info@celp.org.uk

RUBIACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

RUBIACEAE

Afrocanthium lactescens (Hiern) Lantz
Syn. FTEA: Canthium lactescens Hiern
Syn. TTCL: Canthium lactescens Hiern
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Olkumi (M).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Dark grey/reddish.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 18 × 5 – 13 cm. Elliptic. Rounded/cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular/ovate. 0.6 – 1.2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream/yellow. On leafless nodes of previous years growth. Cymes.
Fruit: Yellowish. Bilobed. 0.7 – 1.2 × 0.8 – 1.2 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and dry montane forest patches. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: EA, LT, LV. Angola, Central and Eastern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for firewood, building poles, withies and tool handles. Fruits are edible.
Afrocanthium parasiebenlistii (Bridson) Lantz
Syn. FTEA: Canthium parasiebenlistii Bridson
Syn. TTCL: Canthium parasiebenlistii Bridson
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: (0.3 -) 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 12 (- 14.5) × 3 – 9 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular-acuminate. 0.3 – 1.2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Green-yellow. On uppermost nodes. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Oblong. 0.6 – 0.9 × 0.7 – 0.9 cm.
Ecology: Upland riverine forest. Woodland.
Distr: EA, LN, LT. South-central Africa.
Notes: Leaves immature and sticky at time of flowering. Very closely related to C. siebenlistii, but differing in ecology. There is a possible undescribed subspecies in coastal forest.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for firewood, tool handles, bows and spoons. The tree is used for amenity and bee forage.
Afrocanthium siebenlistii (K. Krause) Lantz
Syn. FTEA: Canthium siebenlistii (K. Krause) Bullock
Syn. TTCL: Canthium siebenlistii (K. Krause) Bullock
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Fluted. Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth/cracked into squares.
Slash: Yellow brown with brown flecks. Fibrous. Orange underbark in larger trees.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small. 6 – 8.5 × 3 – 6.2 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/sometimes hairy on midrib below.
Domatia: Conspicuous hairy tufts.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: 0.3 – 0.5 cm long. With slender filiform lobe. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-yellow. On naked branches or with immature leaves. Cymes.
Fruit: Heart-shaped. 0.8 – 1.0 cm.
Ecology: Submontane, montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA (Us, Udz) only.
Notes: A closely related undescribed taxon has been collected from the southern Uluguru.
Uses: Used for bee forage, shade and amenity. The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Aidia micrantha (K. Schum.) Bullock ex F. White var. msonju (K.Krause) E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Randia msonju K. Krause
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 0.8 (- 1.0) cm long.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 16 (- 18) × 3 – 7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: 0.3 – 0.5 (- 0.9) × 0.2 – 0.3 (- 0.6) cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Flowers fragrant, pink/purple/white, at node with one leaf, the other leaf being reduced to a scale.
Fruit: Green becoming red. Globose. 0.6 – 0.8 (- 1.0) cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater and lowland forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT, LV. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: The four other varieties extend to West Central Africa.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, bows, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for amenity and bee forage.
Aoranthe penduliflora (K. Schum.) Somers
Syn. FTEA: Porterandia penduliflora (K. Schum.) Keay
Syn. TTCL: Amaralia penduliflora (K. Schum.) Wernham
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.8 – 2.0 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 11 – 30 × 5 – 16 cm. Elliptic/oblanceolate. Cuneate. Acute. Glabrous/bristly hairs on the midrib/hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Elliptic. 1 – 1.2 × 0.5 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream, tinged pink/red. Pendulous. Axillary.
Fruit: Orange when ripe. Ellipsoid. 3 – 5 × 1.6 – 2 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs, Ul, Udz) only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: Used for firewood, tool handles, shade and ornamental purposes.
Belonophora coffeoides Hook. f. subsp. hypoglauca (Welw. ex Hiern) S. E. Dawson & Cheek
Syn. FTEA: B. hypoglauca (Hiern) A. Chev.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 6.5 – 20 (- 27) × 1.7 – 9 (- 12.5) cm. Oblong/elliptic/obovate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Subulate. 1 – 1.8 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Scented. Axillary fascicles.
Fruit: Red. 1.2 – 1.3 (- 1.7) × 1.0 – 1.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine forest. Woodland.
Distr: LT, LV. Uganda, Angola, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles. The tree is used for shade, ornamental purposes and for bee forage.
Breonadia salicina (Vahl) Hepper & J. R. I. Wood
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Adina microcephala (Del.) Hiern
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mgwina (Sw), Mgwina (S), Mgwina (Nk).
Bole: Medium. To 21 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Fissured into squares/flaking. Striated.
Slash: Red/pale red. Fibrous. Soft.
Leaf: Simple. In whorls of 3 or 4.
Petiole: 0.8 – 2.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 8 – 33 × 2 – 9 cm. Lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute/obtuse. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular, bifid separating into a 4-toothed ring.
Thorns and spines: Absent.
Flower: Pinkish green, white, yellowish brown. In hanging balls on stalks.
Fruit: Capsule. 0.35 cm long.
Ecology: Riverine in dry lowland, lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LN. Tropical and Southern Africa. Madagascar, Yemen.
Notes: Usually found near water.
Uses: The wood is pinkish-brown, heavy and very hard. It is used for building constructions, sleepers, bridges, flooring, and yokes. The tree makes good shade, avenue and bee forage.
Burttdavya nyasica Hoyle
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mvule maji (Sw).
Bole: Medium/large. To 40 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 2 – 6 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 7.5 – 31 × 5 – 23 cm. Ovate/elliptic. Rounded/cordate/cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Glabrous/hairs on midrib below.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Large. Elliptic/obovate. 3 – 5.6 × 1.5 – 3.5 cm. Falling.
Thorns and spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Fragrant. In solitary terminal balls.
Fruit: In fruiting heads. Red. Oblong-ovoid. 0.5 – 0.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland and lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA. South-eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Remarkable golden-orange/greenish wood.
Uses: Used for timber, tool handles, canoes, grain mortars, spoons, firewood, shade and avenue.
Canthium oligocarpum Hiern subsp. captum (Bullock) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. captum Bullock
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Msanda (F), Mhomang’ambako (H), Mtagamba (H).
Bole: Straight/slightly fluted. Medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: Yellow, discolouring orange/brown. Soft.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 14.5 × 1.5 – 6 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/domatia hairy beneath.
Domatia: Hairy.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Sheathing at base. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Spines present on coppice, but not on mature stems.
Flower: White/yellow-green. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Bilobed. 1.4 – 1.7 × 1.2 – 1.4 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN. South-eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves with (5 -) 6 – 7 main pairs of lateral nerves. The local name Mhomang’ambako means the tree which pricks bulls.
Uses: Used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal and building poles.
Canthium oligocarpum Hiern subsp. intermedium Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.5 – 9.5 × 1.8 – 4.7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/domatia hairy beneath.
Domatia: Hairy.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Sheathing at base. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: White/yellow-green. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Bilobed. 1.3 – 1.7 × 1.4 – 1.6 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N. Southeast Kenya.
Notes: Leaves with 3 – 5 (- 6) main pairs of lateral nerves. Young stems covered with pale/grey bark.
Uses: Used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal and building poles.
Canthium oligocarpum Hiern subsp. oligocarpum
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 14.5 × 1.5 – 6 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous above/domatia hairy beneath.
Domatia: Hairy.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Sheathing at base. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: White/yellow-green. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Bilobed. 1.3 – 2.4 × 1.5 – 2 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: LT. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves with 3 – 5 (- 6) main pairs of lateral nerves. Young stems usually green.
Uses: Used for firewood, tool handles, charcoal and building poles.
Canthium subochreata (De Wild.) Robyns
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 3.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.5 – 18 × 1.2 – 5.5 cm. Oblong-lanceolate/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Bluntly triangular. 0.3 – 0.4 × 0.3 – 0.5 cm. Joined to form a sheath. Becoming yellowish and corky.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Peduncles white. Panicles.
Fruit: Black. Ellipsoid. 0.5 – 0.7 × 0.4 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LT. Uganda, Kenya, Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The plant is used for firewood, shade, amenity and bee forage.
Coffea costatifructa Bridson
Syn. FTEA: C. spp. F and J
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbuni mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 9 × 2.5 – 5.2 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Small, with few hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.1 – 0.2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. 1 – 2 per axil.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: NR.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The species is used for shade, amenity and bee forage. It is also used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Coffea mongensis Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbuni mwitu (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4.6 – 12.5 × 1.8 – 6.6 cm. Obovate/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Pits, sometimes hairy.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular-ovate. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Axillary. Singly or in fascicles.
Fruit: 1.3 – 2 × 0.7 – 1 cm.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA (Us, Ng, Udz) only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for firewood, tool handles and building poles. The tree is suitable for amenity and bee forage.
Craterispermum schweinfurthii Hiern
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. sp.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey/white. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 17 × 2 – 8 cm. Elliptic/oblong/obovate/oblanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: 0.25 – 0.5 cm long. Thicker parts with hairs.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White pink fragrant. Supra-axillary peduncles.
Fruit: Sessile berry, brown when dry. 0.5 – 0.6 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater and dry submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves drying yellow green.
Uses: The wood is hard, tough and used for building poles, firewood, charcoal, tool handles and sticks. Roots are chewed and the juice taken as an aphrodisiac.
Didymosalpinx norae (Swynn.) Keay
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Gardenia abbeokutae Hiern (see note).
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Muruwana (Digo).
Bole: Scandent. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4.5 – 14 (- 17) × 1.5 – 5.5 (- 7). Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Small, hairy.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Broad with short apiculum. 0.1 – 0.4 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Spines paired.
Flower: Cream/white tinged green. Large. Fragrant at night. Solitary in axils.
Fruit: Pale green/white. Dark green longitunidal lines. Globose/ellipsoid. 2 – 3.3 × 1.7 – 2.3 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA. South-eastern Kenya, South-eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Grey-green on drying. Closely related to the West African D. abbeokutae (Hiern) Keay, with which the eastern African material has been confused.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, charcoal and spoons. The tree is used for ornamental purposes.
Galiniera saxifraga (Hochst.) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: G. coffeoides Del.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mmafimafi (H), Mliwa (C), Mnengenenge (C).
Bole: Branched. Small. To 14 m.
Bark: Pale grey.
Slash: Light brown with orange markings.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.6 – 1.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5.5 – 20 × 2 – 8 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib/hairy.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular. 0.6 – 1.8 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Fragrant. Axillary cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Red/purple-brown. 0.8 – 0.9 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT. Eastern, Central and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: A good shade and ornamental tree. The wood is used for firewood, tool handles, spoons, walking sticks and liquid stirring sticks.
Genus ? nov. A of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey-brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: Short.
Lamina: Small. 1.5 – 4.5 × 0.8 – 1.8 cm. Oblong-ellptic. Cuneate. Acuminate/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Distinctive. Subulate. 0.3 – 0.4 cm long. Large club shaped collater at apex.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale green. Fasciculate/solitary.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Nguru).
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Genus ? nov. B of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Reddish brown. Flaking in minute pieces.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5.2 – 13.5 × 2.5 – 6 cm. Oblong. Rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: NR.
Fruit: Globose. 3 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Hallea rubrostipulata (K. Schum.) Havil.
Syn. FTEA: Hallea rubrostipulata (K. Schum.) J.-F. Leroy
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mromberombe (S), Msibesibe (T).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 30 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Flaking in patches.
Slash: Yellow, discolouring brown. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 5.5 cm.
Lamina: Large. 4.5 – 35 × 2.5 – 25 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Rounded/cordate/cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Pubescent/glabrous beneath.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Bright red. Elliptic. Large. 3.5 – 7.5 (- 15) cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/pale yellow. Fragrant. Inflorescences terminal and axillary globose heads. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Ellipsoid 0.9 – 1.3 cm long, 0.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Groundwater in submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Eastern, Central and South Tropical Africa.
Notes: Large red stipules are distinctive.
Uses: The wood is pinkish-brown, moderately hard and used for timber, firewood, charcoal and grain mortars. The tree is used for shade and stream planting. Roots are used as medicine for convulsions in children and for kidney problems by the WaShambaa.
Heinsenia diervilleoides K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: Aulacocalyx diervilleoides (K. Schum.) E. M. A. Petit
Local names: Kiberu (S).
Bole: Branched/fluted. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Smooth/scaling finely.
Slash: Cream/yellow with orange flecks, discolouring.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 1.0 cm. Red when young.
Lamina: Medium/small. 5 – 16.5 × 1 – 7.7 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Subulate point. 0.4 – 0.7 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White, spotted pink inside. On short terminal branchlets. Axillary/lateral.
Fruit: Green/purple. Subglobose. 1.1 – 1.3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Young leaves reddish. Two subspecies are recognised: subsp. diervilleoides occurs throughout the range, and has oblong/lanceolate leaves; subsp. mufindiensis (Verdc.) Verdc. is known only from the southern Udzungwa mountains and has smaller elliptic leaves.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for firewood, poles, tool handles, shade and amenity.
Ixora albersii K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwinga (S).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Corky.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.5 – 11 cm long. Elliptic/oblong/obovate. Rounded/cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Subulate. 0.3 – 0.7 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Red outside, white/pink inside. Fragrant. Corymbs. Terminal.
Fruit: Black. 1.1 cm wide.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (WUs, South P).
Notes: NR.
Uses: Used for shade, amenity and for bee forage. The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Ixora burundiensis Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 16 m.
Bark: Pale brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 0.8 (- 1.2) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6.5 – 17.5 × 2.3 – 5.6 cm. Obovate/oblong-elliptic/elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: 0.3 – 0.6 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/cream. Pink at base. Fragrant. Corymbs. Terminal.
Fruit: 0.9 – 1.1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Upper montane forest. Woodland.
Distr: LT. East-central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: An ornamental, shade and bee forage tree. The wood is used for poles and tool handles.
Ixora narcissodora K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Ixora stolzii K. Krause
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlindi-chozi (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.1 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 18 × 1 – 8 cm. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/obtuse/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous/finely hairy beneath.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Fragrant. Corymbs.
Fruit: Often galled. 0.9 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT. Eastern and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Close to I. euosimia K.Schum. from Cameroun and the two taxa might be better treated as subspecies.
Uses: This species is used for shade, ornamental, poles, firewood and handles.
Ixora scheffleri K.Schum. & K. Krause subsp. scheffleri
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: I. latituba K.Krause, I. ulugurensis Bremek.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkonyangubi (H).
Bole: Small/medium. To 17 m.
Bark: Brown.
Slash: Pale pink, discolouring brown. Soft. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 18 × 1.2 – 6 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. 0.2 – 0.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Fragrant. Corymbs. Terminal.
Fruit: Red. 0.8 – 1.0 cm in diameter. Often galled.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN. Malawi.
Notes: The other subspecies, subsp. keniensis Bridson, is found only on Mt. Kenya.
Uses: An ornamental and shade tree. It is also used for firewood and building poles.
Lagynias pallidiflora Bullock
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.

Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched/fluted. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Flaking/rough.
Slash: White/brown, streaked. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Medium/small. 1.4 – 15 × 0.7 – 6 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Filiform-subulate. 0.4 – 1.0 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream, greenish white/greenish yellow. Umbel-like.
Fruit: Brown assymetrically ellipsoid-subglobose. 1.6 × 1 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest. Thickets.
Distr: C, EA. Coastal Kenya.
Notes: Leaves discolorous on drying. Minute pustules on veins under leaf. Stipules needle-like.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood and poles. It is also used for amenity.
Lagynias rufescens (E. A. Bruce) Verdc. subsp. angustiloba Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 13.5 × 1 – 6 cm. Oblong/oblong-elliptic. Rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular-ovate base, subulate tip. 0.9 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green. Axillary.
Fruit: Globose 2.5 – 3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: Leaves, young stems and inflorescences covered in rusty red bristly hairs. Subsp. rufescens is a small shrub from the Ulugurus and Ngurus.
Uses: This species is used for ornamental, firewood, tool handles and building poles.
Lasianthus wallacei E.A. Bruce
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 9 – 17 × 2.5 – 7 cm. Oblong-lanceolate/elliptic. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on nerves beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.3 – 0.4 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/purple. Subsessile in leaf axils.
Fruit: Blue. Ellipsoid. 1.7 × 1.3 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Leptactina platyphylla (Hiern) Wernham
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: L. hexamera K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Yongo (Sw).
Bole: Branched/fluted. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Flaking.
Slash: Pink. Soft. Smooth.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.7 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 6.6 – 29.5 (- 38) × 4.3 – 15 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Broad, reflexed. 0.8 – 2.3 (- 3) × 1.1 – 2.6 (- 3) cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Large. Sweet scented. Terminating lateral shoots.
Fruit: Oblong-ellipsoid. 1.1 – 2 × 0.7 – 1.4 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Eastern, Central and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: An attractive white-flowered shrub used for ornamental, firewood and tool handles.
Morinda asteroscepa K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mromberombe (S).
Bole: Branched/fluted. Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Brown. Flaking/fibrous. Rough.
Slash: Yellow. Fibrous.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: (1 -) 1.7 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7.8 – 22.6 (- 25) × 3.5 – 15.2 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Tufts of hair.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 3.6 – 6 × 0.5 – 2 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream/yellow. In tight heads, often bearing a large leaf-like coloured bract.
Fruit: Heads of fruits 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA. Malawi.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, grain mortars, spoons, domestic utensils, water pots and firewood. The bark produces yellow dye. Roots are used as medicine for convulsions in children by the WaShambaa. The tree is good for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Morinda lucida Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Crooked. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Scaling/rough.
Slash: Green/yellow.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.6 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5.8 – 18 × 2.2 – 8.9 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Mucronate. 0.1 – 0.3 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green-yellow. Scented. In heads. Axillary, alternating at each node.
Fruit: Green becoming soft and black. Clustered in heads, 0.8 – 2.2 (- 2.5) cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: LT, LV. Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: A shade and ornamental tree with white sweet-scented flowers. The wood is used for timber, grain mortars, domestic utensils and beehives.
Multidentia fanshawei (Tennant) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Scandent. Small. To 14 m.
Bark: Red-brown. Powdery.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite. Restricted to apices of branches.
Petiole: 0.6 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 12 × 2.5 – 5 (- 7) cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Hairy tufts.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Sheathing. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long with linear subulate lobe.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Cymes.
Fruit: Subglobose. Bilobed. 1.8 – 2.5 cm × 1.9 – 2.7 cm.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN. Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: Used for firewood, tool handles and building poles. The plant is suitable for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Multidentia sclerocarpa (K.Schum.) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Canthium sclerocarpum (K.Schum.) Bullock
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 13 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite. At apices of branches.
Petiole: 0.8 – 1.2 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 11 × 2.5 – 4.5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Tufts of hair.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Sheath-like. 0.2 – 0.5 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Fleshy. Cymes on nodes of leaves that have been shed.
Fruit: 1.5 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs). Southeast Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for shade and bee forage.
Mussaenda microdonta Wernham subsp. microdonta
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: M. holstii Wernham, M. ulugurensis Wernham
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkulikwa (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 27 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 2.3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 17 × 2.9 – 11 cm. Elliptic. Acuminate/acute. Cuneate. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular. 0.3 – 1.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Tube green-yellow with bright yellow lobes. Fragrant. Infloresence dense terminal and axillary panicles. Leaf-like white/cream sepals. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green, globose. 0.6 – 0.9 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us, Ng, Ul).
Notes: 6 – 10 pairs lateral nerves.
Uses: An ornamental and shade tree. The wood is used for firewood, domestic utensils and stools.
Mussaenda microdonta Wernham subsp. odorata (Hutch.) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkulikwa (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 27 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 2.3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 13 – 21 × 2.9 – 11 cm. Elliptic. Acuminate/acute. Cuneate. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular. 0.3 – 1.3 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Tube green-yellow with bright yellow lobes. Fragrant. Infloresence dense terminal and axillary panicles. Leaf-like white/cream sepals. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green, globose. 1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: N. Eastern Uganda and Kenya.
Notes: 11 – 13 pairs lateral nerves.
Uses: A shade and ornamental tree. The wood is used for firewood and tool handles.
Oxyanthus speciosus DC.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: For subsp. stenocarpus (K. Schum.) Bridson (see note): O. gerrardii Sond., O. stenocarpus K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfupapo (Sw), Mbuni (S), Mbuni-mwitu (S).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Smooth.
Slash: Green to white.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.7 – 1.5 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small/medium. 7.2 – 25.5 × 2.9 – 12.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on midrib. Simple.
Domatia: Tufts of hair.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular/lanceolate. 0.6 – 2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.

Flower: White. Fragrant. Infloresence axillary panicles. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Ellipsoid 1.8 – 6.3 cm long.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland, submontane, montane and upper montane forest. Thicket.
Distr: See note. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: In Tanzania there are three subspecies with different geographical distributions: subsp. globosus Bridson (LV), subsp. mollis (Hutch.) Bridson (LT), subsp. stenocarpus (K.Schum.) Bridson (EA, N, LN, LT).
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles, whipsticks and tool handles. The tree is used for shade and amenity. Subsp. stenocarpus: Leaves and roots are used as an antidote for snake bites and arrow poison.
Pauridiantha paucinervis (Hiern) Bremek.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: P. holstii (K.Schum.) Bremek.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kihwaga (H), Mnavilavi (Z).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Brown.
Slash: Pale yellow. Discolouring.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3.5 – 15.5 × 0.9 – 5.2 cm. Oblong-elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on nerves below.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Lanceolate. 0.3 – 1.4 × 0.1 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/yellow. Axillary cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Berries orange/red. Subglobose 0.3 – 0.5 × 0.3 – 0.4 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT. Tropical Africa, Madagascar.
Notes: Four subspecies have been recognized, but are no longer maintained.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, building poles, tool handles and withies. The tree is used for shade and bee forage. Roots are used by the WaShambaa for headache and as a purgative.
Pauridiantha viridiflora (Schweinf. ex Hiern) Hepper
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium. (7 -) 9.6 – 15.5 (- 23.5) × 2 – 5.6 (- 8.4). Elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Glabrous/hairy on nerves.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Ovate-triangular. 0.5 – 1.8 × 0.3 – 1.2 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/green-white. Extensive terminal and lateral infloresences. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Berries green. Subgobose. 0.5 – 0.7 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: LV. Uganda, Western and Central Africa.
Notes: Leaves yellow green and deeply furrowed.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, building poles and tool handles. The tree is good for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Pavetta hymenophylla Bremek
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: P. sp. 3 nr. ternifolia, P. sp. 4.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.8 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6.5 – 23.5 × 2.2 – 10.6 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Leaf nodules linear on midrib and nerves.
Stipules: Keeled. 0.4 – 1.0 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Lax terminal corybs.
Fruit: Black. 1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT. Kenya, Malawi.
Notes: NR.
Uses: This species is used for firewood, poles and ornamental purposes.
Pavetta refractifolia K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: P. cooperi Harv. & Sond.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 11 m.
Bark: Pale brown. Thin, cracking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.4 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 4 – 12 × 2 – 6 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Nodules on leaf nerves and scattered.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.4 – 1 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal corymbs on lateral branches.
Fruit: Black. 0.7 – 0.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: C only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: An ornamental and bee forage species. The wood is used for firewood.
Polysphaeria macrantha Brenan
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: (0.4 -) 0.6 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. (5.5 -) 9.5 – 17 cm. Oblong/oblong-lanceolate/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular/ovate-triangular. 0.4 – 0.7 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm. Mucronate.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Axillary. Sessile/shortly pedunculate.
Fruit: Subglobose. 1.2 – 1.4 cm.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, South P, Udz).
Notes: NR.
Uses: It is used for firewood, building poles, pegs and tool handles. The tree is also used for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Polysphaeria parvifolia Hiern
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkanja, Mlapaa (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Reddish brown. Peeling in strips.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 0.4 – 6 (- 11) × 0.4 – 4.5 (- 4.7) cm. Oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: 0.1 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/greenish. Axillary. Clustered. Sessile or short peduncles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C. East and North-east Tropical Africa.
Notes: Rarely a tree.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for firewood, building poles, pegs, tool handles and animal traps. The tree is used for shade and bee forage. Roots are used as a medicine for stomach-ache.
Psychotria capensis (Eckl.) Vatke
Syn. FTEA: P. riparia (K. Schum. & K.Krause) Petit
Syn. TTCL: Grumilea bussei K. Schum. & K. Krause, Grumilea riparia K. Schum. & K. Krause
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkanja, Mlapaa (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 4 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 20 × 1 – 10 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular/ovate. 0.3 – 0.8 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/white/green-yellow. Branched inflorescences.
Fruit: Drupes red. Subglobose 0.7 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine and dry lowland forest. Thicket and bushland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Eastern and Southern Africa.
Notes: There is a record of the tree up to 20 m tall. There are several varieties recognised.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and tough. It is used for firewood, charcoal, poles, pegs, withies, fish and animal traps. The tree is used for shade and amenity. Roots are used as an aphrodisiac.
Psychotria cyathicalyx E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Grumilea buchananii K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mdizi (S).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.8 – 8 (- 10) × 1 – 5 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-obovate. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Whitish. Obovate-elliptic. 0.5 – 1.5 (- 1.7) cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/cream. Much-branched panicles.
Fruit: Drupes orange-red. Subglobose. 0.5 – 0.7 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA (Us, South P, Ul, Udz), N.
Notes: Lower leaf surface appears to be covered in scales, but these are in fact the stomata.
Uses: This species is used for firewood, shade and ornamental purposes. Roots are boiled and the liquid is taken three times a day as an aphrodisiac.
Psychotria elachistantha (K.Schum.) E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Grumilea elachistantha K.Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.7 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 8 – 16 × 2.5 – 6 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate. 0.7 – 1 (- 1.7) cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pale pink/yellow-white. Much branched panicles.
Fruit: Drupes orange-red. Globose 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul).
Notes: Leaves drying red-brown.
Uses: The wood is used for building poles, handles, firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Psychotria mahonii C.H. Wright
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Lipumila, Mmemenang’olo (H).
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Black.
Slash: Pale purple with black edge.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 3.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 23 × 1.5 – 10 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for distinctive hairy domatia.
Domatia: Hairy.
Glands: Absent, but some bumps simulate nodules.
Stipules: Obovate. Bilobed at apex. 0.4 – 1.7 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green/yellow. Sweet-smelling. Much branched panicles.
Fruit: Drupes red. 0.5 – 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, upper montane and dry montane forest. Woodland.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Eastern, Central, and South-eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: There are three varieties. Glistening stomata look like scales on leaf undersurface. The local name Mmemenang’olo means chewed by sheep.
Uses: The tree is used for firewood, tool handles, shade and amenity. Bark and roots are used as a gargle for treating sores in the throat.
Psychotria megalopus Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1.5 – 6 cm long.
Lamina: Medium/large. 28 – 43 × 9.6 – 24 cm. Oblong/obovate. Cuneate. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Large. Oblong. 2.6 × 2.4 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. In heads on long red peduncle.
Fruit: Yellow. Ellipsoid. 0.9 – 1.0 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul, Udz).
Notes: Extra-ordinarily long red peduncles grow from the branch tips to the ground, with the flowers opening near or on the ground.
Uses: The plant is used for shade, amenity, firewood and poles.
Psychotria megistantha E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 4 (- 5.5) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 7 – 19 × 3 – 13 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate-triangular. 0.6 – 1.7 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Branched inflorescences of condensed heads.
Fruit: Blue drupe. Subglobose. 0.8 – 1.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul).
Notes: NR.
Uses: An ornamental and shade tree. It is also used for firewood, tool handles and poles.
Psychotria orophila E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 3.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 7 – 18 × 3.5 – 7 (- 10) cm. Elliptic/oblong elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on nerves beneath and domatia.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate/ovate-elliptic. Sometimes bifid. 1 – 2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pink. Much-branched panicles.
Fruit: Drupes red. Ellipsoid. 0.6 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N. East and Northeast Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The species is used for ornamental and shade purposes. It is also used for firewood and amenity.
Psychotria sp. A of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.6 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 11 × 1.4 – 3.6 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate. 0.5 – 0.6 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: NR.
Fruit: Striped. Subglobose. 0.5 – 0.6 × 0.5 – 0.8 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N only.
Notes: Leaves drying pale yellow-green.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles. The tree is suitable for shade and ornamental purposes because of its lazy branches.
Psychotria succulenta (Hiern) E. M. A. Petit
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 25 × (1.1 -) 2 – 10 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Rounded/cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Obovate. Emarginate. 1 – 1.5 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green-yellow. Sweet-scented. Much branched panicles.
Fruit: Red. Subglobose/ellipsoid. 0.6 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest. Woodland.
Distr: LT, LV. Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: Leaves drying yellow or purplish.
Uses: An ornamental and shade tree. The wood is used for firewood and charcoal.
Psydrax parviflora (Afzel.) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: (see note) subsp. parviflora: Canthium vulgare (K.Schum.) Bullock, subsp. rubrocostata (Robyns) Bridson: Canthium rubrocostatum Robyns
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkomahoya (S).
Bole: Fluted/straight. Small/medium. To 30 m.
Bark: Brown. Slightly fissured.
Slash: Cream with darker layers or cream yellow with orange flecks.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5.5 – 15.5 × 2 – 8 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Prominent blisters.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: 0.2 – 0.7 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Many flowered corymbs.
Fruit: Black. 0.5 – 0.8 × 0.8 – 1.4 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest. Thickets.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: There are two subspecies in Tanzania which are geographically separate: subsp. parviflora has pale midribs, glabrous domatia and the leaves dry green (LT, LV) and subsp. rubrocostata has red midribs, ciliate domatia and the leaves drying brown (EA, N, LN). The local name Mkomahoya means axe breaker.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, charcoal, and tool handles. The tree is used for shade, amenity and bee forage. Subsp. parviflora: The fruits are used as medicine for coughs and influenza. Roots are cooked with animal soup (meat and bones) and taken for intestinal worms and generalized body pains.
Psydrax schimperiana (A.Rich.) Bridson subsp. schimperiana
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Canthium euryoides Bullock ex Hutch. & Dalz., Canthium schimperianum A. Rich.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlela (Z).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Fissured. Hard.
Slash: Yellow. Thin. Hard.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3 – 10.5 × 1.3 – 5 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent/inconspicuous.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular and keeled. 0.3 – 0.7 (- 1.0) cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Sessile umbellate cymes.
Fruit: Black. 0.5 – 0.7 × 0.6 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N, LV. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa, Yemen.
Notes: The other subspecies, subsp. occidentalis Bridson, occurs in western Africa.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, poles and spoons. The tree is used for shade and bee forage. The bark is used as medicine for indigestion.
Pyrostria bibracteata (Baker) Cavaco
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Canthium bibracteatum (Baker) Hiern
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkonge (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Pale grey/brownish. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 13 × 2 – 6 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs/absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular, lobed above. 0.4 – 1.4 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellowish cream. Umbels.
Fruit: Yellow. Globose. 0.6 × 0.2 – 0.3 cm. Edible.
Ecology: Lowland forest edges. Thicket.
Distr: C. Eastern Tropical Africa. Madagascar, Seychelles.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for firewood, charcoal, poles, pegs and tool handles. The tree is used for shade, amenity and bee forage. The fruits are edible.
Rhipidantha chlorantha (K.Schum.) Bremek.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 8.5 – 21 × 2.5 – 11 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath when young.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate, yellow, fleshy. 0.5 – 0.9 × 0.3 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pale green. Axillary cymes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul).
Notes: Monotypic genus. Young leaves blue.
Uses: The species is used for shade, and amenity, firewood and tool handles.
Rothmannia fischeri (K.Schum.) Bullock subsp. fischeri
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Randia fischeri K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mhuzi (S).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Scaling.
Slash: Cream with brown layers. Hard.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite, often with extra leaf at some nodes (representing true apex of sympodial stem).
Petiole: 0.1 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2 – 11 (- 14) × 1 – 6 cm. Elliptic/obovate. Cuneate/rounded. Acute/acuminate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Glabrous/hairy pits.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.1 – 0.6 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Large, funnel-shaped. White with red lines and spots. Solitary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green with pale green spots. Sessile. Round. 3 – 6.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland and dry montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Central and Southern Africa.
Notes: Leaves drying blackish. Another subspecies, subsp. verdcourtii Bridson, occurs in Northeast Tanzania and Kenya on rocky hillsides.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for shade and amenity. The fruits are used for making snuff-containers.
Rothmannia manganjae (Hiern) Keay
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kitovutovu (S).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Brown/grey. Rough/smooth. Flaking.
Slash: Cream/white with many orange brown flecks/vertical brown lines, discoloring greenish.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite, often with extra leaf at some nodes (representing true apex of sympodial stem).
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.6 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 8 – 15 × 2 – 6 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Present/absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular. Acuminate. 0.1 – 0.3 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Large white/pink sweetly scented. Terminal, solitary or clustered.
Fruit: Green, black when ripe. Globose. 1.8 – 4 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LT. Eastern and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, whipsticks, tool handles and spoons. The tree is good for ornamental and shade.
Rothmannia ravae (Chiov.) Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kitovutovu (Z).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Pale grey flaking to reveal chocolate brown underlayer.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite, often with extra leaf at some nodes (representing true apex of sympodial stem).
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 12 × 2 – 5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Small pits.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.1 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Solitary. White/cream with red-purple spots.
Fruit: Green with pale green spots. Ellipsoid. 4 – 8 × 3.5 – 4.8 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA. Coastal Kenya and Somalia.
Notes: Leaves drying blue-black.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy is used for firewood, poles, tool handles and spoons. The tree is suitable for shade and amenity.
Rothmannia urcelliformis (Schweinf. ex Hiern) Bullock ex Robyns
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Gardenia urcelliformis Schweinf. ex Hiern
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m tall.
Bark: Dark brown. Smooth.
Slash: Yellow.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite, often with extra leaf at some nodes (representing true apex of sympodial stem).
Petiole: 0.4 – 1.1 cm. Round.
Lamina: Medium. 5.7 – 18 × 1.2 – 10 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Hairy on veins, glabrous above. Simple.
Domatia: Tufts of hair.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Triangular. 0.2 – 1.2 cm long. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White with purple spots. Axillary. Solitary. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Green. Spherical/ellipsoid 2.5 – 7.6 cm long.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: An ornamental shrub with white fragrant flowers. The wood is used for firewood and poles.
Rytigynia acuminatissima (K. Schum.) Robyns subsp. acuminatissima
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: R. acuminatissima (K. Schum.) Robyns
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Dark purple/red. Flaking in pieces to reveal a dark red-brown powdery surface.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 14.5 (- 15) × 0.6 – 6 (- 8) cm. Oblong-elliptic/ellipitic/obovate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Glabrous except for domatia.
Domatia: Hairy.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Ovate. 0.2 – 0.4 cm. Subulate tip falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pale green. Often borne at leafless nodes.
Fruit: Subglobose. 0.7 – 1.3 × 0.6 – 1.0 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: LV. Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hand, heavy and tough. It is used for building poles, tool handles, firewood and charcoal.
Rytigynia induta (Bullock) Verdc. & Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Canthium indutum Bullock
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 11 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.5 – 7.5 × 1.2 – 5 cm. Ovate-oblong/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acute/acuminate. Entire. Hairy/occassionally glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular. Acuminate. 0.3 – 0.5 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Green outside, cream inside. Cymes. Axillary.
Fruit: Subglobose 1.4 – 1.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N. Central Kenya.
Notes: Leaves drying blackish.
Uses: The species is used for building poles, tool handles, firewood, and charcoal. The tree is suitable for shade, amenity and bee forage.
Rytigynia lichenoxenos (K.Schum.) Robyns
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1.5 – 8 × 0.9 – 3 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-oblong/lanceolate. Cuneate. Sometimes asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular base, subulate apex. (0.3 -) 0.6 – 0.7 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-white/green-yellow. Almost sessile cymes. Axillary.
Fruit: Blackish when ripe. Globose. 1 – 1.2 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane and upper montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN.
Notes: Red-rusty velvety indumentum on young stems. There are two subspecies: subsp. lichenoxenos (corolla tube pilose outside) from the Ulugurus and subsp. glabrituba Verdc. (corolla tube glabrous outside) from the Udzungwas and Matengo Hills.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Rytigynia pseudolongicaudata Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 9 × 0.9 – 3 cm. Oblong/oblong-lanceolate. Rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular with subulate tip. 1.0 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Greenish-yellow/yellow. Solitary. Axillary.
Fruit: Green. Obovoid/subglobose. Flattened on one face. 1.3 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane, upper montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Ul, Ukaguru, NG, Rubeho, Udz).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Tarenna luhomeroensis Bridson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 1 – 2 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 11.5 – 18 × 2.5 – 4 cm. Rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Glabrous or ciliate.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Interpetiolar. Sheathing. 0.2 – 0.3 cm long. Black when dry.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Terminal corymb with an additional pair of infloresences in the node below.
Fruit: 1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: Leaves sometimes of differing sizes.
Uses: The wood is likely to be hard, tough and heavy. It would be suitable for building poles, firewood charcoal and withies. The tree might also be suitable for shade and avenue.
Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Chomelia ulugurensis K. Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: subsp. affinis: Mguashamba (S).
Bole: Small. To 10m.
Bark: Red brown. Flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 5 – 20 × 2 – 9 cm. Oblanceolate/obvate/elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/pubescent on midrib base.
Domatia: Present.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Deltoid 0.2 – 0.6 cm sometimes with subulate acumen 0.1 – 0.6 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal on lateral branches and on next two nodes down.
Fruit: Pale blue when mature, black on drying. 0.4 – 0.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: subsp affinis: C, EA, LN. South-eastern Tropical Africa. subsp. gillmannii: EA, LN, LT, LV. Eastern, Central, and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Two subspecies in Tanzania: subsp. affinis (K. Schum.) Bridson has leaves drying blackish and glabrous stems, subsp. gillmanii Bremek. ex Bridson has leaves drying green/dark brown with hairy stems. T. pavettoides subsp. friesiorum (K. Krause) Bridson may occur in the South Pares, but is represented only by sterile specimens and requires confirmation.
Uses: An ornamental and shade shrub. The wood is used for firewood and building poles. Roots are used as medicine for coughs.
Tricalysia anomala E.A. Bruce
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. Ovate/elliptic/obovate. Rounded/cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Densely hairy/glabrous except on nerves.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular. 0.2 – 0.3 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/greenish. Fascicles. Axillary.
Fruit: Grey. Round. 1.5 × 2.0 cm.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA. West and Central Africa.
Notes: There are three varieties. Most parts densely hairy.
Uses: The wood is hand and tough. It is used for building poles, pegs, firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Tricalysia pallens Hiern
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: T. microphylla Hiern
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 0.7 (- 1.0) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 11 (- 19) × 1.5 – 4 (- 8) cm. Obovate/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib.
Domatia: Pits. Ciliate/hairy.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Sheathing. 0.3 – 0.9 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/green/cream. Scented. Axillary fascicles.
Fruit: Red. Round. 0.3 – 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, lowland and submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LT. Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for building poles, firewood, charcoal, and tool handles. The tree is suitable for ornamental purposes.
Tricalysia sp. C of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 10 × 1.5 – 3 cm. Cuneate. Acuminate/mucronate. Entire. Slightly hairy.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Sheathing. Awns up to 0.6 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Axillary fascicles.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: LN only.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for poles, firewood and tool handles. The tree is suitable for shade and amenity.
Tricalysia verdcourtiana Robbr.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 11 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 13 × 1.5 – 3.5 (- 5) cm. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate/mucronate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath and on midrib.
Domatia: Hairy, sometimes pitted.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Sheathing. Awns 0.3 – 0.6 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary fascicles.
Fruit: Red. 0.7 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: LN, LT. Malawi, Zambia.
Notes: NR.
Uses: It is used for firewood, poles, tool handles, shade and amenity.
Vangueria apiculata K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: V. sp. nr. randii S. Moore
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mviru (Sw), Msambalawe (H).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.7 – 1 (- 1.4) cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 15 (- 17) × 1.5 – 6 (- 8) cm. Elliptic/oblong/ovate/lanceolate. Cuneate/cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Broad base with filiform part 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green-white/yellow. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Green/brown. Subglobose. 1.7 – 2.2 × 1.4 – 2.2 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, groundwater and dry montane forest.
Distr: N, LT, LV. Central and Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard, tough and heavy. It is used for firewood, poles, pegs, tool handles, and charcoal. The tree is important in agroforestry. The fruits are edible. Leaves are used to cure stomach-ache. Roots are boiled and the decoction is used three times a day for intestinal worms.
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: V. acutiloba Robyns
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mviru (Sw), Msambalawe (H).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Pale/dark. Smooth/longitudinally fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.8 – 1.8 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 8 – 28 × 3.2 – 15 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Acute/acuminate. Glabrous/young leaves hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Broad base and narrow apex 0.4 – 1.8 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Greenish yellow/yellow/cream. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Green/brown. Subglobose. 2.5 – 5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine, dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, charcoal, tool handles, pegs, and stirring sticks. The tree is semi-domesticated. The fruits are edible.
Vangueria sp. A of FTEA
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mviru (Sw).
Bole: Tall (height not given).
Bark: Brown. Powdery/peeling.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.6 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 3 × 1 – 1.2 cm. Elliptic-lanceolate. Rounded. Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Broad base with linear appendage 0.2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Axillary.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C only (Pemba).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for building poles, pegs, firewood, and tool handles. The fruits are edible.
Vangueria volkensii K. Schum.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: V. kyimbilensis Robyns, V. linearisepala K.Schum.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mviru (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Dark grey. Smooth/slightly fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 17 (- 26) × 1.5 – 10 (- 14) cm. Ovate-oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate/rounded/cordate. Acuminate. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Filiform part 0.5 – 1.2 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Bright green/yellow-green. Axillary cymes.
Fruit: Green/brown. Subglobose 2 – 2.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine, montane and dry montane forest. Thicket.
Distr: EA, N, LN, LV. Central and Eastern Africa.
Notes: Densely hairy with yellowish hairs.
Uses: The tree is used for firewood, poles, handles and stirring sticks. Fruits are edible.
Vangueriopsis longiflora Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 13 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.7 – 1.3 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 10 – 21 × 5.5 – 14.3 cm. Oblong-ovate/elliptic. Rounded/cordate. Acuminate. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Triangular base with appendage 1.5 – 2.5 × 0.1 cm. Falling.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green. Axillary cymes at ends of leafless branches.
Fruit: Ellipsoid. 2.3 – 3.2 (- 4) × 1.5 – 2.6 (- 3.5) cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest. Thickets.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: Leaves discolorous.
Uses: The wood is white and perishable. It is used for firewood and domestic utensils. The tree is used for shade fodder and bee forage. The fruits are edible.
Last Updated: 18 June 2017