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BIGNONIACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

BIGNONIACEAE

Fernandoa magnifica Seem.
Syn. FTEA: NP.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbomba, Mtalawanda (Sw), Muuwa-uwa (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/large. To 30 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Rough. Deeply fissured. Prominent yellow/white lenticels.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 4 – 7 pairs leaflets. Opposite. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 2.5 – 9 cm. Petiolule: Petiolules sessile, except terminal one reaching 3 cm.
Lamina: Leaf: 5 – 25 cm. Leaflet: Medium. 3 – 14 × 2 – 6 cm. Lanceolate/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Acute/acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Orange/crimson with yellow centre. Axillary racemose cyme. Borne before leaves.
Fruit: Pale brown slender flattened long twisted capsule. 33 – 54 × 1.2 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest and edge. Woodland.
Distr: C. Coastal Kenya to Tropical South East Africa.
Notes: Distinct red flowers in the dry season. The local name Mtalawanda means a clog tree.
Uses: The wood is white and light and used for firewood, tool handles, and knife sheaths. The tree is used as an ornamental because of its large red flowers. Roots are used as medicine for chest pains, fatigue and constipation by WaShambaa.
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NP.
Syn. TTCL: K. aethiopica Decne., K. aethiopica var. usambarica Sprague, K. pinnata (Jacq.) DC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtandi (Ng), Mvungwa (N), Mwegea (Sw), Sausage tree (E).
Bole: Straight/branched. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth/flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 3 – 5 pairs leaflets. 3 – 30 cm long. Opposite/whorls of 3. At ends of branches. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 3.5 – 14 cm. Petiolule: 1 – 4 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 4 – 20 × 3 – 11 cm. Ovate/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetrical. Acute/obtuse. Entire/serrate. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Deep red with yellow veins, unpleasantly scented. Hanging terminal panicles.
Fruit: Grey. Hanging sausage. 100 × 18 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Riverine. Woodland. Grassland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Widespread Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for bee hives, drums, water troughs, mortars, stools, milk pots and canoes. The fruits are used for fermenting local beer. The leaves and stem bark are used as medicine for venereal diseases, rheumatism, malaria, infertility, dysentery, epilepsy and headache. The tree is good for ornamental purposes because of its large red flowers and its hanging sausage-like large fruits. It is also used as a bee forage tree.
Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K.Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NP.
Syn. TTCL: M. hildebrandtii (Benth.) Sprague, M. platycalyx Sprague
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kabulampako (T), Mtalawanda (Sw).
Bole: Fluted. Medium. To 30 m.
Bark: Brown/red. Finely fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 7 – 11 lflts. Opposite. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Medium. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous/hairy beneath.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Pseudostipules orbicular foliaceous.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Yellow. Axillary or terminal panicles.
Fruit: Brown. Twisted. Linear 40 – 80 cm long.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Widespread Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, timber for general purpose, building poles, spoons, tool handles and knife sheaths. The tree is used for ornamental purposes, bee forage, shade, avenue, mulch and soil conservation. Leaves and bark are used as medicine for tooth-ache(as a gargle) and for convulsion in children. Roots are also used by WaShambaa against venereal diseases and for preventing abortion.
Markhamia obtusifolia (Baker) Sprague
Syn. FTEA: NP.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbapa (N), Mguoguo (G), Mpugupugu (Ng), Mtalawanda (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 15 m
Bark: Light brown to grey, smooth to somewhat striated. Branchlets velvet tomentose.
Slash: Succulent with strict dark brown on white.
Leaf: Odd pinnnate. Lflt: 4 pairs. Opposite.
Petiole: 2 – 9.5 cm. Leaflet sessile. Rachis: 18 – 56 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 6.5 – 5.17 × 2.3 – 9.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong/ovate/obovate. Cuneate/cordate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/round/acute/acuminate. Entire. Thinly pubescent.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Pseudostipules subulate.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Bright yellow, terminal branched panicle.
Fruit: Capsule. 20.84 × 1.8 – 2.5 cm, nearly straight flattened.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Grassland.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT, LV. Widespread Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles, poles and spoons. The tree is used for shade, ornament and bee forage.
Markhamia zanzibarica (Bojer ex DC.) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NP.
Syn. TTCL: M. acuminata (Klotzsch) K. Schum., M. puberula (Klotzsch) K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtalawanda (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth or rough. Peeling.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate 2 – 4 pairs. Opposite. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 2 – 7 cm. Sometimes winged. Petiolules: To 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Leaf up to 35 cm long. Leaflets: Medium. 2 – 25 × 2 – 13 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire/serrate. Slightly hairy.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Black glands near near the midrib.
Stipules: Pseudostipules. 0.5 – 2 cm in diameter.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green with maroon flecks. Terminal/axillary lax panicle or raceme.
Fruit: Slender capsule 22 – 68 × 1 – 2 cm. Seeds winged.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Riverine. Woodland. Grassland.
Distr: C, LT. Southern and Eastern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for building poles, firewood, charcoal, carvings, bedsteads, steads, spoons, building poles, tool handles, bows, carriage beams, clubs and fencing posts. The bark is dried and pounded for use as medicine for venereal diseases especially syphilis. Roots are used to cure stomach-ache.
Last Updated: 15 June 2017