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OLEACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

OLEACEAE

Chionanthus mildbraedii (Gilg & Schellenb.) Stearn
Syn. FTEA: Olea mildbraedii (Gilg & Schellenb.) Knobl.
Syn. TTCL: Olea mildbraedii (Gilg & Schellenb.) Knobl., Linociera latipetala M.R.F. Taylor
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mau (Sw), Mgiwe (H).
Bole: Branched, scandent. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: Yellow.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3.5 – 18 × 1.1 – 7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White-yellow/green/pink. Lax axillary panicles.
Fruit: Drupe. Ellipsoid. 1.6 × 1 cm.
Ecology: Submontane, montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA, N. Kenya, Uganda, Central and West-central Africa.
Notes: Slender tree.
Uses: NR.
Olea capensis L. subsp. macrocarpa (C. H. Wright) I. Verd.
Syn. FTEA: O. hochstetteri Baker
Syn. TTCL: O. hochstetteri Baker
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Loliondo (Sw), Mgiwe (H), Mshio (C), Lolyondo (P), Sasi (F), Olmasi (A), Ololiondoi (M).
Bole: Straight. Large/small. To 40 m.
Bark: Pale grey/pale brown/black. Longitudinally fissured/smooth.
Slash: Orange/brown/cream/yellow/white. Discolouring black/grey. Thin. Soft. Fibrous. Exuding opaque sap.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.8 – 1.5 cm. Rounded/variable.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4.5 – 9 × 1.2 – 4 cm. Elliptic/ovate/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous. Scattered circular scales.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. Lamina punctate.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal or axillary paniculate cyme. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Ellipsoid drupe. 1.7 cm long.
Ecology: Montane, upper montane and dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N. Tropical and Southern Africa, Madagascar, Comoros.
Notes: Circular scales on lower leaf surface.
Uses: The wood is pale brown, heavy and very hard. It is used for heavy construction, sleepers, tool handles, grain mortars, flooring and carvings. The tree is used for shade in coffee farms. Fruits are sometimes eaten. Roots are used by the WaShambaa for infertility in women.
Olea europea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif.
Syn. FTEA: O. chrysophylla Lam., O. kilimandscharica Knobl.
Syn. TTCL: O. chrysophylla Lam., O. kilimandscharica Knobl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msenefu (C), Mziaghembe (S), Mhagati (H), Mgiwe (H), Muranganji (P), Ol orien (M).
Bole: Straight. Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Dark brown/grey. Hard. Fissured.
Slash: Yellow/brown with orange flecks. Woody. Hard. Smells of pombe.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.1 – 1.3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 1.8 – 9.5 × 0.8 – 2.4 cm. Lanceolate/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse/mucronate. Entire. Glabrous. Lower surface densely covered with small circular scales.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. Lamina minutely punctate.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Fragrant. Terminal and lateral paniculate cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Drupe. Ellipsoid 0.5 – 1 cm long.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N. Widespread in Eastern and Southern Africa. Mascarenes, Arabian Peninsula to Iran, India, and China.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is dark brown, hard and heavy. It is used for firewood, charcoal, building poles, flooring, carvings, pestles and fencing posts. Leaves are soaked in a pot containing local brew to make it strong.
Olea schliebenii Knobl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 17 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2 – 5 × 2 – 4 cm. Elliptic/broadly elliptic. Obtuse. Rounded/obtuse/shortly cuspidate. Entire. Glabrous. Scattered circular scales on both surfaces but especially on lower.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. Lamina minutely punctate.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Fragrant. Terminal and lateral paniculate cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Not known.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul, Udz).
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Olea welwitschii (Knobl.) Gilg & Schellenb.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Steganthus welwitschii (Knobl.) Knobl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Large. To 35 m.
Bark: Grey-brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1.7 – 4.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 19 × 2.3 – 7.6 cm. Lanceolate/elliptic. Obtuse/acute. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous. Widely scattered circular scales on both surfaces.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. Lamina minutely punctate.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Fragrant. Terminal paniculate cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Drupe, ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.0 – 1.2 × 0.6 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Wet lowland forest to dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LT. Uganda, Kenya, South Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Olea woodiana Knobl. subsp. disjuncta P. S. Green
Syn. FTEA: NR.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 16 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.5 – 7.0 × 1.7 – 4.0 cm. Elliptic/broadly elliptic. Narrowly cuneate. Obtuse/acute/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous. Scattered circular on lower surface.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present. Lamina minutely punctate.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Fragrant. Terminal and lateral paniculate cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Ovoid drupe, 0.8 – 1.5 × 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Ecology: Coastal forest.
Distr: C. Coastal Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Schrebera alata (Hochst.) Welw.
Syn. FTEA: S. goetzeana Gilg, S. greenwayi Turrill, S. holstii (Engl. & Gilg) Gilg, S. mazoensis S. Moore
Syn. TTCL: S. goetzeana Gilg, S. greenwayi Turrill, S. holstii (Engl. & Gilg) Gilg, S. mazoensis S. Moore, S. merkeri Lingelsh., S. nyassae Lingelsh., S. obliquifoliolata Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muhongola, Mkombalwiko (H).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Scaling.
Slash: Yellow-brown with brown layers.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 5 leaflets. Opposite. Lflts: Opposite.
Petiole: Often winged.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4.5 – 9.5 × 1.6 – 4.3 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Terminal cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Woody capsule pear-shaped, splitting in two. 2.2 – 3.5 × 1.2 – 1.4 cm. Seeds winged.
Ecology: Dry montane forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT. Eastern Tropical Africa, Angola.
Notes: Differs from S. trichoclada in odd-pinnate leaves. The local name Mkombalwiko means the spoon tree.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and is used for timber, spoons, firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade in coffee farms.
Schrebera trichoclada Welw.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: S. koiloneura Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mpulika (N), Mwahama (H).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Yellow/grey. Flaking/furrowed.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 10 × 2 – 7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Hairy/glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow-green. Axillary.
Fruit: Woody capsule. 6 × 3 cm. Seeds winged.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT, LV. Central and Eastern Africa, Angola, Madagascar.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and used for firewood, charcoal, poles and spoons. The leaves are used by WaNyamwezi for snake bites – the new leaves and twigs are chewed and the very bitter juice is swallowed, whilst the paste of it crushed in a pestle is smeared on the wound after incising with a razor blade. The leaves are also used for coughs and stomach-ache.
Last Updated: 18 June 2017