rich in humus (humic latosol) over gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic/continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall stations: Handeni and Mtibwa. Estimated rainfall: Wetter eastern side and drier western side; 800 mm/yr on the western foothills; 1700 mm/yr on the upper eastern slopes; mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperature: 22_C max (Feb.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

Woodland covers the western foothills up to 1400 m on the margin of the reserve. Lowland forest occurs at lower altitudes on the eastern side. Submontane forest occurs above the from 1400 to 1500 m.

Woodland: Trees include: Brachystegia spp, Julbernardia globiflora, Pterocarpus angolensis. At many places a degraded and open wooded grassland has developed with scattered trees of: Combretum molle (dominant), Bridelia micrantha, Dombeya rotundifolia, Cussonia arborea and Canthium sp.

Lowland forest: With: Khaya anthotheca (formerly nyasica) and Milicia excelsa.

Submontane forest. Canopy to 40 m dominated by Newtonia buchananii with: Albizia gummifera, A. schimperiana (rare), Cylicomorpha parviflora, Myrianthus holstii (rare), Pterocarpus sp. Smaller trees include: Bersama abyssinica and Myrianthus holstii. Shrubs include: Memecylon schliebenii and Psychotria tanganyicensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve is important in the water supply of eastern Maasailand, especially of Kiberashi settlement, and large numbers of cattle depend on the water from the forest. Water is to be piped from the Java river in the reserve to Java, Mgera and Mndeba villages for domestic supply and irrigation. On the western side near Gombero streams from the forest are used for a veterinary dip. Water from the reserve is retained at Kwamaligwa Dam which supports a local fishing industry. On the eastern side the Likiguru river supplies Tamota prison farm.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca, formerly nyasica) and Mnyasa (Newtonia buchananii) occur and are logged.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc and are rich in species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Amorphophallus stuhlmannii, Memecylon schliebenii and Psychotria tanganyicensis.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The woodlands are burnt regularly. Cattle grazing was recently excluded from the area by discussing the matter with Maasai elders. Scars of former cultivation (before gazettement) are still visible, especially at the woodland and forest edge, and on the northern edge of ridge, where the narrow forest belt was totally removed and is now secondary grassland. Timber is extracted by pitsawing.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and planted. Enrichment planting of native species is needed in the scars and gaps. Selective felling of valuable species and Newtonia buchananii is possible with proper control. Reinforcement of patrolling is badly needed. Fires need to be controlled.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To cover a wide altitudinal range of wetter forest types. Productive zone: Selective felling and regeneration of valuable species.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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PUMULA Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap 132 P 1334
Variation : GN 346 of 29/9/1961
Border map : Jb 540 (1:10 000) 1961
Topographical map : 146/2, 147/1
Gazetted area : 2624 acres (1062 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 15 km
LOCATION: 5_ 40′ – 5_ 44′ S 37_ 32′ – 37_ 28′ E

97 km from Handeni and 37 km from Kwediboma. Access is from Tamota and Misufini, formerly access was also possible from Vyadigwa. The reserve is separated from Derema FR on the north west side by a narrow cultivated valley, and on the southern side it is adjacent to Mbwegere FR. It covers a forested peak surrounded by wooded hills with an altitudinal range of 760 to 1160 m.

SOILS:

Under tall forest: well drained sandy dark brown loam rich in humus over gneissic basement rocks. Under drier forest and thicket: well drained light brown to red sandy loam. Bare rock outcrops occur. Seasonally waterlogged areas at the base of the reserve.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni and Mtibwa. Estimated rainfall: 1200 mm/yr on moist forest; 1000 mm/yr on woodland. Wetter eastern side and drier western and southern side; groundwater effect on the lower eastern slopes. Dry season: June – Sep. Temperature range: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly woodland with a forested hill in the centre and grassland on the south east slopes. On the eastern side dry lowland forest occurs from 710 to 750 m on fairly level ground in a forested valley coming down from the peak, becoming thicket on slopes above the valley. Groundwater probably gives a taller forest than would be expected from the rainfall. Dry submontane forest occurs from 750 to 810 m and is best developed in the eastern valley heads, becoming thicket on the upper slopes and ridges. The upper eastern ridges are covered in climber tangles which are either due to historical settlement or past elephant activity. The woodland and upper parts of the forest are little disturbed, lower parts of the forest are heavily disturbed following logging. Buffalo occur, elephants occasionally occur.

Woodland: Open woodland 5-10 m tall with: Acacia sp., Annona senegalensis, Brachystegia boehmii, B. spiciformis, Cassia abbreviata, Combretum molle, Dichrostachys cinerea, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Markhamia obtusifolia, Pseudolachnostylis, Pterocarpus angolensis, Sterculia quinqueloba and Vitex sp. On the peak at 910 m there is a fire maintained grassland with the trees: Bridelia micrantha, Dombeya rotundifolia, Markhamia obtusifolia; this would become forest with the exclusion of fire.

Dry Lowland Forest: Broken canopy 30 m, emergents 30-40 m. Large trees: Albizia sp., Antiaris toxicaria, Parkia filicoidea, Sterculia appendiculata. Other trees: Alangium chinense, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Drypetes usambarica, Malacantha alnifolia, Pachystela brevipes, Sapium ellipticum, Soriendeia madagascariensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Trema orientalis, Ziziphus pubescens.

Dry submontane forest: Irregular canopy to 20-30 m tall with emergents to 40 m in the valley; canopy 5-10 m on ridges. Large trees include: Albizia sp., Cylicomorpha parviflora, Milicia excelsa, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Sterculia appendiculata, Terminalia sambesiaca. Afzelia quanzensis occurs on the ridges. Smaller trees include: Antidesma membranaceum, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Chaetacme aristata, Cola sp., Malacantha alnifolia, Pandanus sp., Scorodophleus fischeri. Herbs include: Aframomum, Leptaspis cochleata, Piper umbellatum, Sansevieria.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seasonal streams flow down the eastern side, and ground water is available in the valleys surrounding the reserve. Water originating from the catchment is used by farmers near Misufini.

TIMBER VALUES:

Forest: Mvule (Milicia excelsa) has been extracted extensively recently, but a few large trees of good form remain. Less valuable trees include: Afzelia quanzensis (occasional), Antiaris toxicaria, Terminalia sambesiaca. Woodland: Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) occurs, though no large trees of good form were seen.

BIODIVERSITY:

Pumula forest is an Eastern Arc type forest and so is of interest for biological diversity, but is too dry to be very rich in species of restricted distribution. The occasional remaining Mvule trees of good form are of value as seed trees. A wild species of coffee (Coffea sp.) occurs.

HUMAN IMPACT:

The dry lowland forest was heavily disturbed by logging for Mvule in the late 1980’s. An old rubber plantation near Misufini possibly indicates logging was carried out earlier, though there would have been sufficient timber on public land to supply early needs. The dry submontane forest on upper ridges was said to be formerly inhabitated as a defensive measure. Hunting for Ndezi (Cane Rat) and other small animals is carried out in the reserve. Fire occurs in the woodlands. Medicines are gathered. There is some cutting for building poles.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The southern boundary is marked with teak planted in the 1960’s. There are gaps in the boundary, and the teak is not growing well. The eastern boundary was not located with any certainty. Boundaries need clearing and gaps in boundary marking planted. Most of the timber appears to have been recently exploited, and management is needed to regenerate Mvule stocks. Population pressure is low, though woodlots for building poles should be planted on the borders near surrounding villages. Fire control is needed.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridge tops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To cover stands of Mvule for seed; and a wide altitudinal range of the wetter forest type. Productive zone: Selective felling and regeneration of valuable species; woodlots for building poles on the boundary.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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RUDEWA Catchment Forest Reserve

Handeni District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap 132 p 1337
Variation order : GN 341 of 22/7/1960
Border map : Jb 449 (1:10 000) 1958
Topographical map : 147/3
Gazetted area : 1373 acres (556 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 11 km
LOCATION: 5_ 47′ S 37_ 37′ E

108 km from Handeni and 3 km from Kimbe. Access to the southern edge is from the Kimbe to Vyadigwa road which is adjacent to the reserve. The reserve is an isolated rocky peak rising from an altitude of 700 m to 1120 m.

SOILS:

Light brown sandy loam over gneissic basement rock. There are areas of bare rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Handeni and Mtibwa. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1400 mm/yr on forest, 1000 mm/yr on woodland. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperature: 24_C max (Feb.), 19_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The southern side is covered by woodland with forest in gullies and capping the peak. The eastern side is covered by dry lowland forest.

Woodland: Trees 5-10 m tall dominated by Brachystegia boehmii with Dalbergia melanoxylon and Pteleopsis myrtifolia.

Dry lowland forest: With Sterculia appendiculata. Milicia excelsa is reported.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The Kwemsanga river flows from the eastern side and provides domestic water for Kimbe village. The Kwengomoko river flowing from the southern side provides permanent surface water.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) was logged in the late 1980’s.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so potentially contain species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Mvule was logged in the late 1980’s.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing and marking required. Mvule (Milicia excelsa) needs to be regenerated following logging. Local population pressure appears low, though a building pole and fuel wood plantation should be established on the border near Kimbe.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following survey. Productive zone: Selective felling and regeneration of valuable species; building pole and fuelwood plantation on the border.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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BOMBO WEST Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1959
Declaration : GN 1 of 1959
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 430 (1:25 000) 1958
Topographical map : 110/1, 110/3
Gazetted area : 3523 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 31 km
LOCATION: 4_ 52′ – 4_ 47′ S 38_ 39′ – 38_ 43′ E

60 km from Korogwe, 6 km from Mashewa. Access to the northern boundary is from the Mashewa to Tanga road which traverses the reserve east of Kijungumoto. The reserve is low lying hilly country in the Lwengera valley rainshadow with an altitudinal range of 380 m to 680 m.

SOILS:

Sandy red-brown with clay over gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Magoma Sisal Estate. Estimated rainfall: 750 mm/year. The reserve is in the Lwengera valley rainshadow to the west of the East Usambara mountains. Dry season: June to Sep. Estimated temperature: Monthly mean: 26_C max (Feb.), 21_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The vegetation is grassy fire climax open woodland with extensive areas of Brachyleana huillensis thicket. Buffalo are reported to occur in the reserve but no signs were seen.

Woodland: Heavily grazed grassland with scattered 4-5 m tall trees and tree clumps with: Acacia spp., Grewia sp., Sterculia africana.

Thickets: Dense scrub dominated by Brachyleana huillensis 5-6 m tall with: Adenium obesum, Croton sp., Cynometra sp., Euphorbia sp., Strychnos sp., Teclea sp., Uvaria sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve was gazetted to protect the Brachyleana huillensis stocks and has relatively low catchment value, though the central hilly area may supply ground water to the edges.

TIMBER VALUES:

The reserve contains an extensive stand of Brachyleana huillensis which was logged by Sikh Sawmills in 1984-1985.

BIODIVERSITY:

Although the larger more accessible Brachyleana huillensis have been extracted there may still be some trees of good form that can act as seed trees. The Brachyleana huillensis thickets appear to be species rich in comparison to the wooded grassland and may contain Coastal forest species of restricted distribution.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve was extracted for Brachyleana in 1984-1985 by Sikh sawmills who put in logging roads the give access to the remoter parts.

Local pastoralists graze cattle in the reserve and have erected a building within the reserve boundary. Fuelwood is collected in the reserve and there is hunting for small animals. Fire affects the wooded grassland every year but does not get into the Brachyleana huillensis thicket.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and marked. Grazing of domestic stock within the reserve should be controlled and buildings erected within the boundary removed. Fuelwood and building pole plantations should be established in surrounding villages and along the borders of the reserve near to population centres. Brachyleana huillensis should be regenerated in logged areas, and fire controlled to see if it possible to regenerate Brachyleana huillensis in the wooded grassland.

Proposed zones: Biodiversity zone: To protect a stand of Brachyleana huillensis trees of good form for seed trees, and to protect species rich Brachyleana huillensis thickets. A survey is needed to establish the locality of these areas within the reserve. Productive zone: Brachyleana huillensis production; grazing under licence; fuel wood and building poles.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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BUMBA MAVUMBI Catchment Forest Reserve

Lushoto District, Tanga Region
Administered from Korogwe District
Year of establishment : 1963
Declaration : GN 580 of 1963
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 482 (1:10 000) 1959
Topographical map : 110/1
Gazetted area : 1056 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 29.4 km
LOCATION: 4_ 43′ S 38_ 38′ E

54 km from Korogwe and 4 km from Mashewa. Access to the southern side is from Mashewa and to the northern side from Milingano. The reserve covers a west-east orientated rocky ridge of four main peaks above Mashewa village. To the north it is separated from Mweni-Gombelo FR by a short gap. Higher altitudes and the northern side are largely composed of cliffs. The reserve boundary is at an altitude of about 1000 metres and forest extends up to the peaks at 1600 m.

SOILS:

Dark brown sandy loams over gneissic basement rock with rocky outcrops and large areas of exposed rock face.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Magoma Sisal Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1400 mm/year, with a marked mist effect on the peaks. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperature: 22_C max (Feb.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is mostly covered with submontane forest dominated by Newtonia buchananii on less steep slopes and Phoenix reclinata on rocky areas. Montane forest occurs at higher altitudes. The peaks have a different forest type as evidenced by a change in the canopy colour. The forest is relatively undisturbed.

Submontane forest: Canopy 25-30 m dominated by Newtonia buchananii. Larger trees include: Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Antiaris toxicaria, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa and Phoenix reclinata. Smaller trees include: Antidesma membranaceum, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cola greenwayi, Cylicomorpha parviflora, Cynometra sp., Drypetes gerrardii, Ficus sur, Lepidiotrichilia volkensii, Leptonychia usambarensis, Macaranga capensis, Pachystela brevipes, Pandanus sp. and Trilepisium madagascariensis. Shrubs and herbs include: Aframomum sp., Culcasia scadens, Draceana deremense, Draceana laxissima, Piper capense, Piper umbellatum and Saintpaulia sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

On the south side Bumba Mavumbi forest is the source of the river Humbi which supplies piped water to Mashewa and Kijungumoto, in addition to surface water to Mashewa, Kwetonge, Kijungumoto, the fisheries of Kumba lake, and other villages. The streams in the forest are seasonal, but ground water feeding into the river Humbi gives permanent surface water below the forest. On the north side there are many small seasonal streams, but the mountain is too steep for permanent water.

TIMBER VALUES:

Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) occurs in some quantity, together with other low grade timbers such as Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, and Antiaris toxicaria.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and contain species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Saintpaulia sp.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

In the lower part of the forest old logging sites with 5 m tall regeneration of Macaranga capensis and Cylicomorpha parviflora were seen. Timber is not reported to be cut at present. Draceana deremense is cut for roofing poles and other species cut for general building poles. Hyrax are trapped. The 1988 1:50 000 topographic maps show houses within the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is marked on the south side by Eucalyptus sp. and needs to be cleared. Cultivation extends up to the edge of this boundary which follows a convoluted route around long established fields on the forest edge. The other boundaries are reported to not be marked and also need to cleared where topography permits. Regeneration of timber species is needed in logged areas, Mvule or Mkangazi should grow in the lower part of the reserve on fairly level ground near valley bottoms.

Though Nyasa occurs in some quantity, the local people consider the forest to have no timber value. Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is being taken from stream side forest on public land below the reserve. These Mvule stocks are nearly exhausted and so the lower quality Nyasa may become more attractive in the future. Mvule on public land near the forest should be regenerated and protection sought for the stream side forest in which it occurs both for timber potential and erosion control.

Building pole and firewood plantations need to be established on the border to supply local needs. Locally preferred species such as Phoenix reclinata and Draceana deremense should be considered.

Potential zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: Location of the biodiversity zone will need further survey, but it is likely that the peak will have mist forest rich in species of restricted distribution. Productive zone: Building pole and fuelwood plantations on the reserve borders, and regeneration of Mvule and Mkangazi at lower altitudes.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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KISIMA GONJA Catchment Forest Reserve

Lushoto District, Tanga Region
Administered by Korogwe District
Year of establishment :
Declaration : Cap. 132 p. 1339 refers to GN 30 of 1935, the files refer to GN 85 of 1959
Variation order : There must be a variation order as a section of the forest was excised around 1974 for local cultivation.
Border map : Jb 448 (1:10 000) 1958
Topographical map : 110/3
Gazetted area : 1440 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 25 km
LOCATION: 4_ 49′ – 4_ 57′ S 38_ 29′ E

100 km from Korogwe and 30 km from Mashewa. Access to the southern boundary is from Mazumbai; access to the northern boundary is from the Mgwashi to Mlingano road. The western boundary is continuous with Baga II reserve. The reserve occupies hilly country on the eastern edge of the West Usambara mountains east and south of Mazumbai estate and above Ubugu over an altitude of 1400 m to 1680 m.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loam with clay on gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mazumbai. Estimated rainfall: 1400 mm/year with some mist effect. Dry season not marked. Temperature monthly mean: 20_C max (Feb.), 15_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is covered mostly by montane forest with submontane forest at lower altitudes in valley bottoms.

Submontane forest: Canopy to 30 m. Large trees include: Albizia gummifera, Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Newtonia buchananii, Syzygium guineense subsp. afromontanum.

Montane forest: Canopy to 30 m in valleys and 10 m on the peak. Trees include: Aphloia theiformis, Bersama abyssinica, Caloncoba welwitschii, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cola greenwayi, Craibia brevicaudata, Dasylepis integra, Draceana steudenerii, Drypetes gerrardii, Entandrophragma excelsum, Garcinia volkensii, Macaranga kilimandscharica, Parinari excelsa, Podocarpus sp., Polyscias fulva, Rapanea melanophloeos, Strombosia scheffleri, Xymalos monospora.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Streams from Kisima Gonja flow into the dry Ubugu valley to the alluvial fields of Milingano.

TIMBER VALUES:

Extraction of Mbokoboko (Entandrophragma excelsum) is reported. Camphor (Ocotea usambarensis) occurs in the southern part. Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) and Podo (Podocarpus sp.) occur.

BIODIVERSITY:

Kisima Gonja is an Eastern Arc type forest and so contains species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Dasylepis integra.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Logging for Nyasa and Mbokoboko is reported. The canopy in the valley to the west of Gonja peak is broken by logging. The forest within the boundary is disturbed for some distance by cutting for firewood and poles. There are well worn paths into the forest. Beehives are placed in the reserve. The area to the west of Mazumbai was cleared for cultivation in the mid 1970’s.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is marked by Eucalyptus sp. but needs to be cleared. Regeneration of Mbokoboko, Camphor and Nyasa is needed in logged areas. Fuelwood and building pole plantations need to be established along the boundary.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey. Productive zone: Regeneration of timber species in logged areas and establishment of building pole and firewood plantations in disturbed areas along the boundary.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAFI HILL Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1950
Declaration : GN 230
Variation order : GN 436 of 24/1964
Border map : Jb 2070 (1:25 000) 1982
Topographical map : 109/3
Gazetted area : 4508 ha following resurvey in 1980 (6200 acres (2509 ha) old boundary).
Gazetted boundary length : 32 km
LOCATION: 4_ 53′ – 4_ 57′ S 38_ 11′ – 38_ 06′ E

63 km from Korogwe, 20 km from Mombo (south side), 14 km from Mazinde (north side). Access to the south side is from the Rali Sisal estate road to Kwalukonge which heads south west just north of Mombo on the main north road. The reserve covers an isolated hill in dry plains to the west of the main West Usambara range from an altitude of 600 m to 1480 m and is surrounded by cultivation.

SOILS:

Under woodland and thicket: Red brown sandy-rocky laterite. Under forest: Light brown clay-sandy loam over gneissic basement rocks with exposed rock faces at higher altitudes.

CLIMATE:

In the rainshadow of the West Usambara mountains with sufficient cloud cover and precipitation at higher altitudes to maintain moist forest. Oceanic rainfall continental temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Mazinde Factory. Estimated rainfall: 750-1000 mm/ year on the woodland; 1200 mm/yr on forest with a significant mist effect at higher altitudes. Dry season: June – Oct. Temperatures: 26_C max (Feb.), 20_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

Dry secondary thicket occurs at lower altitudes becoming woodland further from the boundary and dry lowland/dry submontane forest at 850 m followed by submontane forest at 980 m. The forest is relatively undisturbed. Forest with Sterculia appendiculata comes down the valleys. Buffalo are reported but no signs were seen.

Thicket and woodland: Dense secondary thicket to 3 m tall at lower altitudes with trees 5-8 m tall further into the reserve. Small areas of fire climax grassland with Dombeya rotundifolia exist. Trees include: Afzelia quanzensis, Combretum sp., Commiphora sp., Cussonia arborea, Dombeya sp., Euclea sp., Grewia sp., Manilkara sp., Maytenus sp., Monanthotaxis sp., Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Sclerocarya birrea, Synadenium sp., Tamarindus indica.

Dry lowland/dry submontane forest: Forest with a continuous canopy 20-25 m with emergents to 35 m. Large trees include: Antiaris toxicaria, Bombax rhodongaphalon, Sterculia appendiculata, Terminalia sambesica. Smaller trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Combretum schumannii, Diospyros occulta, Drypetes natalense, Drypetes usambarica, Manilkara sulcata, Pachystela brevipes, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Teclea sp..

Submontane forest: Forest with a continuous canopy 25-30 m with emergents to 40 m. Large trees include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia scheffleri, Newtonia buchananii. Smaller trees include: Harungana madagascariensis, Pandanus sp., Rothmannia urcelliformis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The catchment value of Mafi Hill is high as it supplies water to an otherwise dry area. Two permanent streams are reported, supplying water to Mpirani and Masimbani, and there are many seasonal streams.

TIMBER VALUES:

Woodland: Afzelia quanzensis is low grade timber. Forest: Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) and Mpigamagasa (Isoberlinia scheffleri) are trees of low grade timber value.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Drypetes usambarica, Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Saintpaulia sp.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

No timber appears to have been extracted from the area of forest visited, though building poles had been gathered and hyraxes hunted. The woodland and thicket is exploited for locally used firewood and building poles. Some encroachment is reported near Masimbani village.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 9 km of the eastern boundary has been cleared and marked with Cassia sp., the rest of the boundary needs to be cleared and marked. Building pole and fuelwood plantations need to be planted along the border for local use. The woodland and thicket could be enriched with species of value such as Afzelia quanzensis or other suitable indigenous species, for example Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon).

Proximity to Mombo and the main Korogwe to Arusha road; the striking physical feature of an isolated peak; and the occurrence of the African Violet, Saintpaulia sp., suggest the possibility of a minor amenity zone.

Potential zones: Catchment zone: Covering the forest. Biodiversity zone: Covering the forest. Productive zone: In the secondary thicket at lower altitudes. Amenity zone: Covering a suitable route to the peak and upper ridges passing through forest containing Saintpaulia sp.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MAHEZANGULU Catchment Forest Reserve

Lushoto District, Tanga Region
Administered by Korogwe District
Year of establishment : 1962
Declaration : GN 234 of 1962
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 545 (1:10 000) 1960
Topographical map : 110/3
Gazetted area : 805 acres (326 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 8 km
LOCATION: 4_ 57′ S 38_ 31′ E

24 km from Korogwe. Access is from the Alhamisi to Msamaka road, which continues to Bumbuli, up the eastern escarpment of the West Usambara mountains from the Korogwe to Mashewa road. The reserve occupies the top of a steep sided north-south ridge dissected by valleys above the Lwengera valley and part of the main West Usambara block from an altitude of 900 m to 1400 m.

SOILS:

Light brown clayey loam over gneissic basement rocks with areas of rock outcrop on the steeper part of the ridge.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Balangai. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm., with some mist effect. Dry season not marked. Temperature: 22_C max (Feb.), 17_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The forest is submontane and highly disturbed with a broken canopy dominated by Newtonia buchananii.

Submontane forest. Trees 25-30 m tall. Large trees include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Anthocleista grandiflora, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Sapium ellipticum. Smaller trees include: Afrosersalisia cerasifera, Bersama abyssinica, Ficus sur, Funtumia africana, Macaranga capensis, Myrianthus holstii, Pachystela brevipes, Rauvolfia caffra, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Strombosia scheffleri, Tabernaemontana sp. Shrubs, climbers and herbs include: Aframomum sp., Agelaea heterophylla, Costus sp., Culcasia sp., Draceana deremense, Draceana laxissima, Marantochloa leucantha, Piper capense, Piper umbellatum, Psychotria tanganyciensis, Rinorea sp.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seasonal surface water in the forest becomes permanent surface water in rivers at lower altitudes on the northern and southern sides. The water is used by local villages.

TIMBER VALUES:

Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) occurs, but most of the good trees have been logged.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Allanblackia stuhlmannii and Psychotria tanganyicensis.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest has been extensively disturbed by logging. Pachystela brevipes is cut for tool handles. Firewood is cut from dead fallen trees. In the past Cannabis sativa was cultivated in the forest.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary is reported to be fully marked by Eucalyptus sp., but needs clearing. Nyasa stocks should be regenerated. Mbokoboko (Entandrophragma excelsum) should also grow well, and enrichment planting should be considered.

Local population pressure is high and heavily disturbed areas on the edge of the reserve should be brought into production for building poles and firewood.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridges and streamsides. Biodiversity zone: To be located following a survey. Productive zone: Regeneration of Nyasa, enrichment planting of Mbokoboko (Entandrophragma excelsum); and building pole and fuelwood plantations along highly disturbed parts of the forest edge for local supply.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MIGOMBANI Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1950
Declaration : GN 300 of 1958
Variation order : ?GN 166 of 1959
Border map : Jb 410 (1:5000) 1958
Topographical maps : 109/4, 110/3
Gazetted area : 617 acres (95 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 3.9 km
LOCATION: 4_ 58′ S 38_ 30′ E

26 km from Korogwe. Access to the southern edge is from the Korogwe to Mashewa road through the villages of Kwashemshi, Mpirani, and Mgira; and then along the old logging road to the forest edge. The boundary map indicates a road from Kwashemshi to Mahezangulu passing through the reserve. The reserve is a small area of lowland forest on ground water below Mahezangulu at an altitude of 480 m.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Kwashemshi Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1100 mm/yr. The reserve is in the Lwengera valley rainshadow and the forest is maintained by ground water originating higher up in the West Usambara. Dry season: July – Sep. Temperature: 26_C max (Feb.), 20_C min (July).

SOILS:

Brown sandy loams over gneissic basement rocks and some seasonally inundated areas

VEGETATION:

The reserve is composed of continuous lowland ground water forest and riverine forest that has been heavily disturbed by mechanized logging and pitsawing. Ground water is indicated by the presence of Barringtonia racemosa. Dominance varies through the forest with Antiaris toxicaria being dominant in some areas and Celtis durandii in others. Open areas are indicated on the border map on the edge of the forest.

Forest: Lowland ground water forest with a very broken canopy 20-25 m tall. Large trees include: Albizia sp., Antiaris toxicaria, Bombax rhodongaphalon, Celtis durandii, Erythrophleum sauveolens, Parkia filicoidea, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Sterculia appendiculata. Small trees include: Anthocleista grandiflora, Barringtonia racemosa, Bridelia micrantha, Funtumia africana, Leptonychia usambarensis, Macaranga capensis, Khaya anthotheca (formerly nyasica), Pachystela brevipes, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis. Shrubs include: Draceana deremense, Rinorea sp. Herbs include: Costus sp., Olyra latifolia, Marantochloa leucantha, Piper umbellatum.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The forest covers ground water and streams originating in the high rainfall areas on the West Usambara mountains above Migombani. Water flowing through the forest in the Bwasabwasa river is used to irrigate Mgira village fields.

TIMBER VALUES:

Prior to extraction the reserve would have been rich in Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and Mkangazi (Khaya anthotheca formerly K. nyasica). Lower grade timbers still present in the reserve include Albizia sp., Antiaris toxicaria, and Parkia filicoidea.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and so potentially contains species of restricted distribution. Lowland groundwater forests are not common and often contain rare species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest has been heavily disturbed by logging during the last 20 years. Sikh sawmills used mechanical logging mainly for Mvule and subsequently further timber has been removed by pitsawyers. The reserve is crossed by a number of compacted logging roads and footpaths. Building poles are being cut in the forest.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary has been cleared and partly planted with Cassia sp. seedlings brought from Korogwe. Valuable species such as Mvule and Mkangazi should be regenerated as the reserve is a prime site for their growth. The reserve should be closed for exploitation until regeneration of valuable species is complete.

Local population pressure is relatively high and the reserve is surrounded by cultivation. Building pole woodlots should be established in the adjacent villages or along the boundary of the reserve in areas that are not closed forest.

Potential zones: Catchment zone: To cover groundwater sources and stream banks. Biodiversity zone: To cover an area of relatively undisturbed forest selected following a survey. Productive zone: Regeneration of valuable species in the forest and establishment of building pole woodlots in open areas on the forest edge.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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MWENI-GOMBELO Catchment Forest Reserve

Lushoto District, Tanga Region
Administered by Korogwe District
Year of establishment : 1961
Declaration :
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 541 (1:10 000) 1959
Topographical map : 110/1
Gazetted area : 1029 ha
Gazetted boundary length : 26.5 km
LOCATION: 4_ 38′ – 4_ 42′ S 38_ 33′ – 38_ 37′ E

72 km from Korogwe and 18 km from Mashewa. Access is from Milingano village which can be reached from Mashewa round the south side of Bumba Mavumbi, or from Mgwashi on the road through Ubugu. The reserve consists of two rocky peaks, Yamba and Mwini, surrounded by cliffs and separated by a forested valley and with forest on their peaks covering an altitudinal range of 570 m to 1607 m. To the south it is continuous with the Bumba Mavumbi ridge and is separated from Bumba Mavumbi FR by a short gap.

SOILS:

Brown sandy loam over gneissic basement rock with extensive areas of exposed rock.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Magoma Sisal Estate. Estimated rainfall: 1200-1400 mm/yr; with ground water effect at lower altitudes and mist effect on the peaks. Dry season: June – Sep. Estimated temperatures: 25_C max (Feb.), 21_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The reserve consists of a broad wedge of forest between two peaks. There is montane forest on the peaks, submontane forest at medium altitudes and dry lowland or riverine forest at low altitudes. The lowland forest is restricted to watercourses and is flanked by wooded grassland. The peaks are capped by forest and surrounded by cliffs with grassy ridges. The lowland forest is reported to become submontane forest at higher altitudes. The forest is relatively undisturbed with the exception of small areas where Mvule had been extracted.

Woodland: Wooded grassland with trees 5-7 m tall including: Acacia sp., Antidesma membranaceum, Combretum molle, Dalbergia melanoxylon.

Lowland and riverine forest: Tall relatively undisturbed forest with a canopy 25-30 m tall and emergents to 40 m. Larger trees include: Albizia sp., Antiaris toxicaria, Milicia excelsa, Parkia filicoidea, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Sterculia appendiculata. Smaller trees include: Bequaertiodendron natalense, Cola scheffleri, Malacantha alnifolia, Pachystela brevipes, Scorodophleus fischeri, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis.

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Milicia excelsa and Newtonia buchananii are reported.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Seasonal streams in the forest give rise to permanent surface water in the Milingano stream which provides water for the Milingano village and surrounding agricultural land.

TIMBER VALUES:

Mvule (Milicia excelsa) is reported to occur and is currently being extracted, no large trees were seen in the area visited as this had already been logged. Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) is reported to occur at higher altitudes and is currently being extracted. Less valuable timber includes Antiaris toxicaria. Small Mpingo (Dalbergia melanoxylon) occur in the woodland.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and so contain species of restricted distribution, for example, Cola scheffleri. The dry lowland forest and relatively high altitudinal range of the forest is unusual, and should be protected.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is relatively undisturbed, but access by tractor is possible along a road put into the reserve to facilitate extraction of Mvule. Logging is by hand. The woodland surrounding the forest is burnt every year but local villagers say that fire is now under control. Fires have been set in the forest to smoke out bees nests, but have not spread. A path goes through the forest connecting villages on either side of the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundaries need to be cleared and marked. Logged Mvule and Nyasa should be regenerated, and enrichment planting of Mpingo carried out in the woodland. Population pressure is relatively low, though is likely to increase so provision should be made in woodland areas near the boundary for future building pole and firewood plantation for local use.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: On steeper slopes, ridgetops and stream sides. Biodiversity zone: To cover the complete altitudinal range of forest. Productive zone: Regeneration and enrichment planting of valuable species in the forest and woodland, and establishment of boundary fuel wood and building pole plantations.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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VUGIRI Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1961
Declaration : GN 226 of 1962
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 511 (1:10 000) 1960
Topographical map : 129/2
Gazetted area : 99 acres (40 ha)
Gazetted boundary length : 11 552 ft (3.5 km)
LOCATION: 5_ 04′ S 38_ 27′ E

20 km from Korogwe above Vugiri village on the Korogwe to Ambangulu road. Access to the upper boundary is from Ambangulu tea estate from tea estate roads to the tea seed plantation at old Ambangulu. Access to the lower boundary is on foot from Vugiri village. The reserve is a small area of submontane forest on the edge of the escarpment above Korogwe town at an altitude of 1100 m to 1280 m. The reserve is incorrectly located on the Tanga Regional map of forest reserves.

SOILS:

Light brown-red sandy-clay loam over gneissic basement rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Ambangulu. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm/yr; mist effect evidenced by occurrence of epiphytes. The reserve is on the drier side of the otherwise high rainfall area in the southern part of the West Usambara mountains. Dry season not marked. Temperature: 21_C max (Feb.), 16_C min (July).

VEGETATION:

The reserve is heavily disturbed submontane forest and becomes completely open with cultivated banana plants adjacent to the village on the lower boundary. Prior to extraction it is likely that the dominant was Newtonia buchananii.

Submontane forest: Canopy broken, 25-30 m. Tea occurs as an understorey invader and grows into trees 10 m tall on the upper edge. Large trees include: Albizia gummifera, Aningeria adolfi-friedericii, Anthocleista grandiflora, Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, Cynometra sp., Myrianthus holstii, Newtonia buchananii, Parinari excelsa, Strombosia scheffleri. Smaller trees include: Alsodeiopsis schumannii, Harungana madagascariensis, Macaranga capensis, Maesa lanceolata, Pauridiantha paucinervis, Rauvolfia caffra, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Trilepisium madagascariensis, Xymalos monospora. Shrubs, herbs and climbers include: Crassocephalum mannii, Dalbergia lactea, Jaundea pinnata, Piper capensis, Piper umbellatum, Rauvolfia mannii.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

Vugiri forest reserve is part of the catchment for Korogwe town and is important because of this.

TIMBER VALUES:

The main timber was Nyasa (Newtonia buchananii) which has mostly been extracted. The occasional Mkanta (Cynometra sp.) remains.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forest is of the Eastern Arc type and so should be rich in species of restricted distribution. However, the high degree of disturbance has resulted in widespread species dominating open areas.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest is heavily disturbed following logging for Newtonia buchananii and subsequent grazing in open areas, firewood gathering from dead fallen trees and collection of building poles. A well used path traverses the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The boundary has recently been cleared and should be planted with Eucalyptus sp. It may be possible to purchase Eucalyptus sp. seedlings and hire transport from Ambangulu tea estates to avoid the cost of establishing a nursery. The Nyasa should be regenerated and building pole and firewood plantations along the reserve boundary.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Covering the forest. Biodiversity zone: To protect any relatively undisturbed areas. Productive zone: On the disturbed edges of the reserve to supply fuelwood and building poles to local villagers.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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TONGWE Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : 249 and 288 of 1956
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 271
Topographical map : 130/3, 130/4
Gazetted area : 1202 ha
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION: 5_ 17′ – 5_ 19′ S 38_ 43′ – 38_ 45′ E

20 km from Muheza. Access is from the Muheza to Segera road through Kwafungo Sisal Estate, there is a road round the whole reserve with logging roads into reserve feeding from it. The reserve covers the isolated peak of Tongwe mountain, an outlier from the main East Usambara block, from the altitude of 220 to 648 m.

SOILS:

Humus rich sandy soils over crystalline rocks.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station: Muheza. Estimated rainfall: 1500 mm on the forest 1300 mm on the woodland. Dry season: Jan. – Feb. and June – Sept. Estimated temperatures: 27_C max (Feb.), 23_C min (July) at lower altitudes.

VEGETATION:

The main peak is covered by semi-deciduous dry lowland forest, which extends down valleys through woodland and wooded grassland. The south western peak is grassland.

Woodland: Trees to 10 m tall with: Albizia versicolor, Bauhinia thonningii, Combretum molle, Hyphaene sp., Markhamia obtusifolia, Pteleopsis myrtifolia, Stereospermum kunthianum, Strychnos sp., Tamarindus indica.

Dry lowland forest: Canopy 15-20 m with emergents to 30 m. Trees include: Aningeria pseudoracemosa, Antiaris toxicaria, Barringtonia racemosa, Bequaertiodendron natalense, Bombax rhodognaphalon, Cola scheffleri, Drypetes usambarica, Isoberlinia scheffleri, Pachystela brevipes, Pandanus sp., Parkia filicoidea, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Sorindeia madagascariensis, Scorodophloeus fischeri, Sterculia appendiculata, Tabernaemontana pachysiphon, Terminalia sambesiaca and Trilepisium madagascariensis. Shrubs include: Cycads, Crotonogynopsis usambarensis, Draceana deremense. Herbs include: Olyra latifolia, Saintpaulia tongwensis.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

A number of seasonal streams flow from the reserve, and near-permanent water was reported from the eastern side, though it was said that this dried up during the hot months of January and February. The reserve supplies surrounding villages and Kwafungo Sisal Estate with groundwater.

TIMBER VALUES:

In the forest, Mvule (Milicia excelsa), Msufimwitu (Bombax rhodognaphalon), Mninga maji (Pterocaprus mildbraedii), Mpigamagasa (Isoberlinia scheffleri) occur at low densities. Mvule stocks are now reported to be exhausted. Mgude (Sterculia appendiculata) is also logged. In the woodland Mkenge (Albizia versicolor) occurs, but stocks have mostly been extracted.

BIODIVERSITY:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type, and are rich in species of restricted distribution. Examples include: Cola scheffleri, Crotonogynopsis usambarensis, Saintpaulia tongwensis.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Fire occurs every year in the woodlands. Recently, valuable timbers have been extracted by pitsawing. Small animals are hunted. There is some cutting for building poles. Cultivation extends to the reserve boundary. There is an old Arab fort on the peak which was visited by Speke in 1857.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border appears to be well marked, but needs to be cleared. Valuable timbers need to be regenerated. Fire needs to be controlled. Plantations for fuelwood and building pole supply need to be established near to population centres. Teak could also be planted to supply timber. The fort on the peak should be restored as an historical site an used as a tourist attraction.

Proposed zones: Catchment zone: Steeper slopes, valleys and ridgetops. Biodiversity zone: Forest areas. Amenity zone: Route to the peak through the forest and the old fort on the peak. Productive zone: Less steep slopes near the boundary for teak plantation for building poles, firewood and timber.

LITERATURE:

None known.

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East Usambara Project

KILANGA Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe and Muheza Districts, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 165 of 1932
Variation order : GN 154 of 1956
Border map : Jb 270 (1:25,000) 1955
Topographical map : 110/3
Gazetted area : 2,267 acres (917 ha) FINNIDA repots give gazetted area as 810 ha which must be something to do with the variation order.
Measured area : 791 ha
Measured boundary length : 73.6 km
LOCATION: 4_ 53′ – 4_ 54′ S 38_ 40′ – 38_ 42′ E

75 km from Korogowe, 25 km from Mashewa. Managed from Korogwe District. Access on the western side is from Kizara village which is reached from the Mashewa to Gombelo road. Access is possible from Amani through Bulwa, but the road is not maintained. The reserve covers a north – south running ridge which is an outlier from the north west part of the East Usambara mountains between the Bombo and Muzi river valleys. It is continuous with Lutindi FR on its western edge and has an altitudinal range of 600 – 1250 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station ……. Estimated rainfall …… Dry season ……. Temperature range ……..

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 791 ha, 635 ha is forest. The forest is disturbed or drier submontane forest, and lowland forest (vegetation types B, E, F, G of the FINNIDA survey).

Impoverished submontane forest: Myrianthus, Sorindeia, Newtonia, Isoberlinia and Allanblackia stuhlmannii.

Submontane forest at lower altitudes: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Myrianthus, Trilepisium.

Disturbed submontane forest at lower altitudes: Myrianthus, Ficus sur, Harungana, Macaranga, Sapium, Maesa, Bridelia.

Lowland forest at higher altitudes: Funtumia, Leptonychia, Tabernaemontana, Pachystela, Ficus, Afrosersalisia and Macaranga.

TIMBER VALUES:

Newtonia and Isoberlinia occur in quantity. Cephalosphaera, Beilschmedia, Antiaris, Maesopsis, Khaya, Milicia and Ocotea also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers parts of the Bombo, upper Muzi and lower Muzi catchments. The Mayonyo river supplies Kitivo.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forested area: 44% is cultivation under forest, 25% is exploited moist forest and 31% is intact moist forest. Logging has been by pitsawing (7%) and mechanized (9%). In 1987 cardamon fields in the reserve were cleared. At one time there was a village in Kilanga and Lutindi reserves. There is still some cultivation for cardamon and cannabis.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing is continuing. Boundary planting is continuing with Eucalyptus and Cassia. The nearest nursery is at Kizara, 1 km from the western border. Exploited and cultivated areas need regenerating. The high level of agricultural encroachment suggest a need for agricultural extension. The Amani management plan suggests combining and extending Kilanga-Lutindi-Nkombola.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview and letter from Mr. Syimbi.

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LUTINDI Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration :
Variation : GN 458 of 1961
Border map : Jb 544 (1:10 000) 1961
Topographical map : 110/3
Gazetted area : 10 000 acres (4 047 ha) (or 2150 ha) FINNIDA reports give 2 176 ha for the gazetted area, the difference must be something to do with the variation order.
Measured area : 2 165 ha
Measured boundary length :
LOCATION: 4_ 51′ – 4_ 55′ S 38_ 37′ – 38_ 39′ E

75 km from Korogowe, 25 km from Mashewa. Access on the eastern side is from Kizara village which is reached from the Mashewa to Gombero road. Access is also possible from Amani through Bulwa but the road is not maintained. The reserve covers a south west to north east running ridge outlying from the north west part of the Usambara mountains between the Lwengera and Bombo valleys. It is continuous with Kilanga FR on the eastern edge. The reserve peaks at Nilo and has an altitudinal range of 500 m to 1506 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic climate with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station …… Estimated rainfall …… Dry season…… Temperature range ……..

VEGETATION:

Of the measured area of 2165 ha, 1900 ha is forest. The forest is mostly disturbed or drier submontane forest, submontane forest with a small amount of lowland forest (vegetation types A, B, C, E, F, H of the FINNIDA survey).

Impoverished (possibly old secondary) submontane forest: Newtonia, Isoberlinia, Macaranga, Myrianthus, Sorindeia.

Impoverished submontane forest: Myrianthus, Sorindeia, Newtonia, Isoberlinia and Allanblackia stuhlmannii.

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia, Greenwayodendron, Strombosia, Cephalosphaera and Sorindeia.

Submontane forest at lower altitudes: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Myrianthus, Trilepisium.

Disturbed submontane forest at lower altitudes: Myrianthus, Ficus sur, Harungana, Macaranga, Sapium, Maesa, Bridelia.

Lowland forest at lower altitudes: Antiaris, Pachystela, Milicia, Zanha, Markhamia.

TIMBER VALUES:

Newtonia and Isoberlinia occur in quantity. Beilschmedia, Antiaris, Maesopsis, Khaya, Milicia, and Ocotea also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the Lwengera and Bombo catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forested area: 47% is cultivation under forest, 17% is exploited moist forest and 36% is intact moist forest. Logging has been by pitsawing (14%) and mechanized (14%) with 2% a mixture of pitsawing and mechanized. In 1987 cardamom fields in the reserve were cleared. At one time there was a village inside Kilanga and Lutindi reserves.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Most of the boundary has been cleared and planted. Cement beacons have been prepared and are ready to be placed on the boundary to provide markers on the existing direction trenches. The nearest nursery is at Kizara, 1 km from the eastern border. Exploited and cultivated areas need regenerating. The high level of agricultural encroachment suggests a need for agricultural extension. The Amani management plan suggests combining and extending Kilanga-Lutindi-Nkombola.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview and letter from Mr. Syimbi.

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MNYUZI SCARP Catchment Forest Reserve

Korogwe District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : 1958 or 1951?
Declaration : GN 296 of 20/6/1958
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 370 (1:10 000) 1957
Topographical map : 130/1
Gazetted area : 1 665 acres (674 ha)
Measured area : 581 ha
Measured boundary length : 16.2 km
LOCATION: 5_ 07′ – 5_ 10′ S 38_ 34′ – 38_ 36′ E

20 km from Korogwe. Magunga Sisal Estate. The reserve covers the south west escarpment of the East Usambara above Magunga and Magazini from an altitude of 365 m to 1000 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station …… Estimated rainfall ……. Dry season …… Temperature range ………

VEGETATION:

Classified from aerial photography as poorly stocked forest (FINNIDA survey).

TIMBER VALUES:

Khaya nyasica is reported.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and should contain endemic species, though they may be too dry to be particularly rich.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers parts of the Pangani and Lwengera catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

There is possibly some encroachment. There is some logging for Khaya.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border is clearly marked with teak, but needs clearing and some surveying. Exploited areas need regenerating.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Syimbi.

Muheza District

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AMANI-SIGI Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 43 of 1943
Variation order : GN 212 of 23/6/61
Border map : Jb 30, Jb 505 (1:10 000) 1966 perhaps this was redrawn in 1966 but the variation order refers to this map in 1961.
Topographical maps : 130/1
Gazetted area : 2 822 acres (1 142 ha)
Measured area : 1 153 ha
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION: 5_ 06′ – 5_ 08′ S 38_ 38′ – 38_ 40′ E

Access is from the Muheza to Amani road which crosses the northern part of the reserve beyond Kisiwani. In the north it is continuous with Amani East FR, to the west it is bordered by Kwamkoro FR and in the south it is bordered by Kwamsambia FR Description. The reserve covers hilly country on the eastern edge of the East Usambara mountains from 330 m to 1080 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 1153 ha, 1140 ha is forest. The forest is disturbed or drier submontane forest, submontane forest and lowland forest (vegetation types B, C, E, G of the FINNIDA survey).

Impoverished submontane forest: Myrianthus, Sorindeia, Newtonia, Isoberlinia and Allanblackia stuhlmannii.

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia, Greenwayodendron, Strombosia, Cephalosphaera and Sorindeia.

Submontane forest at lower altitudes: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Myrianthus, Trilepisium.

Lowland forest at higher altitudes: Funtumia, Leptonychia, Tabernaemontana, Pachystela, Ficus, Afrosersalisia and Macaranga.

TIMBER VALUES:

Cephalosphaera, Newtonia, Beilschmedia, Antiaris, and Isoberlina occur in quantity. Maesopsis, Khaya, Milicia and Ocotea also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species. This reserve is particularly rich as it is on a wetter part of the East Usambara.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers an important part of the upper Sigi and Kihuhwi catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forest area: 51% is exploited and 49% is intact. Logging has been by pitsawing (39%) and mechanised (7%). Some encroachment is also reported.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 9 km of boundary has been cleared and planted with teak as part of the IUCN project. Exploited areas need regenerating. Clearing and filling gaps in boundary planting is continuing. The Amani management plan suggests combining Amani-Sigi with Kwamsambia and the remaining intact southern part of Kwamkoro to create a Nature Reserve. A new boundary of 6 km would then be drawn between the Maesopsis plantation and the Nature Reserve.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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AMANI WEST Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 196 of 3/6/1955
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 217
Topographical map : 130/1
Gazetted area : 357 acres (145 ha)
Measured area : 159 ha
Boundary length :
LOCATION: 5_ 06′ S 38_ 37′ E

Access is from the Amani – Kwamkoro road which traverses the reserve. It is adjacent to the Amani National Institute of Malarial Research and covers hilly ground and a swampy valley in the centre of the East Usambara with altitudinal range of 900 m to 975 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrosols with inundated soils in waterlogged areas. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually yellowish red sandy clays or sandy loams; highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of a total measured area of 159 ha, 149 ha is forest. The forest is disturbed submontane forest and submontane forest (vegetation types C, D and F of the FINNIDA survey).

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia, Greenwayodendron, Strombosia, Cephalosphaera and Sorindeia.

Disturbed submontane forest: Macaranga, Harungana and Anthocleista.

Disturbed submontane forest at lower altitudes: Myrianthus, Ficus sur, Harungana, Macaranga, Sapium, Maesa, Bridelia.

The swampy valley contains Hallea and Voacanga.

TIMBER VALUES:

Cephalosphaera, Newtonia, Maesopsis and Isoberlinia occur in quantity. Beilschmedia and Khaya also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the upper Sigi catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The reserve is mostly exploited forest with some small areas of encroachment and a man-made forest. There is a building in the centre of the reserve.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Approximately 5km for border is being maintained and border planting gaps filled with Eucalyptus and Cedrela. Exploited areas need regenerating. The Amani management plan suggests that the reserve has a special historical interest in biological research, is easily accessible for visitors and so should be handled in a special way.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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BAMBA Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 405 of 1958
Variation order : GN 372 of 1968
Border map : Jb 393 (1:25 000) 1957
Topographical maps : 110/4, 130/2
Gazetted area : 2 740 acres (1 109 ha)
Measured area : 1 131 ha
Boundary length :
LOCATION: 4_ 55′ – 5_ 00′ S 38_ 46′ – 38_ 47′ E

Access to the north side is from Churwa which is reached from the Mashewa – Gombelo road. The reserve covers hilly country on the eastern side of the East Usambara, west of Gombelo, and east of Kwamgumi and Segoma FRs with an altitudinal range of 185 m to 760 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile than soils at higher altitudes.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the 1131 ha reserve area, 981 is forest. This is mostly exploited forest with poorly stocked forest and areas of barren land. Otherwise no data.

TIMBER VALUES:

No data

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and will be rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the lower Sigi and part of the upper Muzi catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The forest has been exploited.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The border is marked with trees and planting of gaps in the boundary has started. About 12 km has been surveyed. Exploited areas need regenerating. The Amani management plan suggests combining Bamba-Kwamgumi-Segoma.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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KAMBAI Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 2100 (1:25 000) 1985
Topographical map :
Gazetted area : 1 050 ha proposed
Boundary length :
LOCATION:

SOILS:

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

No vegetation types indicated in FINNIDA survey

TIMBER VALUES:

Not indicated in FINNIDA survey.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

Presumably Eastern Arc type forests.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the middle Sigi catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Aerial photography of the FINNIDA survey indicates exploited moist forest with a small amount of cultivation.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 11 km of the border has been cleared and planted as part of the IUCN project. The reserve is still to be gazetted.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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KWAMARIMBA Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration :
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 189 (1:25 000) 1954 (1951 in FINNIDA report)
Topographical map : 130/1
Gazetted area : 1 982 acres (802 ha)
Measured area : 889 ha
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION: 5_ 01′ – 5_ 03′ S 38_ 43′ – 38_ 44′ E

Access is from Kiwanda which is reached from Matombo on the Muheza to Amani road. The reserve covers hilly ground east of the Sigi river and Longuza FR, and north of Kiwanda. The western border is Sigi River. A native reserve of 98.8 ha is within the northern part of the reserve (this in part could account for the difference between gazetted and measured area). The altitudinal range is 150 m to 300 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. They are less leached, neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile than soils of higher altitudes.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 889 ha, 761 ha is forest. The forest is disturbed or drier lowland forest, forest margin or woodland (vegetation types H, I, J of the FINNIDA survey). The western and north western parts are rocky and bushy with few timber trees.

Lowland forest at lower altitudes: Antiaris, Pachystela, Milicia, Zanha, Markhamia.

Impoverished lowland forest: Bequaertiodendron, Markhamia, Grewia goetzenii.

TIMBER VALUES:

Antiaris and Milicia occur in quantity, Beilschmedia, Isoberlinia and Khaya also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the middle Sigi catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forested area: 54% is exploited moist forest, 5% is cultivation under forest, 29% poorly stocked forest, 12% is intact moist forest. Logging has been by both pitsawing and mechanized methods.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 10 km of the border has been cleared and clearing has been continued with planting of gaps in the boundary marking with teak and Cedrela. Exploited and cultivated areas need regenerating. The Amani mangement plan suggests that 370 ha of the rocky and bushy western and north western part of the reserve with few valuable timber species be set aside as non-exploitable forest.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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KWAMGUMI Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 195 of 3/6/1955
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 204; JB 637 (1:10 000) 1966
Topographical maps : 110/3, 110/4
Gazetted area : 2 838.8 acres (1 149 ha)
Measured area : 1 152 ha
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION: 4_ 56′ S 38_ 43′ – 38_ 47′ E

… km from Muheza. Access is from the Kwamtili Cocoa Estate which is reached through Churwa from the Mashewa to Gombelo road. The reserve covers hilly country on the western edge of the East Usambara mountains east of the Muzi river, north of Segoma FR and west of Bamba Ridge FR with an altitudinal range of 120 m to 900 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

Oceanic rainfall with oceanic temperatures. Nearest rainfall station …….. Estimated rainfall ……… Dry season ……… Temperature range ……..

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 1152 ha, 1125 is forest. There is some barren land. The forest is disturbed or drier lowland forest and lowland forest (vegetation types G and I of the FINNIDA survey).

Lowland forest at higher altitudes: Funtumia, Leptonychia, Tabernaemontana, Pachystela, Ficus, Afrosersalisia and Macaranga.

Impoverished lowland forest: Bequaertiodendron, Markhamia, Grewia goetzenii.

TIMBER VALUES:

Newtonia, Beilschmiedia, Antiaris, Isoberlinia, Khaya and Milicia occur but not in quantity.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the upper Muzi and lower Sigi catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Much of the forest has been exploited, though there is a large are of intact forest.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 15 km of boundary has been cleared and surveyed. Planting of border marking gaps with teak is continuing. Exploited areas need regenerating. The Amani management plan suggests combining Bamba-Kwamgumi-Segoma.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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MLINGA PEAK Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order :
Border map :
Topographical map :
Gazetted area : 190 ha proposed
Gazetted boundary length : 6 km proposed
LOCATION:

SOILS:

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Montane forest reported.

TIMBER VALUES:

Podocarpus latifolius reported.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species. Podocarpus latifolius occurs here at an unusually low altitude. The peak has the last remnant of forest around Mlinga.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

HUMAN IMPACTS:

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The Amani management plan has proposed the area as a forest reserve.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interviews with Mr. Kashenge and Mr. Mlowe.

MLUNGUI Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : Proposed
Declaration : Proposed
Variation order :
Border map : Survey completed
Topographical map :
Gazetted area : Proposed
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION:

SOILS:

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

No data

TIMBER VALUES:

No data

GENETIC RESOURCES:

No data

CATCHMENT VALUES:

HUMAN IMPACTS:

No data

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

The reserve is proposed and is currently under public land. The border has been surveyed and is planted with teak. Clearing has not yet been done.

LITERATURE:

Office use: Information derived from interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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MTAI Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment : German administration
Declaration : GN 306 of 1967
Variation order : GN 25 of 26/1/1968
Border map : Jb 123 (1:25 000) 1913; Jb 518 ?1968
Topographical map : 110/4, 110/3
Gazetted area : 15 000 acres (6071 ha)
Measured area : 1 765 ha. The difference between gazetted and measured must be something to do with the 1968 variation order.

Gazettedoundary length :
LOCATION: 4_ 47′ – 4_ 52′ S 38_ 48′ – 38_ 44′ E

Access is from the Mashewa to Gombelo road. The reserve covers hilly country on the north end of the East Usambara mountains, west of the Muzi valley over an altitudinal range of 200 m to 1060 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached and neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 1765 ha, 1645 ha is forest. The forest is disturbed or drier lowland forest, lowland forest, disturbed or drier submontane forest, submontane forest (vegetation types B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I of the FINNIDA survey).

Impoverished submontane forest: Myrianthus, Sorindeia, Newtonia, Isoberlinia and Allanblackia stuhlmannii.

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia, Greenwayodendron, Strombosia, Cephalosphaera and Sorindeia.

Disturbed submontane forest: Macaranga, Harungana, and Anthocleista.

Submontane forest at lower altitudes: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Myrianthus, Trilepisium.

Disturbed submontane forest at lower altitudes: Myrianthus, Ficus sur, Harungana, Macaranga, Sapium, Maesa, Bridelia.

Lowland forest at higher altitudes: Funtumia, Leptonychia, Tabernaemontana, Pachystela, Ficus, Afrosersalisia and Macaranga.

Lowland forest at lower altitudes: Antiaris, Pachystela, Milicia, Zanha, Markhamia.

Impoverished lowland forest: Bequaertiodendron, Markhamia, Grewia goetzenii.

TIMBER VALUES:

Cephalosphaera, Newtonia, and Isoberlinia occur in quantity. Antiaris, Beilschmedia, Khaya, Maesopsis, and Milicia also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the Msimbai and part of the upper Muzi catchments.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forested area: 50% is exploited moist forest, 39% is intact moist forest, 10% is poorly stocked forest and 1% is barren land. Logging has been by pitsawing (32%) and mechanised (14%). There is an old rest area on Mtai peak and a road leading to it that is reported to have been cleared in German times.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 20 km of the boundary has been cleared and gaps in boundary marking planted with Eucalyptus and teak. Exploited areas need regenerating. The Amani management plan suggests extending the reserve by 1220 ha (in another part of the report this extension area is 1037 ha) to make a new area of 2985 km with 13 km of boundary (this looks a bit odd considering that 20 km of boundary has already been cleared). The suggested extension covers the area to the south-west of the present reserve, including the important catchment area of the Muzi river valley. The area contains Khaya and there are pitsawyers working on steep slopes. Another suggestion contained in the Amani management plan is to include in the reserve the three enclaves of Mamba, Handei and Msasa with a total area of 183 ha. There is still a large village in the Mamba enclave.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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NGAMBO Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration :
Variation order :
Border map :
Topographical map :
Gazetted area :
Gazetted boundary length :
LOCATION:

SOILS:

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Not closed forest, otherwise no data.

TIMBER VALUES:

No data.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

No data.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

No data.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

Encroachment.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

About 18 km of boundary has been cleared and planted with Melia.

LITERATURE:

Office use: Information derived from interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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NKOMBOLA Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 38 of 1/2/1957
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 315 1956
Topographical map : 110/3
Gazetted area : 192 ha
Measured area : 185 ha
LOCATION: 4_ 55′ S 38_ 40′ S

61 km from Korogwe, 31 km from Mashewa. Access is from Kizara village which is reached from the Mashewa to Gombelo road; and from Amani through Bulwa though this latter road is not maintained. The reserve covers the slopes above the Kizara to Bulwa road on the upper catchment of the Semdoe river with an altitudinal range of 775 m to 1080 m. The western boundary is the Kizara to Bulwa road. The FINNIDA 1:10 000 maps of the East Usambara show the boundary between Muheza and Korogwe Districts passing through the reserve. Other maps show the reserve as completely part of Muheza District.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m) usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached, neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 185 ha, 185 ha is forest. The forest is submontane forest (vegetation types C and E of the FINNIDA survey).

Submontane forest: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Isoberlinia, Greenwayodendron, Strombosia, Cephalosphaera and Sorindeia.

Submontane forest at lower altitudes: Allanblackia stuhlmannii, Myrianthus, Trilepisium.

TIMBER VALUES:

Cephalospheara, Newtonia and Isoberlinia occur in quantity.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

CATCHMENT VALUES:

The reserve covers part of the lower Muzi catchment.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forest area: 12% is cultivation under forest, 82% is exploited and 6% is intact. Of the logging, 33% was by pitsawing and 19% by mechanized methods.

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing has started. The boundary is already planted with teak and gaps are being filled. Exploited and cultivated areas need regenerating. The Amani management plan suggests combining and extending Lutindi-Kilanga-Nkombola. The nearest nursery is at Kizara in Korogwe District. Timber stocks are fairly high. Exploited areas need regeneration. The high level of encroachment indicates the need for agricultural extension.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Landuse. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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SEGOMA Catchment Forest Reserve

Muheza District, Tanga Region
Year of establishment :
Declaration : GN 113 of 25/3/1955
Variation order :
Border map : Jb 220 (1:25 000) 1954
Topographical map : 110/4, 110/3
Gazetted area : 1 505 ha
Gazetted boundary length :
Measured area : 1 091 ha
LOCATION: 4_ 58′ S 38_ 43′ – 38_ 47′ E

Access is from the Kwamtili Cocoa Estate which is reached through Curwa from the Mashewa to Gombelo road. The reserve covers hilly country on the western edge of the East Usambara mountains east and north of the Sigi River, south of Kwamgumi FR and west of Bamba Ridge FR with an altitudinal range of 140 m to 915 m.

SOILS:

The soils are predominately ferrasols. They are generally deep to very deep (1 – 5 m), usually red or yellowish red sandy clays or sandy clay loams. Above 800 – 900 m they are highly leached and acidic (pH 4 – 5) with poor fertility. Below 800 – 900 m they are less leached, neutral (pH 6.5 – 7) and more fertile.

CLIMATE:

VEGETATION:

Of the total measured area of 1091 ha, 1039 is forest. The forest is disturbed or drier lowland forest and lowland forest (vegetation types G, H, I of the FINNIDA survey) with:

Lowland forest at higher altitudes: Funtumia, Leptonychia, Tabernaemontana, Pachystela, Ficus, Afrosersalisia and Macaranga.

Lowland forest at lower altitudes: Antiaris, Pachystela, Milicia, Zanha, Markhamia.

Impoverished lowland forest: Bequaertiodendron, Markhamia, Grewia goetzenii.

TIMBER VALUES:

Antiaris and Milicia occur in quantity, Cephalosphaera, Isoberlinia and Khaya also occur.

GENETIC RESOURCES:

The forests are of the Eastern Arc type and are rich in endemic species.

HUMAN IMPACTS:

The FINNIDA survey indicates that of the forest area: 59% is exploited, 3% is cultivation under forest, 28% is intact moist forest, 5% is poorly stocked forest, 5% is barren land. Logging has been by pitsawing (34%) and mechanised (5%).

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS:

Boundary clearing has started with about 7km cleared. Much of the boundary is along the road. The boundary is already planted with teak and gaps are being filled. The Amani management plan suggests combining Kwamgumi-Segoma-Bamba. Timber stocks are moderately high. Exploited and cultivated areas need regeneration. Encroachment indicates some need for extension work.

LITERATURE:

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Forestry. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Forest Division. 1988. Amani Forest Inventory and Management Plan Project. East Usambara Mountains. Forests and Land Use. Maps and Diagrams. FINNIDA, Helsinki.

Office use: Information derived from FINNIDA reports and interview with Mr. Kashenge.

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Last Updated: 21 March 2017