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RUTACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

RUTACEAE

Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mpisili (C), Isau (Me), Olarashi (A), Tumatumo (Ir), Munyinkanyuki (Nt), Ol larashi (M).
Bole: Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: 0.2 – 1 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 14 × 3.5 – 8 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate/cordate. Acute/apiculate/rounded. Entire. Hairy/glabrous. Simple, stellate, branched.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Pellucid glands in leaf.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Pale purple/white. Infloresence to 15 cm long. Terminal panicle. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Globose woody warty 5-valved capsule. 3.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Riverine and dry montane forests.
Distr: N, EA. Eastern and Southern Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for timber, grain mortars, tool handles and building poles. The tree is also used for shade and amenity.
Calodendrum eickii Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlungu-mbago (S).
Bole: Medium. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Opposite.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Medium. 8 – 23 × 4 – 10 cm. Cuneate/cordate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid glands in leaf.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Green/white. Terminal panicle.
Fruit: 5-lobed. Spiny. 5 – 8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA only (WUs).
Notes: Deciduous. Differs from C. capense in the smaller flowers and larger fruit with spine-like warts.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, tool handles, building poles and grain mortars. The tree is used for amenity and shade. Roots are used for treating hypertension.
Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: C. anisata (Willd.) Oliv.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mjavikali (S).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey, mottled.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. Alternate. 11 – 37 lflts. Lflt: Alternate/subopposite.
Petiole: Leaves 7 – 38 cm long. Petiolule: 0.1 – 0.35 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 11 × 0.7 – 4.3 cm. Ovate/ovate-oblong/elliptic. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Acute/emarginate. Serrate/entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaves.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Cream/whitish yellow, smells of aniseed. Terminal/axillary panicle.
Fruit: Ovoid/globose. 0.35 – 0.7 cm in diameter. Immature fruits yellowish green.

Ecology: NR.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa, Comoros Islands.
Notes: Often a small shrub.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for building poles, tool handles and firewood. The leaves and roots are used as medicine for infertility, leprosy, dementia, malaria, colds, syphilis, madness and gonorrhoea. Leaves are used as hot bath for heart problems, rheumatism, fevers and as a deodorant. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Fagaropsis angolensis (Engl.) Dale
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mfu (C), Mtua (C), Mtongoti (Ir), Olmoljoi (M), Mkunguni (S), Marambit (Bar).
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Rough/smooth.
Slash: Pale yellow.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 2 – 4 pairs leaflets. 12 – 30 cm long. Opposite/subopposite. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 13 cm. Round. Petiolule: 0.1 – 0.2 cm, 2 cm on terminal leaflet.
Lamina: Small. 4 – 9 × 2 – 5 cm. Ovate/elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate/acute. Entire/serrate. Glabrous/hairy along midrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaf margins.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-white. Terminal panicles 12 cm long. Monoecious.
Fruit: Globose. Resinous smell. 0.6 – 0.8 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry submontane and dry montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LV. Eastern and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: A good timber tree with dark-green wood used for furniture, veneer, joinery, sleepers and building constructions.
Vepris arushensis Kokwaro
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 17 m.
Bark: Grey.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 1.5 – 5 cm. Flattened/Channelled above.
Lamina: Small. 8 – 18 × 2 – 6 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/a few hairs beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Numerous pellucid gland dots.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Axillary and terminal panicles 6 – 15 cm long. Monoecious.
Fruit: Brown. Ellipsoid 0.8 – 1.1 cm long 0.5 – 0.7 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N only.
Notes: Similar to V. nobilis but differs in hairy inflorescences and ellipsoid glandular-bullate fruits.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, tool handles, walking sticks, bows and spoons. The tree makes good shade and avenues.
Vepris grandifolia (Engl.) Mziray
Syn. FTEA: Teclea grandifolia Engl.
Syn. TTCL: Plants referred to as Teclea grandifolia in TTCL are Vepris hanangensis.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 11 m.
Bark: Yellow-brown. Rough/flaking.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Trifoliolate, occasionally 1 – 2 leaflets. Alternate.
Petiole: 2 – 4.5 cm. Grooved and flattened.
Leaflet: Sessile.
Lamina: Small/medium. 7 – 19 × 2.5 – 7 cm. Elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on midrib.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaves.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Creamy white. Axillary/terminal panicles.
Fruit: Ovoid. 0.7 – 1.0 × 0.5 – 0.6 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and submontane forest.
Distr: LV. Angola, South and West Central Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard, tough and used for poles, pegs, firewood, bows, sticks and spoons. The tree makes fine shade and avenue.
Vepris hanangensis (Kokwaro) Mziray
Syn. FTEA: Teclea hanangensis Kokwaro. See note.
Syn. TTCL: Teclea sp. nov. 9, Teclea sp. 10.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Grey. Lenticels brown and raised.
Slash: NR. Leaf: Trifoliolate (see note). Alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 4 cm flattened/Channelled above.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 10.2 × 2 – 3.7 cm. Elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid gland-dots in leaves.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow. Terminal/axillary panicles.
Fruit: Oblong-ovoid. 1.5 – 1.8 × 0.5 – 0.8 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: N, LN. Central Kenya.
Notes: The specimen Gillett 14120 from northern Kenya cited in FTEA as Teclea hanangensis is in fact Vepris borenensis (M.G.Gilbert) Mziray.
Uses: The wood is used for poles, firewood, handles, bows and spoons. The tree is good as an avenue and shade tree.
Vepris morogorensis (Kokwaro) Mziray
Syn. FTEA: Diphasia morogorensis Kokwaro
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: (1 -) 3 – 9 cm Petiolule: 0 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 11 – 22 × 4 – 7.5 cm. Elliptic-oblong/ovate-elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid glands in leaves.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White. Terminal/axillary panicles.
Fruit: 2-lobed. 1.2 – 1.5 × 1.0 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, Ng, Ul, Udz).
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, tool handles, spoons and bows. The tree is suitable for avenue and shade.
Vepris nobilis (Delile) Mziray
Syn. FTEA: Teclea nobilis Del.
Syn. TTCL: Teclea nobilis Del.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Iitisi (Ba), Mlimang’ombe (C), Omuzo (Ha), Mputsa (H), Kilongolo (S), Mulungusigiti (N), Muzo (Zn). Mju (Su), Kwati (S), Ol glai (M).
Bole: Medium/small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: Variable in texture. Yellow turning darker.
Leaf: Trifoliolate/simple. Alternate. Lflt: Trifoliolate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 6 cm. Rounded/Channelled. Petiolule: 1 cm/sessile.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 15 × 1.4 – 4 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on midrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Pellucid glands in leaves.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence of terminal and axillary panicles 4 – 15 cm long. Monoecious/hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Red. Obovoid 0.6 – 0.8 cm × 0.5 – 0.6 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and montane forest. Woodland.
Distr: EA, LN, LT, LV. Eastern and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for timber, tool handles, spoons, building poles, bows and walking sticks. Roots are used by the WaMasai for pneumonia and venereal diseases. The tree is used for shade and amenity.
Vepris simplicifolia (Engl.) Mziray
Syn. FTEA: Teclea simplicifolia (Engl.) Verdoorn
Syn. TTCL: Teclea simplicifolia (Engl.) Verdoorn
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mndizi (S), Ol gelai (M).
Bole: Branched/fluted. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Dark grey. Smooth.
Slash: NR. Leaf: Simple. Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: 0.5 – 1.8 cm. Rounded/Channelled. Pulvinus at leaf base.
Lamina: Small/medium. 3 – 15 × 1.8 – 5.6 cm. Elliptic/ovate/oblong. Cuneate. Acute/rounded/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaves. Raised gland dots beneath.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow-green. Axillary panicles or racemes. Monoecious.
Fruit: Green becoming yellow-orange, red. Globose 0.6 – 1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LV. Kenya, Ethiopia.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, tool handles, spoons, bows, walking sticks and poles. Leaves and twigs are used as medicine for treating pleurisy by the WaMasai.
Vepris stolzii I. Verd.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwati (S).
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth.
Slash: Pale yellow with a green edge.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: 2 – 5 (- 8) cm. Channelled above. Petiolule: 0.3 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 8 – 14 (- 17) × 2.5 – 6 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots small, sometimes inconspicuous.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary/terminal panicles/racemes. Hermaphrodite.
Fruit: Drupe. 1.1 – 1.5 × 0.8 – 1.5 cm.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA, LN, LT. Eastern and Central Tropical Africa, Angola.
Notes: NR.
Uses: It is used for building poles, spoons, handles, bows and firewood. The tree is good for avenue and shade.
Zanthoxylum deremense (Engl.) Kokwaro
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Fagara braunii Engl., Fagara deremensis Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkunungu (Sw), Mhombo (S), Mlungulungu (H).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: With bosses.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 4 – 9 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: with rachis: 15 – 56 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 12 – 20 × 6 cm. Lowest leaflets smaller. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate/sessile/rounded. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Serrate. Hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Gland dots conspicuous.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Conical prickles.
Flower: White. Terminal panicle.
Fruit: Shiny black. Subglobose. 0.8 – 1.0 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA. Malawi.
Notes: Trunk with large bosses.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, tool handles, spoons, bows and charcoal. The bark is used as medicine for fevers, coughs, malaria, rheumatism and general body pains.
Zanthoxylum gillettii (De Wild.) P. G. Waterman
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Fagara amaniensis Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mflakumbi (S).
Bole: Straight. Large. To 35 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth. With bosses.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 13 – 27 leaflets. Alternate. Clustered at ends of branches. Lflt: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: Petiolules: 0.5 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. (8 -) 14 – 30 × 3.5 – 10 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate/obtuse. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid dots in leaves, sometimes obscure.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Prickles.
Flower: White. Terminal/axillary panicles.
Fruit: Reddish. Subglobose. 0.4 – 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, LV. Uganda, Kenya, West and Central Africa.
Notes: Deciduous.
Uses: The wood is used for timber which is suitable for furniture, sleepers, veneer, plywood, boat building, firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade. The bark is used as medicine for coughs, fever and rheumatism.
Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. & Perr
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkunungu (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 16 m.
Bark: Pale grey. Spiny bosses.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd/even-pinnate. 4 – 8 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: with rachis: 15 – 55 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 12 × 2 – 4 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Gland dots conspicuous.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Prickles on stems becoming bosses on trunk.
Flower: Cream/white. Axillary panicle.
Fruit: Reddish subglobose follicle. 0.4 – 0.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: C, EA, LV. Tropical and Southern Africa.
Notes: Rachis +/- with recurved prickles. Leaflets aromatic when crushed.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, domestic utensils, beehives, firewood and water pots. Bark and roots are used as a medicine for rheumatism and generalized body pains.
Zanthoxylum usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Fagara usambarensis Engl.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkunungu (Sw), Kibabe (S).
Bole: Small/medium. To 16 m. With woody prickle-bearing outgrowths.
Bark: Grey/brown. Yellow beneath. Rough with deep longitudinal ridges and furrows.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd/even-pinnate. 2 – 8 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: Petiolule: sessile to 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2.2 – 8 × 1.5 – 3 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Serrate. Acuminate/apiculate/obtuse. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Pellucid glands along leaflet margin.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Dark red prickles.
Flower: White/cream/green-yellow. Terminal panicle.
Fruit: Red-green. Paired subglobose follicles. 0.8 – 1.1 × 0.9 – 0.8 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LV. Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is used for timber, firewood, domestic utensils, bows, beehives, stools and grain mortars. The bark is used as an emetic and as a medicine for malaria and rheumatism.
Last Updated: 18 June 2017