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CANELLACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

CANELLACEAE

Warburgia elongata Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkaa, Msokonoi (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small.
Bark: Grey-brown. Smooth. Scattered red-brown lenticels.
Slash: Thin.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Eliptic/oblong/lanceolate. Cuneate/narrowly winged. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Dense pellucid-punctate glands in the lamina and petals.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary solitary or two flowered cyme. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Berry. Elongated to 6 × 2 cm.
Ecology: Lowland riverine and groundwater forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: Fruit ellipsoid, elongated.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, building poles, tool handles, beds and carvings. The bark is chewed and the juice swallowed in order to treat stomach-ache, constipation, hernia, fever, tooth-ache, generalized body pains, joint and muscle pains. The bark powder is taken in small quantities – a teaspoonful in soup or cup of tea daily for prevention of different diseases by the WaMasai. The tree is used for shade and ornamental purposes.
Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkaa, Msokonoi (Sw)
Bole: Straight. Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Yellow/black-grey. Flaking in irregular patches.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 10 × 1 – 3 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Lamina and petals gland dotted.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green. Axillary, solitary or cyme of 3 – 4. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green berry. 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C. South East Kenya.
Notes: Fruit globose.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, carvings, wooden spoons, beds, building poles and grain mortars. The bark is used as a medicine for stomach-ache, fever, malaria, hernia, tooth-ache, generalized body pains and for eradicating intestinal worms. The tree is used for shade and ornamental purposes.
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague subsp. longifolia Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkaa, Msokonoi (Sw).
Bole: Medium. To 27 m.
Bark: Yellow/black-grey. Splitting into irregular patches.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 7 – 12 × 1.7 – 2.1 cm. Oblong/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Lamina and petals gland dotted.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary solitary or cyme of 3 – 4 flowers. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green to purple when ripe. Berry. Up to 5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: Leaves oblong-lanceolate.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, poles, charcoal, stools, carvings, spoons and grain mortars. The bark is used as medicine for many human diseases including stomach-ache, fever, colds, headache, stomach-ache, hernia, malaria, toothache, intestinal problems, generalized body pains, fatigue and constipation. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague subsp. ugandensis
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mhangana (H), Mlifu (S), Mkaa, Msokonoi(Sw), Olsokonoi (M).
Bole: Straight. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Dark brown to black-grey. Splitting into rectangular scales.
Slash: Red with fine streaks. Scanty sticky sap.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 15 × 1.4 – 5 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Lamina and petals gland dotted.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary 3 – 4 flowered cymes, or solitary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green becoming purple. Berry. Up to 5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Groundwater, and dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LV. East, East Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, poles, charcoal, stools, carvings and grain mortars. The bark is used as medicine for stomach-ache, malaria, fever, toothache, generalized body pains and stomach worms. Leaves are used for fodder. The tree is used for shade and amenity. The resin is used for glue.
Last Updated: 16 June 2017