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ANACARDIACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

ANACARDIACEAE

Lannea antiscorbutica (Hiern) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muumbu (Sw).
Bole: Branchlets with stellate hairs. Small/medium. To 20 m.
owded at ends of twigs.    Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 6 – 7 cm. Terminal petiolule 2 – 4 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 14 × 2 – 7 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate/cordate. Slightly asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pink. Spike-like panicles below leaf buds. Appearing before leaves. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green. Ovoid drupe. Appearing before leaves. 0.7 – 0.9 (- 1.2) × 0.6 – 0.8 cm. Green in the early stages.
Ecology: Dry lowland thicket/woodland.
Distr: C. Tropical Southern and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The soft wood of Lannea spp. is used for making utensils such as cups, spoons and small grain mortars. The dry wood is used for starting fires and for torches for hunting at night. The bark is used for ropes and for smearing winnowing trays.
Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: L. ambigua Engl.,
L. stuhlmannii (Engl.) Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mumbu (S), Muwumbu (Z), Mnyumbu (N), Msighe (P), Msayu (Su), Muhingilo (L), Muwumbu (G), Ndelemwana (Mt), Tambaragi (Ir), Muumbu (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 22 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Flaking off in fragments up to 10 cm long.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 2 – 4 (- 6) pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Clustered at ends of branchlets. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: Petiolules: 0.1 – 0.5 cm long. Terminal petiolule 0.7 – 2.5 cm long.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 11 × 2 – 5.3 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Lateral lflts asymmetric. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/hairy. Simple/stellate.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream/green/yellow. Spikes or panicles 2 – 20 (- 40) cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Red/brown drupe 0.8 – 1.2 cm long 0.6 – 0.8 cm broad.
Ecology: Lowland dry forests. Woodlands and grasslands up to 1820 m.
Distr: Widespread in Southern and Eastern Africa.
Notes: There are four varieties.
Uses: The wood is general purpose timber for doors, bedsteads, household utensils, cart-wheels, milk pots, grain mortars and stools. The bark is used for rope making, red dye and for making tea as a blood tonic. A decoction of the bark is used by the WaPare and WaGogo for diarrhoea, stomach-ache and headache. The ripe fruits are edible. Roots are used by the WaShambaa as a bath to bring good luck. The tree is also used for live fences.
Lannea welwitschii (Hiern.) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: L. amaniensis Engl. & Krause
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muumbu (Sw), Mwmbu (S).
Bole: Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey with concentric rings. Rough/scaling.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 2 – 4 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Clustered at ends of branches. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: Petiolules: (terminal) 2 – 5 cm, (lateral) 1 – 5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 15 × 5 – 7 cm. Ovate/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy/glabrous. Stellate.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow, hairy. Subterminal axillary panicles.
Fruit: Ellipsoid drupe. 0.6 – 0.8 cm long. 0.4 – 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. West and Central Africa.
Notes: var. ciliolata Engl. is restricted to eastern Tanzania and south east Kenya.
Uses: The wood is used for household utensils such as cups, plates, milk pots; for starting fires and for grain mortars. The bark is used for rope and produces a red dye. The WaShambaa use the powder made from the dry bark for the treatment of snake bites and for wounds. The tree is also used for live fences.
Pistacia aethiopica Kokwaro
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: P. lentiscus L. var. emarginata Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ol daangudwa (M).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Brown/black.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 5 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: Rachis winged. Leaflets sessile.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 5 × 0.5 – 2 cm. Oblong-lanceolate/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/purple. Axillary racemes 1 – 5 cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green becoming red. Globose drupe 0.4 – 0.5 cm in diameter. Mango-like smell when crushed.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N. Ethiopia, Northern Somalia, Uganda, Kenya.
Notes: Young leaves red. Twigs and leaves turpentine scented when crushed.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles and for making wooden spoons by WaIraqw and WaMasai tribesmen. Gum from the bark is chewed by herdsmen and is believed to be very nutritious. The twigs are also used for toothbrushes and the bark is used for tea.
Pseudospondias microcarpa (A. Rich.) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Sorindeia obtusifoliolata Engl. var. parvifoliolata Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Omubolu (Ha), Buhono (T).
Bole: Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Grey/yellow. Falling off in large flakes.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 5 – 17 lflts. Alternate. Lflt: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: Petiolules: 0.3 – 0.1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 20 × 3 – 8 cm. Oblong-ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/midrib pubescent.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles 10 -32 (- 40) cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Blue/black drupe. Ellipsoid 1.5 – 2.5 cm long, 1 – 1.8 cm broad.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: LT, LV. West and Central Africa, Uganda, western Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is moderately soft and is used for grain mortars, stools, water troughs and canoes. It is also a good shade tree. The fruits are edible. The bark produces a red dye and is used for smearing grain trays by the WaTongwe who live on lake shore south of Kigoma.
Sorindeia madagascarensis Thouars ex DC.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: S. obtusifoliolata Engl., S. usambarensis Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwingwina (S), Mtikiza, Mpilipili (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Dark/light brown. Smooth/cracked.
Slash: Pink/red. Resinous smell.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 10 – 32 cm long. 7 – 13 leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 2.3 cm.
Lamina: Medium/small. 9 – 34 × 3 – 13 cm. Oblong/ovate. Rounded/cuneate. Asymmetrical (Terminal leaflet symmetrical). Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/orange. Panicles on older branches & trunk 20 – 95 cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Bright yellow, apiculate ellipsoid drupe. 1.5 – 2.5 cm long, 0.7 – 1.3 cm in diameter, edible.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN. South Eastern tropical Africa. Mascarenes. Madagascar.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, doors, spoons, milk pots, grain mortars, tool handles and canoe paddles, pestles and carvings. The roots are used by the WaShambaa for the treatment of tuberculosis, schistosomiasis and menstruation problems. The yellow ripe fruits are edible. The tree provides good shade and is important in agroforestry.
Trichoscypha ulugurensis Mildbr. subsp. ulugurensis
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: T. ulugurensis Mildbr.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/large. To 25 m.
Bark: Dark. Smooth/fissured in squares.
Slash: Pink, white streaks, brown/purple edge. Exudate present. White honey coloured drops.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. Up to 50 cm long. 7 – 11 lflts. Alternate. Lflt: Alternate.
Petiole: Petiolule: 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Medium/small. 5.5 -17 × 3 – 7.5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: With red hairs, in terminal panicles up to 30 cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Ovoid drupe 1.5 – 2 cm long, 1 – 1.5 cm in diameter with red hairs.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN. Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for making tool handles, knife and sword sheaths. It is also suitable for shade. However, it is believed that its leaves can cause an allergic rash when touched. So people are advised not to keep this tree near their homes.
Last Updated: 5 February 2019