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CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

CHRYSOBALANACEAE (ROSACEAE in FTEA)

Hirtella megacarpa R.A. Graham
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: Sometimes regarded as a synonym of H. zanzibarica Oliv. Under Rosaceae in FTEA.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight/fluted. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale brown/dark brown/black. Scaling/flaking in strips.
Slash: Pink-orange/red. Hard with darker vertical lines. Granular. Slight cream exudate.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Small. 8 × 2.8 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate/caudate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Small.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green. Hard. Oblong-ovoid. 3.5 – 4 × 1.8 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA Only (WUs, Udz).
Notes: Leaves with markedly reticulate venation below, 3 times as long as broad.
Uses: NR.
Hirtella zanzibarica Oliv. subsp. subsp. zanzibarica
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: H. zanzibarica Oliv.
Syn. other: Under Rosaceae in FTEA.
Local names: Mkonechacha, Mwawa (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Black.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.4 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. Up to 12 × 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/slighty hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Stalked or sessile glands on bracts.
Stipules: Present. Up to 0.5 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-white. Terminal or axillary thyrse. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Dark brown, ellipsoid drupe. 1.8 – 2.3 × 1.1 – 1.2 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and dry lowland forest.
Distr: C, LN. Tropical Eastern Africa.
Notes: Leaves 2 times as long as broad.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, spoons and mortars. The tree is used for shade and bee forage. The fruits are edible.
Magnistipula butayei De Wild. subsp. greenwayi (Brenan) F. White
Syn. FTEA: M. butayei De Wild. var. greenwayii (Brenan) R. Grah.
Syn. TTCL: Hirtella sapinii (De Wild.) A.Chev. var. greenwayi Brenan
Syn. other: Under Rosaceae in FTEA and TTCL.
Local names: Mlawia (S).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 8.5 – 15.5 × 3.2 – 5 cm. Oblong/elliptic/oblanceolate. Cordate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Falling or persistant.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal/axillary raceme of cymules. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Drupe up to 5 × 3 cm.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs). Democratic Republic of Congo.
Notes: Other subspecies are West and Central African.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, wooden spoons and mortars. The tree is used for shade and is important for bee forage. Leaves are crushed and the powder is applied on babies’ umbilical cords as a disinfectant.
Maranthes goetzeniana (Engl.) Prance
Syn. FTEA: Parinari goetzeniana Engl.
Syn. TTCL: P. goetzeniana Engl.
Syn. other: Included in Rosaceae in FTEA & TTCL.
Local names: Banko, Fuzu (S), Ng’anga (S).
Bole: Straight. Buttressed. Large. To 50 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Flaking in patches/smooth.
Slash: Dark red with pale grey edge. Slight milky exudate.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Medium. 8 – 15 × 4 – 6.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: 2 glands on petiole.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green-white. Panicle. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Black drupe.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: EA (EUs). Tropical Eastern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is very hard and is used for railway sleepers, firewood, charcoal, building poles, tool handles and yokes. The tree is used for shade and bee forage. Fruits are sometimes eaten.
Parinari excelsa Sabine
Syn. FTEA: P. excelsa Sabine subsp. holstii (Engl.) R. Grah.
Syn. TTCL: P. whytei Engl.
Syn. other: Rosaceae in FTEA & TTCL.
Local names: Mbula (Sw), Muula (S), Msawula (H).
Bole: Straight/buttressed. Large. To 45 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth/rough.
Slash: Pink/red. Fibrous/granular. Hisses when cut to the wood.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5.5 – 12 × 1.5 – 3.5 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: 2 glands on the upper side of the petiole or at the junction of the petiole with the blade.
Stipules: Present. Falling. 2 × 0.2 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Terminal/axillary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Brown with white spots. Ellipsoid drupe. 5 × 3.2 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland, submontane, montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT, LV. Widespread in Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, mortars, tool handles and building poles. The tree is used for shade in coffee farms and is also important for bee forage. The fruit pulp and kennel are edible.
Last Updated: 16 June 2017