info@celp.org.uk

EUPHORBIACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

EUPHORBIACEAE

Antidesma membranaceum Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muindi (S).
Bole: Fluted. Small buttresses. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Rough/smooth. Vertical fissures.
Slash: Pink/red with dark brown lines, pale yellow edge. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 10 × 2 – 5 cm. Oblong/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Present. 0.4 – 0.8 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green. Racemes/spikes. Dioecious.
Fruit: Pink/black when ripe, small drupe. 0.5 – 0.7cm long when dry.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater, dry lowland, lowland forests. Woodland. Thickets.
Distr: C, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves markedly more acuminate with less indumentum than A. venosum.
Uses: The wood is used for tool handles, wooden spoons, firewood and knife sheaths. Roots are used as medicine for pneumonia and as a tonic for Kwashiorkor by the WaDigo. Roots are scraped and used to treat mouth ulcers in children. Leaves are used as medicine for stomach-ache and snake bites by the WaShambaa. Tree is used for shade.
Antidesma venosum E. Mey. ex Tul.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mwinamia-ziwa, Mtimagoa, Musaga (Sw), Msekela (N).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey-brown. Fibrous. Smooth to lightly fissured.
Slash: Wood white/pale brown.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 10 × 2 – 5 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Present. Small. 0.4 – 0.8 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-white/yellow. Axillary spikes. Dioecious.
Fruit: Pink/black. Flattened drupe 0.3 – 0.5cm when dry.
Ecology: Riverine and dry lowland forest. Woodland. Grassland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: The local name Mwinaniaziwa means a tree leaning towards the lake.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles and knife sheaths. The leaves and roots are chewed as a remedy for snake bites, stomach-ache and hook worm. Seeds are steeped in water and drunk for liver complaints. Roots are also known to be very bitter, emetic, poisonous and used as a fish poison. Fruits are sometimes eaten.
Antidesma vogelianum Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mwinamia-ziwa (Sw).
Bole: Straight/branched. Large/small.
Bark: Pale grey/brown. Flaking slightly. Lenticels.
Slash: Pink. Soft. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 10 × 2 – 5 cm. Oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on midrib beneath. Coriaceous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Present. Small. 0.4 – 0.8 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-white/yellow. Axillary spikes. Dioecious.
Fruit: Pink/black. Flattened drupe. 0.7 – 0.9cm long when dry.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater, dry lowland, lowland and submontane forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves almost glabrous, except on the midrib.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles and knife sheaths. Leaves and roots are used for treating snake bites and stomach-ache. Roots are pounded and used as a fish poison.
Aristogeitonia monophylla Airy Shaw
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Smooth, rugulose, greyish brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 6 – 32 × 2 – 13 cm. Ellptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present, falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Whitish yellowish, pseudohermaphrodite, cauliflorous.
Fruit: Trigonous shiny red/purple. 0.7 cm. 3 valved cocci. 1 – 1.2 cm long. 1.2 – 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest on limestone.
Distr: C. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Bridelia atroviridis Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkarati (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Reticulate/rough, branchlets purplish brown, lenticellate.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 15 × 3 – 7 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous on surface/hairy on midrib on both sides.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present. Linear-lanceolate. 0.5 – 0.8 mm long.
Thorns & Spines: Blunt straight spines on main stems.
Flower: Green/red. Dense axillary clusters. Monoecious.
Fruit: Green becoming black, berry like. 0.6 – 0.8 × 0.5 – 0.8 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, secondary lowland forest and forest edges. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves black on drying. The local name Mkarati means hard tree.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles, tool handles, wooden spoons, and withies.
Bridelia brideliifolia (Pax) Fedde
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkarati (Sw), Lihapi (H).
Bole: Straight/crooked. Small/medium. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/brown/red-brown. Smooth/flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 15 × 3 – 7 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on nerves beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Trunk sometimes spiny.
Flower: Pale yellow-green. Terminal leafless spikes or panicles. Monoecious.
Fruit: Black drupe.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Lateral nerves running directly to the margin.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, tool handles, firewood, charcoal, building poles and stools.
Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kamembe (T), Mkarati, Mtutu (Sw), Msumba (L), Mwaru (C), Mwesa (H), Mwiza (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Grey/brown/black. Smooth/fissured/flaking.
Slash: Dark red. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1 cm. Round.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 15 × 3 – 8 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy beneath. Simple.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present. Small, pubescent. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Present. Trunk & branches usually with woody thorns.
Flower: White/yellow. Axillary clusters. Monoecious
Fruit: Green/black. Berry-like.
Ecology: Edges and pioneer of lowland, montane, dry montane and riverine forest. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV, Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves usually have brown spots.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, tool handles, pestles, mortars, stools, bedsteads, poles and wooden spoons. The bark is boiled and drunk to cure stomach-ache and tapeworm. The bark is also used by the WaMasai for treating dysentery in children and for diarrhoea. The bark can be cooked with soup and mixed with milk and given to children as a tonic. Roots are used by the WaShambaaa for treating allergies, gonorrhoea, headache and prolapse of the rectum. The leaf sap is used to cure sore eyes. The tree is used for shade and agroforestry. Fruits are edible.
Cleistanthus polystachyus Hook. f. ex Planch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. amaniensis Jabl., C. sp. 3
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msala (S).
Bole: Straight/fluted/slightly buttressed. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey-brown. Smooth/finely fissured vertically/flaking.
Slash: Pink/brown with darker lines or dark red on younger trees, yellow toward wood.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. (3 -) 4 – 16 × 1 – 6 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Linear 0.7 – 1 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/cream. Fragrant. Axillary/subterminal. Inflorescence solitary. Pseudoracemose up to 20 flowers.
Fruit: Green. Trilobate-subglobose. 0.9 – 1.2 cm long, 1.1 – 1.3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, poles, tool handles and for making animal traps by tying snares on the small poles of this species.
Croton dictyophlebodes Radcl.-Sm.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. sp. 8
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mshinduzi (S). Bole: Straight. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Slightly fissured into squares or vertically/smooth.
Slash: Pale brown/yellow-brown/pale yellow with paler broad streaks in larger trees. Brown edge. Soft.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. (3 -) 5 – 10.5 × 2.5 – 6 cm. Ovate. Cordate/rounded. Acuminate/obtuse. Serrate. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath. Stellate.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: 2 sessile discoid glands at leaf base.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale yellow. Terminal racemes. Dioecious.
Fruit: Subglobose/subtrilobed. 1.3 – 1.4 cm long, 1.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Montane and dry montane forest.
Distr: EA only (WUs).
Notes: Closely related to C. sylvaticus Hochst.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, beehives, knife sheaths and water troughs. The leaves are used for fodder. The fruits are used as medicine for intestinal worms. The tree is used for shade.
Croton jatrophoides Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msinduzi (Sw), Mshinduzi (Sh).
Bole: Small/medium. To 19 m.
Bark: Pale pinkish/greyish brown for older twigs.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 3 – 7cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 15 × 4 – 12 cm. Ovate. To 5 lobed. Cuneate/cordate. Acute/acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: 2 small basal glands.
Stipules: Present. Falling. 0.1 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Terminal racemes.
Fruit: Bilobed, ovoid 0.8 – 1.9cm long.
Ecology: Riverine. Lowland forest edge and clearings.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, beehives, water containers and knife sheaths. The fruits are used as medicine for intestinal worms by WaShambaa. Roots are strongly scented and used for colds and stomach-ache. The leaves are used for fodder. The tree is used for shade.
Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Delile
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. macrostachyus Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ibonobono (T), Msinduzi (Sw), Mshinduzi (S), Muvulugu (H), Mzululwa (F).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Smooth/small fissures.
Slash: Cream layered yellow/orange. Smells peppery.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 11 cm. Round.
Lamina: Medium. 4 – 15 × 2 – 10 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cordate/rounded. 5 – 7 (- 9) nerved. Acuminate/obtuse. Serrate. Hairy. Stellate.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. 2 – 4 (- 8) discoid glands at leaf base.
Stipules: Present. Lanceolate 0.5 – 1.4 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green. Terminal racemes.
Dioecious/monoecious.
Fruit: 3 – 4 lobed. 0.8 – 0.9 cm long 8 – 1.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland and dry montane forest. Pioneer.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood and as rough timber for general purposes, also for making beehives, water pots, stools and tool handles. Roots and fruits are used by WaMasai for stomach worms, constipation and as a purgative. Leaves are used for treating colds and coughs. Roots are used by WaKikuyu for malaria and venereal diseases. The bark and roots are boiled and bathed to cure rashes in children. Leaf juice hastens blood clotting on fresh wounds. Fruits are used for stomach worms but are also poisonous. The leaves are used for fodder. The tree is used for shade.
Croton megalocarpus Hutch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Marabai (Me), Mlalai (C), Muhande (P), Muhihi (Ha), Nyaki (C), Olmergoit (M).
Bole: Small/large. 15 – 25 m up to 35 m.
Bark: Dark grey/pale grey-brown. Closely fissured.
Slash: Yellow-brown, minutely mottled.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 2 – 8 cm. With stellate hairs.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 14 × 3 – 7 cm. Oblong/ovate/elliptic-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy. Stellate.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: 2 to 4 sessile or stalked glands at lamina base.
Stipules: Present. Linear 0.5 – 1 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Silvery lepidote/greenish yellow. Terminal racemes 7.5 – 30 cm long. Monoecious/dioecious.
Fruit: Ellipsoid. 3 – 4.5 cm long 2.5 – 3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LT, LV. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, beehives, stools, mortars, charcoal and poles. The bark is used as medicine for intestinal worms and whooping cough. The tree is used for shade, hedges, amenity and bee forage.
Croton sylvaticus Hochst.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. bukobensis Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msinduzi(Sw), Mshinduzi (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale yellow/brown/grey. Smooth/slightly fissured with vertical lines of lenticels.
Slash: Pale yellow/brown with occasional vertical brown streaks. Aromatic.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 3 – 7 cm. Round.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 15 × 4 – 8 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. 3 – 5 (- 7) nerved. Acuminate/acute. Serrate. Stellate hairs beneath/glabrous above.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: 2 (- 4) subsessile or stipitate discoid glands at the lamina base. Stalked glands in leaf serrations.
Stipules: Present. Linear/lanceolate 0.6 – 0.8 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green. Terminal racemes 10 – 30 cm long. Monoecious.
Fruit: 3-lobed. Subglobose. 0.7 – 1.1 cm long 0.5 – 1 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland and dry montane forests. Pioneer.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Stalked glands in leaf serrations.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, beehives, drums, stools, water pots and tool handles. Leaves are pounded and used as a wash for body swellings caused by kwashiorkor or by tuberculosis. Roots are pounded up and used as poultices for body swellings and boils. Roots and bark are used as medicine for malaria and tuberculosis. Leaves are used also as a purgative. The tree is used for shade.
Drypetes gerrardii Hutch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: D. battiscombei Hutch., D. subdentata Mildbr.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kamyalala (T), Kihambie (S).
Bole: Branched/straight/slightly buttressed. Small/large. To 30 m.
Bark: Pale/dark grey/brown. Smooth.
Slash: Yellow/cream/white, orange/white flecks, discolouring brown/yellow/orange from edge.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. (2 -) 5 – 12 (- 17) × (1 -) 2 – 6 (- 9) cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acute/obtuse. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Small. Triangular-ovate. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green/white. Fragrant. Axillary fascicles.
Fruit: Yellow/brown. Obovoid/subglobose. 1 – 1.5 cm long, 1 – 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane and dry montane forests.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Angola.
Notes: Three varieties are recognized.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, pestles, stools, building poles and tool handles. The tree is used for shade.
Drypetes natalensis (Harv.) Hutch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: D. holtzii Pax & K. Hoffm., D. major (Pax) Hutch.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mjafari, Msunduri (Sw).
Bole: Branched/straight. Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Smooth/flaking.
Slash: White/yellow/orange discolouring pink/orange, with yellow/orange layers and orange flecks. Hard. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.8 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Medium. 12 – 20 × 3 – 7 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Acuminate/obtuse. Serrate/entire. Spikey. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Linear 0.1 – 0.15 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/white/pink, unpleasent smell. Fasicles on main trunk and older branches. Dioecious.
Fruit: Yellow/brown to orange when ripe. Subglobose 2.7 cm long, 3.3 cm in diameter. Seeds orange.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest.
Distr: C, N, LT. Eastern Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Two varieties are recognised.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, wooden spoons, tool handles and beds. The tree is used for shade.
Drypetes reticulata Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mjafari (Sw), Kihambie (S).
Bole: Crooked/branched/straight. Slightly buttressed. Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey/yellow-grey. Smooth/flaking.
Slash: Red with white wood.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 2 – 8 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 10   1.5 – 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale yellow. Axillary clusters.
Fruit: Red-brown hairy. 0.7 – 0.9 cm long. 0.9 – 1.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA (Ul). Eastern and Southern Africa.
Notes: Flowers axillary like D. gerrardii, but leaves entire and tertiary nerves prominently reticulate.
Uses: The wood is used for building poles, firewood, charcoal, tool handles, pestles, stools and bedsteads. The tree is used for shade.
Drypetes usambarica (Pax) Hutch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kihambie (S).
Bole: Straight/fluted. Large/small. To 60 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth. Knobs on trunk.
Slash: Pale yellow. Discolouring brown.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 15 × 1.5 – 6.5 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Small. lanceolate. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/green. Fasiculate on bosses on the trunk. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green/brown/orange. Ovoid. (1.5 -) 2 cm long, (1 -) 1.5 – 1.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forests.
Distr: C, EA (EUs, Udz).
Notes: Five varieties are recognised.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for firewood, charcoal, pestles, mortars, poles, tool handles and wooden spoons. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Euphorbia obovalifolia A. Rich.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: E. winkleri Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkweche (Sw), Mzuo (F).
Bole: Cactiform simple trunk. Medium/large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey. Rough.
Slash: White latex.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate/whorled on young growth.
Petiole: 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 15 × 6 cm. Obovate. Cuneate. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Spines stout. 0.1 – 0.3 cm long.
Flower: Cyathia. Cymes.
Fruit: Red. Capsule. Subglobose. 1.2 × 1.6 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: LN, LT. East Africa, Ethiopia, northern Malawi-Zambia border.
Notes: A tall cactiform Euphorbia occurs in the lowland forests of Kanga Mountain in the Nguru.
Uses: The wood is soft and is used for making drums, water pots, xylophones and local trumpets. The latex is poisonous to eyes but is used in small quantities (1-2 drops in porridge) for constipation. The carbon from burnt wood is used for making gun powder. The tree is also used for amenity.
Heywoodia lucens Sim
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mutaigoka (Ki).
Bole: Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Rough/cracking/flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 2 (- 4) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 15 (- 25) × 2 – 12 (- 15) cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Small. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary. Fasciculate.
Fruit: 1 cm long, 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, submontane forest.
Distr: LV. Southwestern Uganda, South-central Kenya, Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles, wooden spoons and poles. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Benth. ex Sim var. capensis
Syn. FTEA: M. capensis (Baill.) Sim
Syn. TTCL: M. inopinata Prain, M. multiglandulosa Pax & K. Hoffm., M. usambarica Pax & K. Hoffm.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkalanga, Mlanga-makelele, Mbawa (Sw), Mkumba (S).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Dark/pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: Red/brown with darker edge. Fibrous. Wood yellow.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 10 – 20 cm. Base narrowed.
Lamina: Medium/large. 10 – 30 × 10 – 20 cm. Ovate. Cordate/peltate. 7 – 11 nerved. Acuminate/acute. Entire/serrate. Hairy beneath/glabrous above. Simple.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: At lamina base. Lower surface of the leaf covered in small black glands.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 1 – 2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Present/absent. Thorns on young stems.
Flower: Yellow-green. Axillary panicles. Dioecious.
Fruit: Yellow green. Subglobose/bilobate. 0.3 – 0.5 cm long, 0.4 – 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest. Pioneer.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Eastern and Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, knife sheaths, xylophones and water pots. Leaves are used by WaShambaa for allergies. It is also a shade tree.
Macaranga capensis (Baill.) Benth. ex Sim var. kilimandscharica (Pax) Friis & M. G. Gilbert
Syn. FTEA: M. kilimandscharica Pax
Syn. TTCL: M. kilimandscharica Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Itungulu (T), Muhaa (C), Mkalanga, Mbawa (Sw), Mkumba (S), Mpalala (H).
Bole: Fluted/straight. Medium. To 27 m.
Bark: Dark brown/pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: Red with white stripes.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 5 – 10 cm. Round. Pulvinate at base.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 15 × 3 – 10 cm. Ovate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate/peltate. 3 – 7 nerved. Acute/acuminate. Entire/serrate. Hairy/glabrous. Simple.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: 2 glands at lamina base.
Stipules: Lanceolate 0.8 – 1.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent/present. Spines on saplings.
Flower: Yellow-green. Infloresences axillary panicles. Dioecious.
Fruit: Subglobose 0.4 – 0-6 cm long 0.5 – 1.1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forests. Pioneer.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, knife sheaths, boxes, crates, beehives and stools. The tree is used for shade in coffee farms and for soil conservation. Leaves are used as medicine for stomach-ache. Roots are used for treating coughs, colds and bilharzia.
Macaranga conglomerata Brenan
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkalanga, Mbawa (Sw), Mkumba (S).
Bole: Large. To 32 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth with horizontal lenticels.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 11 cm. Base pulvinate.
Lamina: Medium. 4 – 17.5 × 2 – 13 cm. Ovate. Cordate. 7 – 9 (- 11) nerved. Acuminate. Entire/slightly serrate. Glabrous/slightly hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Two glands at the leaf base.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 0.8 – 1.3 × 0.2 – 0.3 cm. Persistent/falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Axillary. Conglomerate. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green/yellow. Obovoid/ellipsoid. 0.5 – 0.6 cm long, 0.4 – 0.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA (Te, WUs, South P), LN.
Notes: A local offshoot of the M. capensis-kilimandscharica complex.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, water pots, knife sheaths, and for making xylophones. The tree is used for shade.
Macaranga monandra Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkalanga, Mbawa (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth/mottled.
Slash: Soft.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: (2 -) 4 – 10 (- 12) cm. Slightly puvinate at base.
Lamina: Medium. (5 -) 11 – 16 (- 20) × (3 -) 6 – 10 (- 12) cm. Ovate/elliptic/oblong. 3 (- 5) nerved from base. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Two glands at leaf base.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 0.5 – 0.7 × 0.1 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Spiny trunk. Spines up to 7.5 cm.
Flower: Green/brown. Axillary. Male paniculate. Female racemose. Dioecious.
Fruit: Yellow becoming black. Ovoid. 0.6 – 0.7 cm long, 0.8 – 0.9 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Groundwater, riverine and secondary forests.
Distr: LV. Southern Uganda, Western and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is rather soft and used for general purposes such as: timber, firewood, boxes, crates and beehives. The tree is used for shade.
Macaranga schweinfurthii Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkalanga, Mbawa (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Smooth/rough.
Slash: White/pink.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 12 – 40 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 25 – 50 × 25 – 50 cm. Ovate. Cordate. Emarginate. Entire. Hairy when young becoming glabrous above.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Foliaceous. 3 – 5 × 2 – 3 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-yellow. Scented. Axillary panicles/fasicles. Dioecious.
Fruit: Bilobate. Up to 1.7 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine/groundwater forests.
Distr: LV. Southern Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, boxes crates, stools and beehives. The tree is used for shade.
Macaranga spinosa Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkalanga, Mbawa (Sw).
Bole: Straight/fluted/stilt roots. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Silvery. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 5 cm. Pulvinate at base.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 12 × 3 – 6.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pair of glands at leaf base. Glandular punctate on underside of leaf.
Stipules: Lanceolate 0.5 – 0.7 × 0.1. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Spiny trunk and twigs. Spines 10 – 20 cm long, downwardly directed.
Flower: Creamy white. Axillary/ramiflorous. Panicles. Dioecious.
Fruit: Ovoid. 0.3 cm long, 0.4 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Edges of groundwater and lowland forest.
Distr: LV. Southern Uganda, Western and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, stools and wooden spoons. The tree is used for shade.
Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll.Arg
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC for species, some changes in varieties and forms.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mchacha, Mtundutundu (Sw.).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Smooth/rough. Slightly flaky.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: Two types. 2.5 – 11 cm (long) 0.5 – 2 cm (short).
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 18 × 2 – 13 cm. Ovate/oblong for long petiole. Cordate/cuneate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous/hairy. Stellate/simple.
Domatia: Simple hairs.
Glands: Yellow pellucid, near base on upper leaf and on lower leaf surface.
Stipules: Subulate. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale yellow/green. Fragrant. Racemes. Dioecious.
Fruit: Globose. 3 – 4 lobed rounded. 0.5 – 0.7 cm long. 0.7 – 0.9 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Grounwater, lowland forest edges. Thickets.
Distr: C, EA, N, LT, LV. Tropical Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: There are two varieties, one of them with two forms.
Uses: Firewood and tool handles. Roots are used as medicine for stomach-ache and chest pains.
Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) G. L. Webster
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Phyllanthus discoideus (Baill.) Müll. Arg., Flueggia fagifolia Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Lulyolwankanga (T), Mhina-mwitu, Mkwamba (Sw).
Bole: Crooked/branched. Small/large. To 25 m.
Bark: Brown/grey. Soft. Flaking in strips/scaling.
Slash: Pink. Soft. Thin.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.5 cm. Channelled. Sometimes winged.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 8 × 1 – 4 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate/ovate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate/obtuse/rounded. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Linear. 0.2 – 0.5 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary. Males in fasicles. Females 2 – 3 per axil or solitary. Dioecious.
Fruit: Subglobose or lobed. 0.5 – 0.7 cm long 1 – 1.3 cm wide. Seeds metallic blue.
Ecology: Dry lowland, montane and dry montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: There are four varieties.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, charcoal, tool handles, wooden spoons and forks. Leaves are used by the WaShambaa for treating convulsions in children. Roots are used for stomach-ache. Leaves are used for fodder.
Necepsia castaneifolia (Baill.) Bouchat & J. Léonard subsp. kimbozensis (Radcl.-Sm.) Bouchat & J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Dark. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: (0.5 – ) 1 (- 1.5) cm. Pulvinate at apex and base.
Lamina: Medium. 9.5 – 19.5 × 4 – 9 cm. Elliptic/oblong/ovate. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous/slighty hairy along the midrib. Simple.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Gland dotted beneath leaves, glands arranged in two rows.
Stipules: Triangular/lanceolate. 0.4 – 0.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary. Racemose. Dioecious.
Fruit: Trilobate/bilobate. 0.7 – 0.8 cm long, 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest on dolimitic marble.
Distr: EA only (Ul (Kimboza)).
Notes: Subsp. castaneifolia and subsp. capuronii occur in Madagascar. Subsp. chirindica occurs in eastern Zimbabwe.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles and tool handles. The tree is suitable for shade and for ornamental purposes.
Neoboutonia macrocalyx Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ihundu (C), Mbona (S), Pofwe (F).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: White to pale brown, sometimes mottled.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 10 – 20 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Large. 6 – 35 × 6 – 35 cm. Ovate. Cordate. 7 (- 9) nerved. Acuminate/acute/obtuse. Entire/serrate. Hairy. Stellate.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Two irregular stipitate glands at lamina base.
Stipules: Ovate. 1 × 1 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green. Inflorescence terminal panicles. Up to 40 – 50 cm long and 30 cm wide. Dioecious.
Fruit: Trilobate. 1 – 1.2 cm long, 1.2 – 1.3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forests. Pioneer.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is soft and is used for making boxes, crates, beehives, stools, water pots and for firewood. The wood is also suitable for paper pulp. The tree is suitable for planting in swampy valleys in montane rain forests.
Neoboutonia melleri (Müll. Arg.) Prain
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: N. africana (Müll. Arg.) Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Pofwe (F).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey. smooth/warty.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: (1 -) 10 – 17 (- 25) cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 5 – 25 × 5 – 25 cm. Ovate. Cordate. Obtuse/acute. 7 – 9 nerved from base. Entire. Glabrous above/hairy beneath. Stellate.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Leaves gland-dotted above and beneath.
Stipules: Ovate/lanceolate. 0.4 – 0.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale yellow. Terminal. Paniculate. Dioecious.
Fruit: 3 (-4) lobate. 0.5 – 0.8 cm long. 0.8 – 1.3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Groundwater, riverine forest.
Distr: LN, LT, LV. East Africa, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is soft and is used for boxes, crates, stools, water pots, knife sheaths, carvings and beehives. The wood is also suitable for paper pulp. The tree is suitable for soil conservation near lakes and swamps. The tree is known to be poisonous.
Oldfieldia somalensis (Choiv.) Milne-Redh.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Paivaeusa orientalis Mildbr., Oldfieldia sp.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbauri, Mbambara (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale grey/dark brown. Deeply longitudinally fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Digitate. 5 – 7 leaflets. Alternate/Subopposite. Lflt: Digitate.
Petiole: 4 – 8 cm. Petiolule: 0.2 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 10 × 1.5 – 5 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/pubescent along midrib and beneath.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Subcapitate cymes.
Fruit: Yellow. Globose. 1.5 – 2 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C. Southern Somalia, Eastern Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for firewood, carvings, wooden spoons, mortars, door frames and construction. The bark is bitter and poisonous but is also used as medicine for pneumonia.
Phyllanthus inflatus Hutch.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkeche (S).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Pale yellow/green. Scaling.
Slash: Cream/pale brown.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. (1 -) 3 – 5 (- 7) × (0.8 -) 1.5 – 2 (- 2.8) cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Small. Lanceolate. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Sparsely spiny.
Flower: Pale green. Axillary fasicles. Monoecious.
Fruit: Pale green. Trilobate. Subglobose. 2 – 3 cm long, 2 – 2.5 cm in diameter. Inflated.
Ecology: Riverine, submontane and montane forest edges.
Distr: EA, N. Eastern and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leafy shoots resemble pinnate leaves. Fruits inflated.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, wooden spoons, cups and carvings. Leaves and roots are used as medicine for bewitchment by the WaShambaa.
Pycnocoma littoralis Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtambuu-mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10m.
Bark: Grey. Rough.
Slash: Exuding greenish sap.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 22 × 4 – 10 cm. Obovate/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream and orange. Solitary. Terminal.
Fruit: 3- (occasionally 4-) lobed, 6 – 8-horned, 2 – 3 × 3 – 4 cm fulvous tomentose, tardily dehiscent.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest.
Distr: C. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood and poles.
Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckel subsp. africanum (Müll. Arg.) J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: R. gracilior Mildbr., R. schliebenii Mildbr.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muawa (Sw), Sitobaga (T), Tondoo (S).
Bole: Straight/branched. Slightly buttressed. Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Grey/dark grey. Smooth/rough, pitted/scaling.
Slash: Pink/red, white and yellow flecks/mottled. Soft.
Leaf: Digitate 3 – 7 leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Digitate.
Petiole: 10 – 40 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 30 × 5 – 15 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Serrate. Hairy beneath/glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Dark glands along edge of leaf (on the adaxial surface).
Stipules: Large, 2 – 3 cm long. Toothed. Persistent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale yellow/green/greenish white. Panicles.
Fruit: 2 – 3 locular and bilobed or trilobed. 2.5 – 3.5 × 4 – 5 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland and lowland forest. Pioneer.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Deciduous. Two varieties.
Uses: The wood is very soft and perishable but is used for domestic utensils such as spoons, cups, bowls and plates. Roots are used by WaShambaa for diarrhoea and constipation. The seeds are cooked and eaten – the edible oil they produce is also used in soap making.
Shirakiopsis elliptica (Hochst.) Esser
Syn. FTEA: Sapium ellipticum (Krauss) Pax
Syn. TTCL: Sapium ellipticum (Hochst.) Pax
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkongoo (S), Msasa (T).
Bole: Crooked/fluted/branched. Small/large. To 30 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Soft. Fibrous/flaking/fissured.
Slash: Dirty yellow/orange/brown and yellow toward wood. Fibrous. Sparing sticky white latex.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: (0.2 -) 0.5 – 1.0 (- 1.5) cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small/medium. (2.5 -) 4 – 14 (- 18) × (1 -) 1.5 – 5 (- 7) cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cordate/cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: 2 – 4 glands at leaf base.
Stipules: Triangular-ovate. 0.2 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale green. Spicate. Terminal/subterminal.
Fruit: Bilobate. 0.6 – 0.8 (- 9) cm long, 0.8 – 1.1 (- 1.4) cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane, montane and dry montane forest. Edges and secondary.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: White sticky latex in leaves.
Uses: The wood is soft and perishable. The wood is used for making domestic utensils such as spoons, bowls, cups and plates. The bark is used by the WaShambaa to treat generalized body pains and tuberculosis. Roots are used as medicine for chronic coughs and colds. The latex is poisonous but is used as medicine for constipation. The tree is used for shade and amenity. It is also used for firewood, charcoal and tool handles.
Sibangea pleioneura Radcl.-Sm.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Orange/brown. Thin. Slightly roughened.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 15 – 35 × 6 – 13 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Slightly asymmetrical. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Fasiculate on older twigs.
Fruit: Yellow. Ellipsoid. 1.3 – 1.7 cm long. 1 – 1.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is white and suitable for firewood, charcoal, spoons, bowls and bedsteads.
Spondianthus preussii Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ombubili (Ha).
Bole: Straight/stilt roots. Medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Smooth/shaggy.
Slash: Wood pinkish.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 11.5 (- 13) cm.
Lamina: Medium/small. (1 – ) 3 – 35 × (0.7 -) 1.5 – 18 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-ovate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular-lanceolate. 0.4 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pink tinged. Panicles. Dioecious.
Fruit: Ovoid-ellipsoid. 1.5 – 2 cm long 1.2 – 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Groundwater forest.
Distr: LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Long and short petioles often on the same shoot.
Uses: The wood is white. Most parts of the tree are known to be very poisonous. However, the bark is used as medicine for snake bites and cancer.
Suregada lithoxyla (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Croizat
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Gelonium lithoxylon Pax & K.Hoffm., non Gelonium procerum Prain
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mdimu-mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Dark grey.
Slash: Yellow, discolouring.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 (- 0.7) cm.
Lamina: Medium. 19 × 10 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Translucent pustules on leaf.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.2 × 0.1 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/white/yellow. Fasicles. Axillary. Dioecious.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs, Ul (Kimboza)).
Notes: Very like S. procera, but with larger leaves and the translucent pustules situated in the centre of each reticulation.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for firewood, poles, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for shade and is suitable for ornamental purposes.
Suregada procera (Prain) Croizat
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Gelonium procerum Prain
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Grey/black. Granulate/rough.
Slash: Yellow, discolouring.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 (- 0.7) cm.
Lamina: Small. (3 -) 5 – 12 (- 14) × 1.5 – 6.5 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Translucent pustules on leaf.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.2 × 0.1 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/white/yellow. Fasicles. Axillary. Dioecious.
Fruit: Trilobate. (0.6 -) 0.8 – 1 (- 1.1) cm long. (0.9 -) 1 – 1.2 (- 1.5) cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest. Forest edges.
Distr: EA (Udz), LV. Uganda, Kenya, Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: Except for the population at Lulanda Forest (Udzungwa Mountains), Eastern Tanzania plants named S. procera should now be referred to S. lithoxyla.
Uses: The wood is hard, used for firewood, poles and handles. The tree can be used for shade and ornament.
Suregada zanzibariensis Baill.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Gelonium zanzibarense (Baill.) Müll. Arg.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mdimu-mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Straight/branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Brown/grey/reddish grey. Smooth.
Slash: Orange/yellow. Yellow toward wood.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 4 – 10 × 1 – 7 cm. Oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Obtuse/acute/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Dark glandular vesicles in leaves.
Stipules: Triangular-ovate. 0.1 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/yellow. Axillary. Fasicles.
Fruit: Dark green to orange/red. 3-locular. 0.5 – 0.6 × 0.6 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA (Udz). Coastal Eastern Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: Smaller leaves than S. lithoxyla.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for building poles, tool handles, spoons, firewood and withies. The tree is used for shade, amenity and soil conservation near the sea. Roots are boiled and the juice is taken twice a day as a purgative. Roots may also be boiled and drunk or chewed to treat snake bites.
Tannodia swynnertonii (S. Moore) Prain
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey/dark brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 0.3 cm. Pulvinate at both ends.
Lamina: Small/medium. (4 -) 10 – 15 × (2 -) 4.5 – 9 cm. Ovate/elliptic-ovate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 0.2 – 0.3 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream/green. Terminal. Raceme. Dioecious.
Fruit: 1.3 – 1.5 cm long. 1.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: EA (Udz). Zimbabwe.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is soft and used for firewood, tool handles, spoons cups and stools. The tree is suitable for shade and amenity.
Tetrorchidium didymostemon (Baill.) Pax & K.Hoffm.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Scandent/straight. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Brown. Smooth/minutely fissured.
Slash: Milky sap.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small/medium.(4 -) 7 – 12 (- 17) × (2 -) 3 – 6 (- 8) cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Green/yellow. Opposite the leaves. Male spicate. Female umbellate. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green/brown. Subglobose. Trilobate/bilobate. 0.5 cm long. 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine. Lowland forest. Forest edges.
Distr: LV. West and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: A little known eastern forest species, T. ulugurense Verdc., occurs in the lowland Nguru Mountains but is not included as it is probably less than 10 m tall.
Uses: NR.
Uapaca guineensis Müll. Arg.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Stilt roots. Medium. To 18 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 7 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 25 × 5 – 17 cm. Obovate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Minute. Subulate. 0.05 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Solitary. On branches. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green. Ovoid/subglobose. 1.8 – 2.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C (Pemba), LT. Western and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Disjunct distribution.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, canoes and firewood.
Uapaca paludosa Aubrév. & Leandri
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Stilt roots. Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Grey.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: (3 -) 5 – 9 (- 13) cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 9 – 30 (- 50) × 4 – 17 (- 25) cm. Obovate/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on midrib. Simple.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Foliaceous. Lanceolate/ovate. (0.5 -) 1 – 2 cm × (0.3 -) 0.5 – 0.7 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/yellow-green. Borne just below the leaves. Solitary. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green becoming brown. Ovoid-subglobose (1.5 -) 2.5 – 3 cm long, (1 -)1.5 – 2 cm wide.
Ecology: Groundwater, riverine, submontane forest.
Distr: EA (Ng, Udz), LN. West and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Deciduous.
Uses: The wood is used as timber for general purposes and for firewood, charcoal, boxes, crates and for making domestic utensils such as spoons and cups. The tree is used for shade.
Zimmermannia capillipes Pax
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kizeza-mzitu (S).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey/grey-green.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.2 (- 1.7) cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 18 × 3 – 7.5 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Foliaceous. Ovate. (0.3 -) 0.5 – 0.6 × (0.6 -) 0.7 – 1.0 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Axillary. Male in fasicles, female pedunculate. Dioecious.
Fruit: green. Trilobate. 1 cm long. 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Green.
Distr: EA only (Us).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is white and rather soft and is used for firewood. The roots are used by the WaShambaa for stomach-ache and stomach worms. The plant is suitable for shade and for ornamental purposes.
Last Updated: 16 June 2017