info@celp.org.uk

LEGUMINOSAE CAESALPINIOIDEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

LEGUMINOSAE (FABACEAE): CAESALPINIOIDEAE

Afzelia quanzensis Welw.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. africana Sm. ex Pers. (this West African species is not known in Tanzania).
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkongo, Mkora, Mbambakofi (Sw). Pod mahogany (E).
Bole: Straight/branched. Small/large. To 35 m.
Bark: Grey/pale brown. Flaking in large patches.
Slash: Pale yellow.
Leaf: Even-pinnate, 4 – 6 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 6 – 32 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2 – 9 × 1.5 – 6 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Glands at leaflet base.
Stipules: Small. 0.3 cm long. Persistant.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green with one red petal, fragrant. Erect raceme.
Fruit: Large thick woody pods. Seeds black with a red aril. 2 – 3.4 × 0.9 – 1.7 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Coastal Kenya. Western, Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: There are low elevation (leaf base glabrous) and higher elevation (leaf base hairy) varients in Tanzania.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for furniture, building, plywood, panelling, flooring strips, gun stocks, mortars, and stools. Roots are used as medicine for Bilharzia and snake bites. Bark infusion is used as a fortune bath. The tree is used for shade. The seeds are used for making necklaces.
Anthonotha noldeae (Rossberg) Exell & Hillc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlembela (T).
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Yellow-grey. Smooth/scaling in patches.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even pinnate, 4 – 6 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 7.5 – 15 (- 20) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 12 (- 17.5) × 1.2 – 3 (- 6.9) cm. Oblong-lanceolate/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Lateral or terminal panicles.
Fruit: Brown. Hairy. Pod elliptic/oblong. 5 – 9.5 × 4.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, montane forest.
Distr: LT. Central Africa.
Notes: Underside of leaf with silk copper-coloured sheen.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, tool handles and building poles. The tree is suitable for avenue and ornamental purposes.
Aphanocalyx richardsiae (J. Léonard) Wieringa
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. One pair leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite. Sessile.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1.7 – 7.5 (- 10) × 0.6 – 3.2 (- 4.5) cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Dense terminal/axillary racemes.
Fruit: Pod. 2.5 – 3.7 × 1.5 – 2.3 cm.
Ecology: Riverine forest.
Distr: LT. South Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Baikiaea ghesquiereana J.Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even pinnate. 3 – 4 pairs leaflets. Alternate.
Petiole: With rachis: 7 – 19 cm. Petiolules: 0.5 – 0.9 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 19 × 3.2 – 6.8 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate/ovate-elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Brown hairy buds. Terminal and axillary racemes.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C only (Matumbi Hills, Namakutwa and Ruawa FRs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Baikiaea insignis Benth. subsp. minor (Oliv.) J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: B. eminii Taub.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Nkobakoba (Ha).
Bole: Straight. Medium/large. To 34 m.
Bark: Grey/grey-brown. Smooth/slightly fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. Lflts: (2 -) 3 – 8 (- 10). Alternate.
Petiole: With rachis: (1.5 -) 3.5 – 17 cm. Petiolules: 0.3 – 0.9 (- 1.0) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. (3.5 -) 5.5 – 18.5 (- 23) × (1.5 -) 2.7 – 11 cm. Ovate/elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/cream with yellow standard. Terminal/axillary racemes.
Fruit: Brown-velvety pods. 17 – 42 (- 60) cm long, 1.5 – 3 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: LT, LV. West Central Africa, Angola.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and is used for timber for building, heavy construction, firewood, charcoal, tool handles, grain mortars and stools. The tree is used for shade. Seeds are roasted and eaten during famine.
Brachystegia spiciformis Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mrihi, Mriti, Mtondoro(Sw), Mtundu(N).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Rough/scaling. Reticulate/longitudinally fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 6 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 3 cm. rachis: 3 – 15 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2 – 8 × 1 – 4 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cordate/cuneate. Asymmetrical. Emarginate/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Obscure glands in leaf.
Stipules: Linear. 0.5 – 3 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green with white filaments and red anthers. Terminal raceme.
Fruit: Beaked woody pod. 16.5 – 20 × 4.5 – 5.5 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thickets.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Central and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is pale brown hard and heavy. It is used for building construction, cheap furniture, railway sleepers, canoes and door frames. The bark is used for ropes and beehives, storage, pots and roofing. Fresh ropes of the bark are chewed and the juice swallowed for snake bites. The tree is used for shade and avenues.
Cassia angolensis Welw. ex Hiern
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkundekunde (Sw), Mkungwena (S).
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale/dark brown. Smooth/scaling.
Slash: Red/pink with white streaks, yellow toward wood.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 13 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: Rachis up to 30 cm long.
Lamina: Small. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Racemes.
Fruit: Pods cylindrical. Up to 70 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA. Eastern and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Large yellow flowers on the ground beneath flowering trees.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and spoons. The tree is suitable for shade and ornamental planting.
Cynometra alexandri C.H. Wright
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muhimbi (R).
Bole: Buttressed. Medium/large. To 50 m.
Bark: Brown/grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. Alternate. 4 (- 6) leaflets. Lflts: Opposite. Sessile.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.4 cm. rachis: 0.5 – 3.5 cm. Channelled/winged.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 10 × 0.5 – 3 (- 4) cm. Lanceolate/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Linear. 0.3 – 0.6 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Sweetly scented. Axillary/terminal panicles.
Fruit: Pods. Rounded/apiculate at apex. 5 – 10 cm long, 3 – 5 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: LT. Uganda, Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, poles, stools, and timber which is suitable for flooring, bridges, railway sleepers and mining props. The tree is used for shade, bee forage and soil conservation.
Cynometra brachyrrachis Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. brachyrachis Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Patchy grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even pinnate. 4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite/alternate, sessile.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm. With rachis: 0.8 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 5 × 0.5 – 2 cm. Lanceolate/oblong/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate/acute. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Terminal. Raceme.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: This may be a Scorodophloeus.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy being used for firewood, charcoal, building poles, tool handles, stools and grain mortars. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Cynometra engleri Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwe (S), Mfunda (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 21 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.6 – 1.8 cm. Petiolules: 0.1 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 6.5 – 14 (- 16) × 2.4 – 7.3 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for timber, firewood, tool handles, charcoal and poles. The tree is used for shade, avenue and bee forage.
Cynometra longipedicellata Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2-4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite. Sessile.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3 – 12 × 2 – 7 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Leafy. Ovate. 0.7 – 1.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for timber. It is also used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles, grain mortars and stools. The tree is used for shade and for bee forage.
Cynometra sp. A of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Straight/buttressed. Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Pale brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite. Sessile.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm. rachis: 1.2 – 2.2 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 13 × 1.2 – 5 cm. Lanceolate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Linear.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: NR.
Fruit: Pods with a beak. 7 – 9 cm long, 3 – 3.8 cm wide.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (?T, EUs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for firewood, charcoal, grain mortars, stools and tool handles. The tree is suitable for shade and bee forage.
Cynometra sp. B of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. sp. no. 13.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Medium.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.5 cm. Rachis 1.2 – 2.4 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2.3 – 11 × 1.2 – 5 cm. Obovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Linear/subulate. 0.5 – 0.7 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Terminal/axillary. Panicles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, grain mortars, tool handles and stools. The tree is suitable for shade and avenue.
Cynometra suaheliensis (Taub.) Baker f.
Syn. FTEA: C. greenwayi Brenan
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Red-grey. Smooth/rough.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 0.7 – 8 × 0.5 – 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Rounded. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal racemes/panicles.
Fruit: Smooth pod, shortly beaked at the apex. 4 – 6 × 2 – 3 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for building houses, charcoal, stools, grain mortars and firewood. The tree is used for shade and as a bee forage.
Cynometra ulugurensis Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw).
Bole: Large.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 4 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite. Sessile.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.3 cm. With rachis: 0.8 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 0.8 – 4 × 0.5 – 1.5 cm. Lanceolate/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Panicles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: NR.
Distr: EA only (Ul).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy, used for firewood, building poles, charcoal, grain mortars, tool handles and stools. The tree is used for shade.
Cynometra webberi Baker f.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (Sw), Mkwe (S).
Bole: Branched/buttressed. Small. To 18 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth. Young branchlets shortly pubescent.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 6 – 8 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.3 cm. Rachis: 0.8 – 3 (- 4) cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 3 × 0.5 – 1 cm. Oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White, fragrant. Panicles. Terminal/axillary.
Fruit: Beaked pod 4 – 6 × 2.6 – 3.3 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, poles, tool handles, stools and withies. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Dialium holtzii Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mpepeta (Sw), Mshida (S).
Bole: Straight. Small buttresses. Medium/large. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale grey/pale brown. Smooth.
Slash: Pale brown/purple, outer cream. Wood cream.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 11 – 15 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate.
Petiole: With rachis: 8 – 18 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.5 – 7 × 1.5 – 3 cm. Oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/sparsely pubescent.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow. Panicles. Terminal/lateral. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Small round brown pods. 1.3 – 1.8 cm long, 1 – 1.3 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland and lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA. Mozambique.
Notes: Leaves acuminate.
Uses: The wood is very hard and heavy and used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and dhow ribs. The fruits are edible.
Dialium orientale Baker f.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mpepeta (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 7 – 9 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate/subopposite.
Petiole: with rachis: 4 – 5cm.
Lamina: Small. 1.5 – 5 × 1 – 3 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/slightly emarginate. Entire. Glabrous/pubescent on midrib.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green. Panicles. Terminal/lateral.
Fruit: Red-brown subglobose pods. 1.3 – 1.8 cm long, 1 – 1.3 cm wide.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C. Southeastern Kenya.
Notes: Leaves obtuse, not acuminate.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for firewood, building poles, charcoal, tool handles and dhow ribs. The fruits are edible.
Englerodendron usambarense Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mzumba (S).
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown.
Slash: Pale pink with brown edge.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 5 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 4 – 12.5 (- 15) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2.5 – 10.8 (- 12.5) × 1 – 4.9 (- 6) cm. Elliptic-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Minute intrapetiolar scale.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Lax terminal panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Pod brown, hairy. 4 – 9.5 (- 12.5) × 3.7 – 5 cm.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us).
Notes: Monotypic genus found only in the Usambara mountains.
Uses: The wood is used for timber which is suitable for sleepers, bridges and house construction. It is also used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and grain mortars. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: E. guineense G. Don
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbaraka, Mwavi (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Brown/red. Scaling. Rough.
Slash: Brown/pink with orange flecks/pink streaks. Granular.
Leaf: Bipinnate. 2 – 4 pairs of pinnae. 7 – 14 leaflets per pinna. Alternate. Lflts: Pinnae opposite. Leaflets alternate.
Petiole: With rachis: 11 – 35 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 9 × 1 – 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/pubescent on midrib beneath.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-white/green-yellow. Spike-like racemes.
Fruit: Slightly curved pod. 8 – 17 × 3 – 5.3 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LT. Tropical Africa.
Notes: The “ordeal” tree. Used in West Africa for witch-craft ordeals.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy and used for railway sleepers, bridge decking, fresh water piling, flooring, firewood, charcoal, tool handles, pestles and building poles. The bark and seeds are poisonous. The decoction made from roots is used in a weak concentration for stomach worms. The tree is used for shade.
Gigasiphon macrosiphon (Harms) Brenan
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Bauhinia macrosiphon Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale grey/pink grey.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Medium. 8 – 17 × 6 – 16 cm. Ovate. Cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Large. Terminal racemes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Indehiscent pod. 30 × 6 – 6.8 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: Large beautiful flowers.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, poles and tool handles. The tree is suitable for ornament and bee forage.
Guibourtia schliebenii (Harms) J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Copaifera schliebenii Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtulila (Mw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 5 × 1 – 3 cm. Ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/pubescent near base.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Gland dots in leaves.
Stipules: Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Brown pod. 3 – 3.5 × 2 – 2.3 cm.
Ecology: Groundwater, lowland forest.
Distr: C. Mozambique.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and is used for firewood, poles, charcoal, tool handles, stools and spoons. The sap from the bark is used as adhesive material and when dry it is used as gum copal. The tree is suitable for ornamental planting and as a bee forage.
Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertn.
Syn. FTEA: Trachylobium verrucosum (Gaertn.) Oliv.
Syn. TTCL: Trachylobium verrucosum (Gaertn.) Oliv.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msandarusi (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Pale grey/dark grey with a violet tinge. Smooth/rough.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 12 × 2 – 6 cm. Ovate/elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Gland dots in leaflets.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles. Axillary.
Fruit: Woody, warty, resinous pods. 2.5 – 5 × 1.5 – 3 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C. Eastern Tropical Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is heavy and hard. It is used for general construction, flooring, joinery, bridges, sleepers, firewood, charcoal, poles and tool handles. The tree produces gum copal.
Isoberlinia scheffleri (Harms ex Engl.) Greenway
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbarika (Sw), Mtoa-magasa (S).
Bole: Straight/buttressed/fluted. Large. To 46 m.
Bark: Pale grey/yellow-brown. Smooth. Scaling in flakes.
Slash: Pink/brown with a white edge. Fibrous.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 4 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 4 – 14.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 18 × 3 – 9.5 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Lanceolate. Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal. Panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Flat brown woody pod. 15 – 31 cm long, 5.5 – 9.3 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, Udz).
Notes: Persistent fallen pods under the tree. Ripe pods are held above the canopy and burst in sunshine with a noise like the clapping of hands giving rise the the KiShambaa name of Mtoa maghasa.
Uses: The wood is reddish-brown and hard. It is used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal, and also for timber of limited utility because of being susceptible to termites and wood borers. The pods can be used for shoe soles. The tree is used for shade.
Julbernardia magnistipulata (Harms) Troupin
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Isoberlinia magnistipulata (Harms) Milne-Redh.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwe (S).
Bole: Straight. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 3 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 3.8 – 9 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 11 × 2 – 5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Persistant. 0.5 – 5 × 0.25 – 3 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/cream. Panicle. Terminal.
Fruit: Pod. Glabrous. 5.5 – 14 × 2.5 – 5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland and lowland forest. Lowland woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA (EUs), Southeast Kenya.
Notes: Panicles borne upright above the leaves.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles, stools and spoons. The bark is used for ropes. The tree is used for bee forage and for ornamental and shade purposes.
Julbernardia unijugata J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Brown/pale grey. Flaking in large plates.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 1 pair leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.3 – 11 × 1.5 – 5.1 cm. Ovate/lanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Leaf-like. Persistent. Ovate. 0.5 – 1.2 × 0.2 – 0.5 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Panicles. Terminal.
Fruit: Brown hairy pod. 8 – 15 × 3 – 4.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest.
Distr: LT only.
Notes: Distinctive in that the leaflets are always in one pair only.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy – it is used for firewood, charcoal and tool handles. The bark is used for ropes and bee hives. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Oxystigma msoo Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msoo (C).
Bole: Large. To 40 m.
Bark: Grey. Flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 5 – 7 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate.
Petiole: Rachis 4 – 14 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 14 × 2 – 7 cm. Elliptic/oblong/ovate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaflets.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Panicle of spiciform racemes.
Fruit: Pod. Longitudinally veined. Winged at end. 4 – 6 × 2.5 – 4 cm.
Ecology: Groundwater, submontane and lowland forest.
Distr: EA (EUs), N. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used as timber for general utility and for building houses, canoes, plywood, tool handles, spoons, grain mortars, water pots and carvings. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Paramacrolobium coeruleum (Taub.) J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Macrolobium coeruleum (Taub.) Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwe (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Fluted/buttressed. Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Pale grey/brown with horizontal brown lenticels. Smooth.
Slash: Pink. Granular. Hard.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 5 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 10 – 25 cm.
Lamina: Small. 4 – 10 × 2 – 4 cm. Lanceolate/ovate/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Persistent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Blue. Terminal panicles.
Fruit: Pod. 8.5 – 18 × 2.5 – 5 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA. Disjunct to Central and Western Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal, stools and grain mortars. The bark is used for fibre.
Scorodophloeus fischeri (Taub.) J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Cynometra fischeri (Taub.) Bak.f., Cynometra sp. 15.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mgodoma, Muande (Sw), Mhande, Mkwe (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 3 – 5 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.4 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. Lower leaflets: 1 × 0.7 cm. Terminal leaflet: 3 – 11 × 1.5 – 6 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Honey scented. Terminal/axillary raceme.
Fruit: Beaked pod. 5.5 – 7 × 3.3 – 4.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland and lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: Often dominant.
Uses: The wood is used for rough construction, firewood, tool handles and stools. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Senna petersiana (Bolle) Lock
Syn. FTEA: Cassia petersiana Bolle
Syn. TTCL: Cassia petersiana Bolle
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkundekunde (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Rough/fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even pinnate. 4 – 10 (- 13) pairs leaflets. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: Petiolule: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.8 – 10.3 × 0.9 – 4.2 cm. Lanceolate/ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Acute. Entire.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Rachis with prominent caducous gland between leaflets.
Stipules: Leafy. 2.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Terminal panicles.
Fruit: Pods compressed, indehiscent, 12 – 25 cm. long.
Ecology: Riverine forest, forest edge. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Throughout Tanzania. Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is light, used for firewood and tool handles. Roots are used to treat malaria. Suitable for ornamental planting.
Senna singueana (Delile) Lock
Syn. FTEA: Cassia singueana Del.
Syn. TTCL: Cassia zanzibarensis Vatke, Cassia singueana Del.var glabra (Bak.f.) Brenan, Cassia singueana Del. var flavescens (Bak.f.) Brenan.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbaraka (Sw), Mhumba (L), Mdimwambuli (N).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 6 – 10 leaflets.
Petiole: Petiolule: 0.2 – 0.4 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.5 – 6.3 × 1.4 – 2.7 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Rounded. Emarginate/acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Rachis with fusiform/stipitate gland.
Stipules: Small. Subulate. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Racemes. Aggregated towards ends of branches.
Fruit: Linear pods sometimes twisted. Indehiscent. Glabrous. 6 – 26 cm long.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT. Widespread in Tropical Africa. Comoros.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood and tool handles. Leaves are used to treat malaria, worms, epilepsy and yellow fever. Roots are used to treat convulsions and coughs. The tree is used for amenity, fodder, bee forage and agroforestry.
Stuhlmannia moavi Taub.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Moavi (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Rough/smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 3 – 5 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3 – 9 × 1 – 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/rounded. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Terminal/raceme.
Fruit: Pod. Glossy. 5 × 2 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: Monotypic genus.
Uses: The wood is used for building poles, tool handles, charcoal, firewood and stools. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Tamarindus indica L.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwaju (Sw), Mkwazu (B), Moya (C), Msisi (N), Olmasambrai (Ma).
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Grey/black. Rough.
Slash: Pale brown.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 10 – 18 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 3 × 0.3 – 1 cm. Oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Rounded/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous. Tuft of yellow hairs at base.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow with red veins. Raceme. Axillary.
Fruit: Curved sausage shaped pods. 6.5 – 14 cm long. 2 – 3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. On termite mounds in woodlands.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT. Widespread in old world Tropics.
Notes: NR.
Uses: Source of tamarind. The wood is very hard and heavy. It is used for general carpentry, boat building, firewood, charcoal, poles, walking sticks, tool handles, pestles, bows and carvings. Fruits are edible. Leaves are used for fodder and as medicine to stop diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaves are also used for stomach-ache, poultices for wounds and for fever. Roots are used for treating coughs. The tree is used for shade, amenity, bee forage and windbreaks.
Tessmannia burtii Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey/dark brown. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. (2 -) 5 – 8. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate.
Petiole: With rachis: (2 -) 4 – 10 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3 – 9.5 × 1.2 – 3 (- 3.8) cm. Elliptic/lanceolate/ovate. Cuneate. Acuminate/obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaflets.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pink. Axillary/lateral racemes.
Fruit: Brown hairy pod with raised warts on surface. 4 – 5.5 × 2.5 – 2.8 cm.
Ecology: Riverine.
Distr: LT. Zambia.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Tessmannia densiflora Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 16 – 26 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: With rachis: 3 – 6 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 1.5 × 0.4 – 0.6 cm. Oblong/lanceolate/ovate-oblong. Cuneate. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaflets.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Red. Axillary dense flowered racemes.
Fruit: Pods 3.3 – 4.5 × 2.5 – 2.8 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Tessmannia martiniana Harms
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Probably small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey brown reticulate.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 6 – 12 leaflets. Alternate. Lflts: Alternate.
Petiole: 2 – 7 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 3 × 1 – 2 cm. Oblong/ovate. Cuneate. Emarginate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Gland dots in leaflets.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Brown. Axillary racemes.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Probably dry lowland forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Zenkerella capparidacea (Taub.) J. Léonard subsp. capparidacea
Syn. FTEA: Z. capparidacea (Taub.) J. Léon., Z. schliebenii (Harms) J. Léon.
Syn. TTCL: Cynometra schliebenii Harms, Cynometra capparidacea (Taub.) Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtati (L).
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Grey.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 20.4 × 1 – 7.8 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Axillary racemes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Pods semi-circular. 4.2 – 5 × 2.7 – 3.4 cm.
Ecology: Montane and submontane forests.
Distr: EA only (Ul, Ng).
Notes: Young leaves red or white.
Uses: The wood is brown and is used for building poles firewood, charcoal, walking sticks, bows and spoons. The tree is attractive and suitable for shade and amenity.
Zenkerella capparidacea (Taub.) J. Léonard subsp. grotei (Harms) Temu
Syn. FTEA: Z. grotei (Harms) J. Léon.
Syn. TTCL: Cynometra grotei Harms
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda, Kihambie, Mhande (S).
Bole: Medium/large. To 30 m.
Bark: Brown. Roughened by lenticels.
Slash: Pink/red. Discolouring orange. Wet.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.0 – 15 (- 18) × 1.2 – 6.4 (- 8) cm. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Small. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Axillary racemes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Pods elliptic. Asymmetric. 4 – 5.5 × 2.4 cm.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us).
Notes: Young leaves red.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, spoons, bows, carriage beams, walking sticks, tool handles and building poles. The tree is good for ornamental planting and for shade.
Zenkerella egregia J. Léonard
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Cynometra capparidacea (Taub.) Harms in part.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfunda (S), Mtati (L).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Medium. 12 – 25 × 4 – 10 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate/cordate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Persistant. 1 – 3 × 1 – 2 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Axillary raceme. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Pod.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater and lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: Used for firewood, building poles, bows, spoons and for ornament and shade.
Zenkerella perplexa Temu
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey. Brown lenticels.
Slash: Red. Hard.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 28 × 2 – 11 cm. Ovate. Cuneate/cordate. Asymmetric. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Ovate. 1.2 – 5.5 × 1.0 – 4.0.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Axillary raceme. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Pod. 3.5 – 4.5 × 2 – 3 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul, Mal).
Notes: Only known from two localities.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal, walking sticks and bows. The tree is suitable for shade and amenity.
Last Updated: 17 June 2017