info@celp.org.uk

ANNONACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

ANNONACEAE

Annickia kummeriae (Engl. & Diels) Setten & Maas
Syn. FTEA: Enantia kummeriae Engl. & Diels.
Syn. TTCL: E. kummeriae Engl. & Diels.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muaka (S), Ng’waka (S).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 30m.
Bark: Grey/brown.
Slash: Bright yellow. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate. Petiole: 0.3 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. (5 -) 7.5 – 30 × (2.5 -) 3.5 – 8.7 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Extra-axillary, solitary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Monocarps 15 – 30. Ellipsoid-oblong 3.5 cm long 1.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: EA only.
Notes: Bright yellow wood.
Uses: The wood is straight grained and splits easily. It is used for building poles, wooden spoons, tool handles and firewood. The bark produces a yellow dye which is used for colouring mats and as a spice for soup.
Annona senegalensis Pers. subsp. senegalensis
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. chrysophylla Bojer, A. chrysophylla Bojer var. porpetac (Baill.) Robyns & Ghesq.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfila (N), Mkonyo (Zn), Mrisirisi (C), Mtonkwe (S), Mtopetope (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10m.
Bark: Grey brown, rough and corrugated. Young branches ferruginous velvety to grey tomentose.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm. Glabrous to velvety tomentose. Indumentum scaly.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 19 × 2.5 – 12 cm. Oblong to ovate or elliptic. Cuneate/truncate/cordate. Round/emarginate. Papery/coriaceous. Glabrous. Midrib ferruginous velvety.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns and spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream to yellowish. Solitary fasicles. Extra axillary.
Fruit: Ovoid/globose. Orange. 2 – 5 × 2 – 4 cm. Edible.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Grassland.
Distr: Widespread in Tropical Africa, also in Madagascar and Comoro Islands.
Notes: A woodland species that also occurs in open areas in forest.
Uses: Fruits are edible. Woods used for firewood and tool handles. Used by the WaNyamwezi for medicine for stomach ache and snake bite.
Anonidium usambarense R.E. Fr.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Large.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: Channelled. 0.5 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 25 × 9 – 10 cm. Oblong/ovate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Grey. Borne on branches/trunk.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: Not recollected since 1910.
Uses: Not known.
Greenwayodendron suaveolens (Engl. & Diels) Verdc. subsp. usambaricum Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Polyalthia oliveri Engl. sensu Scheffler.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ng’wati (S).
Bole: Straight/slightly fluted. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/brown/black. Smooth/rough.
Slash: Pale brown with white streaks, yellow toward wood. Discolouring darker. Broad black edge.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 4 – 12 (- 28) × 1.6 – 5.4 (- 10) cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green-white. Extra-axillary. Male and hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Monocarps (2 -) 8 – 10 (- 13). Purple-red/brown. 1.2 – 1.8 cm long, 0.9 – 1.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only.
Notes: subsp. suaveolens is west and central African, extending to Uganda.
Uses: The wood is straight grained and splits easily. It is very much favoured by the WaShambaa for building poles, tool handles, wooden spoons and firewood.
Isolona heinsenii Engl. & Diels
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mzikoziko (S).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 4.6 – 22 × 1.7 – 8.3 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for the midrib.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green becoming yellow. Axillary. Solitary or paired. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Dark green speckled white/yellow with six raised longitudinal ribs. 6 – 10 cm long 2.4 – 2.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs, Udz).
Notes: The local name Mzikoziko means a tree for making spoons.
Uses: The wood is light and splits quite easily. It is used for building poles, firewood, tool handles and wooden spoons.
Isolona hexaloba Engl. & Diels
Syn. FTEA: I. sp. A.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mulinditi (H).
Bole: Straight. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Black. Scaling in small squares.
Slash: Pale brown with black edge darkening.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 13.5 × 2.8 – 9.2 cm. Elliptic-oblong. Rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/brown-red. Axillary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green with raised spots.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA (Udz, Ma, EUs). West and West Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Lettowianthus stellatus Diels
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth. Young stems lenticellate.
Slash: White with brown stains and a dark edge. Soft. Aromatic.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.8 cm
Lamina: Medium. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-yellow turn red, scented. Solitary in axils.
Fruit: Monocarps on long stipes, 1.2 – 1.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland and lowland forest. Riverine forest and woodland.
Distr: C, EA.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is light, used for firewood, building poles, wooden spoons and tool handles.
Monodora grandidieri Baill.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: M. veithii Engl. & Diels
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mchofu (Sw), Mkuwakuwe (S), Mkuakua (S).
Bole: Branched. Small. 2 – 12 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey, Flaking, papery. Young branchlets dark, at first greyish pubescent later glabrous lenticellate.
Slash: Layered dark brown on light brown.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm often blackish.
Lamina: Medium. Oblong/lanceolate. Cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy/glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow. Solitary. Terminal/extra axillary.
Fruit: green and white mottled, obovoid round/ellipsoid, 5 – 7.5 × 4 – 4.5 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest. Woodland and thicket.
Distr: C, EA. Somalia to Mozambique and Malawi.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is light, straight grained and flexible. It is used for firewood, building poles, tool handles, wooden spoons, bows, spear handles and carriage beams. It is also suitable as an ornamental tree because of its sweet-scented flowers.
Polyceratocarpus scheffleri Engl. & Diels
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight/branched. Large/small. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: Brown with cream streaks. Discolouring. Black edge. Granular/fibrous. Aromatic.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.6 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 16 – 30 × 5 – 10 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy when young.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary/on branches. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Monocarps up to 20. Curved/coiled. 15 – 20 cm long 2.3 – 2.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, Ul, Udz).
Notes: In the East Usambara forests it is not well known by local people and has not been seen since 1916 except only a sterile specimen collected by Mr. Ruffo from Amani in 1986.
Uses: NR.
Sanrafaelia ruffonammari Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. 2 – 6 m.
Bark: Pale brown, smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.7 cm, dark brown.
Lamina: Medium. 10.0 – 16.5 × 3.2 – 6.0 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy when young beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Solitary. Axillary. Cream outside, white inside.
Fruit: Very immature linear, pubescent. Mature unknown.
Ecology: Lowland forest, seasonal stream banks.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: Known only from Kwamgumi Forest Reserve, first collected in 1986.
Uses: NR.
Uvariodendron gorgonis Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.

Local names: Mkenene (S).
Bole: Branched. Fluted. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Dark brown/black/grey. Flaking/smooth. Branchlets grey/brown, at first covered with silky silvery or ferruginous adpressed hairs but later glabrous.
Slash: Dirty white/yellow discolouring brown. Spicy smell.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate. Lemon scented.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.2 cm. Lamina: Medium/large. 8 – 41 × 3 – 12 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy beneath.
sicles on old wood. Creamy-brown outside, maroon inside.
Fruit: Greenish, cylindrical, cauliflorous monocarps, 50 – 60. 4 – 8 × 1 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and groundwater forest.
Distr: C, EA.
Notes: Most parts lemon scented.
Uses: The light wood and is used for building poles, firewood, tool handles, beds, bows and withies.

Uvariodendron kirkii Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mnofu-wa-kuku (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 17.5 × 2.2 – 7.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream tinged dark red. Solitary/fascicles. Axillary/on old wood.
Fruit: Green/orange. Monocarps 7 – 20. Ellipsoid/oblong. 1.6 – 4.5 cm long, 1.3 – 2 cm wide.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is light and straight-grained. It is used for firewood, building poles, wooden spoons and withies. The bark is used as an antidote for snake bites and as medicine for wounds and stomach-ache in Zanzibar.
Uvariodendron oligocarpum Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Black/brown. Smooth. With horizontal rings.
Slash: White/brown/red with white streaks. Discolouring. Black edge. Fibrous. Aromatic.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 22 × 5.6 – 11.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale Yellow. Cauliflorous.
Fruit: Monocarps 3. 5 – 9.5 × 2.3 – 3.5 cm.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us).
Notes: Although it is quite common at Ambangulu and Kwamkoro, it was only described scientifically in 1986.
Uses: It has moderately light wood used for building poles, firewood, tool handles, wooden spoons, beds and withies.
Uvariodendron pyncophyllum (Diels) R.E. Fr.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkenene (S).
Bole: Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Flaking off in plates.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.7 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 15 – 28 × 2.5 – 6.5 cm. Oblong/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Silvery-silky. Axillary. Solitary.
Fruit: Monocarp 2.5 cm long 1.6 cm wide. Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The WaShambaa use this species for building poles, firewood, tool handles and knife sheaths.
Uvariodendron usambarense R.E. Fr.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkenene (S).
Bole: Straight. Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Brown/grey. Smooth/flaking.
Slash: Pale brown. Black edge. Fibrous. Faint aromatic smell.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.8 – 1.2 cm. Lamina: Large. 30 – 50 cm × 8 – 16 cm. Oblong/lanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-yellow/dark red. Cauliflorous.
Fruit: Monocarps about 15. Oblong-cylindric 3.5 – 7 cm long, 2 – 2.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, Ng).
Notes: Distinctive large leaves.
Uses: Used by the WaShambaa for firewood, building poles, tool handles and beds. It is also left in fields as a shade tree and as ornamental because of its attractive large dark-green leaves.
Uvariopsis bisexualis Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Brown.
Slash: Pale yellow-brown with brown streaks and black edge. Fibrous. Slightly acrid smell.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 13.4 – 15 × 3.7 – 4.8 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary. Solitary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Not known.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz, EUs).
Notes: Only known from few collections.
Uses: NR.
Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: X. eminii Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlawia, Msofu (S). Mchofu (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Buttressed. Large. To 45 m.
Bark: Light brown/grey.
Slash: Variable. Yellow/brown/cream with brown streaks. Hard. Granular/fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small. 8 – 16 × 3 – 7 cm. Oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream-green. Axillary. Solitary or in 3 – 5 flowered fasicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Up to 40 clustered green/red monocarps 1.5 – 6 cm long, 0.5 – 0.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane, montane forest.
Distr: EA, LV. Tropical South, Central and West Africa.
Notes: Finger like flowers.
Uses: The wood is used as a general purpose timber for firewood, tool handles, beds, oxen yokes, knife sheaths and spear handles. It is also used as a shade tree. Fruits are used as medicine for stomach-ache, coughs, dizziness, amenorrhoea, bronchitis and dysentery.
Xylopia longipetala De Wild. & T. Durand
Syn. FTEA: X. parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth.
Syn. TTCL: X. antunesii Engl. & Diels, X. holtzii Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kahwibili (T), Mlawia (S), Msofu (S), Mchofu (Sw).
Bole: Straight/buttressed. Small/large. 6 – 24 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth. Branchlets red to purplish black.
Slash: Cream, discolouring slightly, black edge. Slightly aromatic.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4.5 – 11 × 1 – 4.7 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous, densely adpressed pubescent below.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green. Axillary. Solitary to 2 – 4 flowers.
Fruit: Clusters of monocarps, obovoid/cylindric 1 – 3.7 × 0.7 – 1 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: For timber, building poles, tool handles, beds and for making domestic utensils. The tree is also suitable for shade near houses or in farmland. The bark is used as medicine for snake bites and stomach-ache.
Xylopia rubescens Oliv.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mchofu (Sw).
Bole: Stilt roots. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.8 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. (7 -) 9 – 21.5 × (2.2) 4 – 8.5 cm. Oblong/elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Orange-yellow/green-yellow, crimson base. Axillary. Solitary/2 – 5 flowered fasicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Monocarps 1 – 11, green. 2 – 7 cm long, 0.8 – 1.2 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine and swamp forest.
Distr: LT. Tropical West, Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: Usually found near rivers and swamps.
Uses: Timber tree. Other uses include firewood, building poles, beds and shade.
Species of uncertain generic position = Ede 65
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight/fluted. Medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Dark purple-brown. Flaking slightly.
Slash: Pink-brown with thin yellow fibres and cream granules in deep pink background.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: Channeled above. 0.5 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 13.5 – 15 × 6 – 9 cm. Oblong. Rounded. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Only known from a bud.
Fruit: Monocarps about 9. Probably large.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: Only known from fragmentary material.
Uses: NR.
Last Updated: 5 February 2019