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LOGANIACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

LOGANIACEAE

Anthocleista grandiflora Gilg
Syn. FTEA: A. zambesiaca Baker
Syn. TTCL: A. orientalis Gilg, A. pulcherrima Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkungu-maji, Mtambuu-mwitu (Sw), Mpumu (S).
Bole: Straight/crooked. Buttressed. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/pale brown. Smooth with vertical lines of projecting lenticels.
Slash: Pale yellow/brown with green/yellow broad streaks. Yellow toward wood. Soft. Fibrous. Smell of crushed peas.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 2 cm/sessile.
Lamina: Large. 20 – 60 (- 120) × 8 – 30 (- 50). Ovate/oblong. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Sweetly scented. Terminal cymes.
Fruit: Ovoid. 3 – 3.5 × 2 – 2.5 cm.
Ecology: Groundwater, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT, LV. Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. Comoros.
Notes: Leaves clustered at end of branches.
Uses: The wood is white, soft and only used for firewood. The tree is very attractive and is planted for amenity and shade. Leaves are used as medicine for malaria while roots treat diarrhoea, asthma, kidney disease and tapeworm.
Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. stuhlmanniana Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mgongogongo (T), Mkungu-maji, Mtambuu-mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1.9 cm/sessile.
Lamina: Large. 13 – 45 (- 80) × 6 – 14 (- 23) cm. Obovate. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Sweetly scented. Terminal cymes.
Fruit: Ovoid/globose. 2.5 – 3.6 × 2 – 3 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: EA, LT, LV. Uganda, Sudan, Western and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: This species has very soft wood which is used for firewood. The tree has a beautiful form and is planted for amenity and shade.
Anthocleista vogelii Planch
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. nobilis G. Don
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkungu-maji, Mtambuu-mwitu (Sw)
Bole: Medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Grey. Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 2.5 cm/sessile.
Lamina: Large. 15 – 50 × 8 – 24 cm. Obovate. Cuneate. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar.
Thorns & Spines: Spines in pairs on branchlets and old stems.
Flower: White. Sweetly scented. Terminal cymes.
Fruit: Globose/ovoid. 2.5 – 4 × 1.8 – 3 cm.
Ecology: Groundwater forest.
Distr: LT, LV. Kenya, Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is soft and is used for firewood. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Nuxia congesta R. Br. ex Fresen.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: N. keniensis Th. Fr. jr, Lachnopylis congesta (R. Br. ex Fresen.) C.A. Sm., Lachnopylis goetzeana (Gilg) Greenway, Lachnopylis odorata (Gilg) Greenway, Lachnopylis platyphylla (Gilg) Dale, Lachnopylis sambesina (Gilg) C.A. Sm.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Ilebu (C), Lulindi (T), Mongwa (F), Mongongo (C), Mungogo (H).
Bole: Fluted. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Soft. Flaking in strips.
Slash: White to green, discolouring.
Leaf: Simple. Whorled in threes.
Petiole: 0.3 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. To 7 – 11 × 2 – 5 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Acute/mucronate. Entire in mature leaves, coppice leaves serrate. Mature leaves glabrous, coppice leaves hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Reduced to a line.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal congested to lax umbels or panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Capsule to 1 cm long.
Ecology: Upper montane and dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves entire.
Uses: Whitish-yellow, hard and heavy wood. The wood is used for timber, firewood and building poles. The leaves and bark may be chewed or boiled and the decoction drunk for indigestion.
Nuxia floribunda Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: N. siebenlistii Gilg ex Siebenlist, Lachnopylis floribunda (Benth.) C.A. Sm., Lachnopylis polyantha (Gilg) C.A. Sm.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlikoliko (C), Mongura (C), Mgadu (S), Mungogo (H).
Bole: Branched/fluted. Medium. To 20m.
Bark: Pale brown-grey. Fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 5.5 cm. Sometimes winged.
Lamina: Medium. 14 × 2 – 4 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Serrate/entire. Glabrous/hairy with minute glandular hairs.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Reduced to a line.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow. Fragrant. Infloresences terminal panicle or umbel. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Capsule brown, 0.5 cm long.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN. Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves dentate, acute.
Uses: The wood is yellow and heavy. It is occasionally used for timber but is good for firewood and building poles. The leaves are dried and burnt, the smoke is inhaled by a child who suffers from convulsions. Roots are used for treating influenza.
Nuxia oppositifolia (Hochst.) Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NC
Syn. TTCL: Lachnopylis oppositifolia Hochst.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Fluted. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Red-brown. Smooth/longitudinally fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1.2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 13 × 0.4 – 3 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/mucronate. Serrate/entire. Glabrous/minute glandular hairs.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Reduced to a line.
Thorns & Spines: Absent. Flower: White. Terminal congested umbels or panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Capsule 0.4 – 0.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine forest.
Distr: N, LT. Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: Leaves dentate and rounded at apex.
Uses: NR.
Strychnos lucens Baker
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Scandent. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: To 0.5 cm. Bases persistent on bark.
Lamina: Small-medium. 2 – 11 × 1 – 7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. 3-nerved from base. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Greenish white, axillary cymes.
Fruit: Orange drupe with hard rind. 1.5 – 5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, LT, LV. Central Southern Africa.
Notes: Bifurcate tendrils present.
Uses: NR.
Strychnos mellodora S. Moore
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtonga (Sw).
Bole: Straight. Small/medium/large. To 35 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Smooth.
Slash: Orange with black edge, becoming whiter near wood.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 12 × 2 – 5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. 3-nerved from base. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Line 0.2 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Axillary/apparently terminal.
Fruit: Globose. 12 – 19 × 10 – 18.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forests.
Distr: EA, N, LN? Zimbabwe, Mozambique.
Notes: Differs from S. mitis in glabrous branchlets, leaves drying dark brown.
Uses: The wood is white, hard and heavy. It is used for firewood, building poles and tool handles. The tree is used as a bee forage.
Strychnos mitis S. Moore
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtonga (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium/large. To 35 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth/slightly fibrous/scaling/with many small furrows.
Slash: Pale brown/cream with layers or orange brown flecks. Fibrous. Thin. Wood grey/brown.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 12 × 1 – 5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. 3 – 5 nerved from base. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/pubescent.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream white. Fragrant. Axillary/terminal cymes.
Fruit: Yellow/orange. Round. 1.2 – 2 cm long.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland, montane and dry montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LV. Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. Comoros.
Notes: Differs from S. mellodora in pubescent branchlets and leaves drying pale green-brown.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used mainly for firewood, tool handles and building poles.
Strychnos usambarensis Gilg
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtonga (Sw).
Bole: Scandent. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Pale to dark green/grey-brown.
Slash: Orange.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.8 cm.
Lamina: Small. 4 – 7 × 1.3 – 3.8 cm. Acuminate. cuneate/rounded. 3-nerved from base. Ovate/lanceolate/ovate lanceolate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White, yellow. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Orange, ellipsoid laterally compressed. 1.0 × 1.8 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and montane forests. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa. Madagascar.
Notes: Also a liane.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood and tool handles.
Last Updated: 17 June 2017