info@celp.org.uk

SAPINDACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

SAPINDACEAE

Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbangwe (S).
Bole: Straight/fluted/buttressed. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Grey/green/brown. Smooth/scaling/with rings.
Slash: Yellow/brown with orange flecks, discolouring orange/brown.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate. Lflt: Trifoliolate.
Petiole: 2 – 9 cm. Round. Petiolule: 0.2 – 0.9 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5.5 – 21 × 3 – 11 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Serrate. Pubescent/glabrous. Simple.
Domatia: Present. Tufts of hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence up to 22 cm long. Monoecious. Flowers very small and white to yellow.
Fruit: Drupaceous. Globose 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane forest, forest edges, riverine forest, thicket, woodland.
Distr: EA, N, LN. Eastern and Southern Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves drying dark brown above, paler beneath.
Uses: Wood soft and not durable. Used for firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade, amenity and bee forage. Roots are used as medicine for stomach-ache.
Allophylus africanus P. Beauv.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. goetzeanus Gilg (= var. africanus), A. griseotomentosus Gilg (= var. griseotomentosus (Gilg) Verdc.)
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Black/grey/red-brown. Smooth/rough.
Slash: Yellow with pink tinge.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate. Lflt: Trifoliolate.
Petiole: 2 – 7.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 2 – 14.5 × 1 – 7 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous/pubscent. Simple.
Domatia: Absent/present. Tufts of hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence up to 15 cm long. Flowers small, white/green/yellow-green.
Fruit: Ellipsoid, 0.5 – 0.7 × 0.4 – 0.5 cm.
Ecology: Riverine forest, woodland, thicket, grassland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Widespread in Africa.
Notes: Leaves very discolorous. Var. africanus, glabrous. Var. griseotomentosus, hairy with domatia.
Uses: NR.
Allophylus grotei F.G. Davies & Verdc.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. sp. 3.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey-brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Unifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.9 – 1.5 cm long. Petiolule: 0.3 – 0.5 cm. Channelled.
Lamina: Small. 6.5 – 12.5 × 2.5 – 5.7 cm. Elliptic/oblong-elliptic. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence unbranched, 4 – 7 cm long. Flowers small, green-white.
Fruit: Ellipsoid, 1 × 0.6 cm.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs).
Notes: Leaves thin, drying brown, darker above. Rare, not collected since 1932.
Uses: NR.
Allophylus melliodorus Gilg ex Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbangwe (S).
Bole: Branched. Crooked. Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Black. Flaking to reveal lighter patches.
Slash: Orange with layers. Wood white.
Leaf: Unifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3.8 – 14 × 2 – 7 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/obtuse. Serrate. Glabrous with hairy domatia.
Domatia: Tufts of hairs.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence 6 – 12 cm long, simple/branched. Flowers small, yellow-green/pale yellow.
Fruit: Subglobose, 0.6 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Montane, submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (Us, Ng).
Notes: Leaves not shiny above. Vestiges of lateral leaflets sometimes present.
Uses: The wood is not durable. It is used for firewood and charcoal.
Allophylus pseudopaniculatus Baker f.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched/scandent. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: 5 – 7 cm. Petiolule: 0.1 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small. 3 – 18 × 1.5 – 9 cm. Elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Asymmetrical in laterals. Acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous/hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence 10 – 15 cm long, simple/branched. Flowers small, cream/yellow-green. Monoecious.
Fruit: (1 -) 2 – 3 subglobose mericarps each 0.5 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Groundwater forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: LV. Uganda, Eastern Central Africa.
Notes: Leaves very discolorous, dark purple-brown above, dark green beneath.
Uses: NR.
Allophylus rubifolius (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. alnifolius (Baker) Radlk., A. calophyllus Gilg, A. kilimandscharicus Taub. (= var. alnifolius (Baker) Friis & Vollesen), A. spragueanus (sensu Brenan non Burrt Davy sensu stricto) (= var. dasystachys (Gilg) Verdc.), A. stachyanthus Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth/rough.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Trifoliolate. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.8 – 5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 10 × 0.8 – 5.5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Emarginate/acute. Serrate. Hairy.
Domatia: Hair tufts.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence 2 – 18 cm long. Simple/occasionally branched. Flowers small, green/yellow-white.
Fruit: Orange/red. 1 – 2 ellipsoid mericarps 0.6 – 0.8 × 0.5 – 0.6 cm.
Ecology: Dry montane, dry lowland, riverine forest, woodland, thicket, grassland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LV. Widespread in Southern and Eastern Africa.
Notes: Very variable with three varieties recognised. Leaves discolorous, drying purple-brown above, grey-green beneath.
Uses: NR.
Aporrhiza paniculata Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: A. nitida Gilg
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Untenga (Ny), Mnywa-mazi (D).
Bole: Small/medium. To 22 m.
Bark: Grey-brown/grey-green. Smooth/fissured.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 3 – 5 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 1 – 9 cm. Petiolule fleshy.
Lamina: Medium. 6 – 25 × 2 – 9 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy along nerves beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow. Terminal panicle 20 – 50 cm long. Monoecious.
Fruit: Green/brown hairy flattened capsule. 2 mericarps 1.5 – 2 × 1 – 1.2 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and groundwater forest.
Distr: C, EA, LN, LT. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Young parts and fruits with velvety red/grey-green pubescence. Seeds black, bean shaped, mostly covered by a yellow or orange aril.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and tough. It is used for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and building poles. The WaDigo use the bark for treating tuberculosis and the roots for treating gonorrhoea.
Blighia unijugata Baker
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Phialodiscus zambesiacus (Baker) Radlk.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkukilemba (Sw), Mzindanguruwe (S).
Bole: Small/medium. To 25 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth/ridged/warted.
Slash: Orange-red/white/brown, mottled/streaky, pitted, discolouring near wood.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 4 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: To 4 cm. Petiolule: 0.1 – 0.2 cm. Rachis 0.6 – 10 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 26 × 1 – 10 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairs on veins.
Domatia: Hairy tufts.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow, small, fragrant. Axillary racemes 5 – 10 cm long. Probably dioecious.
Fruit: Red capsule. 4 × 2.5 cm winged.
Ecology: Lowland and riverine forest, woodland, thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N, LN, LT, LV. Southern and Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves reddish when young, drying bright green or brown. Seeds black/brown with bright yellow aril.
Uses: The wood is very hard, tough and heavy. It is used for building poles, pestles, tool handles, pegs, firewood and charcoal. Roots are used by the WaShambaa for treating epilepsy, hernia, fever, and for sores in children.
Chytranthus atroviolaceus Baker f. ex Hutch. & Dalziel
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 18 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 4 – 6 pairs leaflets.
Petiole: 20 – 50 cm. Petiolules 0.7 – 1.5 cm.
Lamina: Large/medium. 14 – 42 × 6.5 – 17 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence purplish, borne on trunk, thyrsoid, 10 – 15 cm long. Flowers purple. Probably dioecious.
Fruit: Star-shaped, 4 – 6 lobed, winged, hairy, 7 – 13 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland and groundwater forest.
Distr: LV. Uganda, West and Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Possibly also occurs in the Mahenge mountains.
Uses: NR.
Chytranthus obliquinervis Engl.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mpwakapwaka (D).
Bole: Leaves at end of bole. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey-brown. Smooth.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Odd-pinnate. 7 – 12 pairs leaflets. Rachis 35 – 100 cm. Lflt: Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 3 cm. Petiolules swollen 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 5.5 – 45 × 4 – 14 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate/rounded. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Clusters of pink-green infloresences borne on trunk and branches, 5 – 15 cm long. Flowers white/yellow-green. Dioecious or monoecious.
Fruit: Mature fruit not described.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA (EUs, South P). South-eastern Kenya.
Notes: Mostly unbranched with apical crown. C. longibracteatus F.G. Davies from the Nguru looks similar but the infloresence is subtended by a bract 2 cm long.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough and used for firewood, poles, snare traps, pegs and charcoal. Fruits are edible.
Deinbollia fulvotomentella Baker f.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Grey/pale brown. Thin. Smooth.
Slash: Brown.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. Up to 5 – 10 pairs. Lflt: Alternate.
Petiole: 6 – 40 cm, rachis up to 70 cm, petiolules 0 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 6.5 – 40 × 2.7 – 11.8 cm. Oblong-lanceolate/elliptic. Cordate/rounded. Acute. Entire. Hairy.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Infloresence much branched up to 1 m long. Flower white, fragrant. Monoecious.
Fruit: Globose, hairy, 1 – 2 mericarps 1.5 – 1.8 × 1.7-2.5 cm.
Ecology: NR.
Distr: LT, LV. Angola, Uganda, Central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaflets, infloresence and fruits covered in yellow-brown hairs. Possibly also occurs on the Mbarawala Plateau in southeastern Tanzania.
Uses: NR.
Deinbollia kilimandscharica Taub.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: D. adusta Radlk. (= var. adusta (Radlk.) Verdc.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkunguma (Sw), Mbwakabwaka (S).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: Grey brown.
Slash: Pale pinkish yellowish. Wood very pale yellow.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 8 – 12 leaflets. Lflt: Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: 5 – 20 cm. Round. Rachis 15 – 40 cm. Petiolules 0.3-1 cm.
Lamina: Medium/large. 4 – 27 cm × 2 – 10 cm. Elliptic-oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Asymmetric. Obtuse/acuminate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence panicles 9 – 30 cm long. Flowers small white/cream.
Fruit: Globose. 1.2 – 1.5 × 1.2 – 1.8 cm.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA, N, LN. Eastern Tropical Africa.
Notes: The varieties are doubtfully distinct: var. kilimandscharica – calyx glabrous, var. adusta – calyx hairy.
Uses: The wood is white and not durable. The wood is used for firewood, charcoal, and spoons. Roots are used as medicine for stomach-ache, intestinal worms and for cleaning bowels. The tree is used for ornamental purposes, amenity and bee forage. The fruits are edible.
Dodonea viscosa Jacq.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: D. viscosa (L.) Jacq.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Black/brown. Rough.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0 – 2.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 4 – 13 × 1.3 – 4.2 cm. Elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Obtuse/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Leaf surfaces glandular.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Loose panicles at ends of twigs. Flower green-yellow. Unisexual or bisexual.
Fruit: Papery winged capsule 1.5 – 2.3 × 0.8 – 1.1 cm with wings 0.3 – 0.7 cm.
Ecology: Coastal bushland (var. viscosa), Dry montane forest, woodland, thicket, grassland (var. angustifolia).
Distr: C, EA, N, LN. Widespread in Southern and Tropical Africa. Also throughout tropics and subtropics worldwide.
Notes: Usually a small shrub. var. angustifolia (L.f.) Benth. occasionally a tree in forest clearings. Leaf surfaces coated with glandular exudate.
Uses: NR.
Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.) Thwaites
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: F. elongatum Radlk.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkong’o (H).
Bole: Small/medium. To 30 m.
Bark: Dark brown. Rough. Flaking in scales. Also described as white and smooth.
Slash: Pink/orange. Wood white.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 5 – 10 pairs leaflets.
Petiole: 1.5 – 11 cm, winged. Rachis 15 – 30 cm, winged. Leaflets sessile.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 16 × 0.5 – 4 cm. Lanceolate/oblong-elliptic. Sessile. Acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Leaflets with wax dots.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence axillary panicles 6 – 20 cm long. Flower small, yellow. Male and female in the same infloresence.
Fruit: Ellipsoid 0.9 – 1 × 0.6 – 0.8 cm.
Ecology: Riverine and lowland forest.
Distr: C, EA, N. Eastern Tropical Africa to India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Comoros.
Notes: Leaves resinous when young.
Uses: The wood is hard, heavy and used for building poles, firewood, charcoal and tool handles.
Glenniea africana (Radlk.) Leenh.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Melanodiscus africanus Radlk., Melanodiscus oblongus Radlk.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Grey/brown. Smooth/rough in larger trees.
Slash: Orange.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 2 – 3 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 0 – 0.5 cm. Rachis 3 – 12 cm long.
Lamina: Medium/small. 3 – 25 × 1.5 – 11 cm. Lower-most leaflet smaller. Elliptic/ovate/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/slightly hairy on veins beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent, but lowest leaflets forming pseudo-stipules 1.5 – 4 cm long.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence terminal/axillary/cauliflorous branched racemes 5 – 15 cm long, elongating to 30 cm in fruit. Flowers small, pale pink/yellow. Dioecious.
Fruit: Ovoid, orange, hairy, berry-like. 2 × 2.5 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, dry submontane and riverine forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, N. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Shrub or tree. Leaves yellow when young, turning pink then pale green.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for poles, tool handles, spoons, firewood and charcoal. Fruits are edible. The tree is used for amenity and bee forage.
Haplocoelopsis africana F.G. Davies
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Haplocoelum sp.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mtumbi mweusi (Sw).
Bole: Branched. Fluted. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: Black/brown. Flaking/smooth.
Slash: Yellow/orange/pink/brown. Layered. Hard.
Leaf: Even pinnate.
Petiole: 0 – 0.5 cm. Rachis 3 – 8 cm. Petiolule: 0 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 16 × 2 – 7 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairs on midrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent, but lower-most leaflets stipule-like 0.5 – 2 × 0.4 – 2.5 cm.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence axillary raceme, simple or branched, 3.5 – 11 cm long. Flowers small, probably monoecious.
Fruit: Yellow, subglobose, 2.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Lowland forest and thickets.
Distr: C, EA. Coastal Kenya and Mozambique; disjunct to Angola.
Notes: NR.
Uses: The wood is hard and tough. It is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Haplocoelum foliolosum (Hiern) Bullock
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: H. gallaense (Engl.) Radlk., H. mombasense Bullock (= subsp. mombasense (Bullock) Verdc.), H. strongylocarpum Bullock (= subsp. strongylocarpum (Bullock) Verdc.)
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mhale (S).
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Grey. Smooth. Flaking in large scales.
Slash: Yellow/orange. Granular. Hard. Wood white.
Leaf: Even-pinnate, 2 – 16 leaflets. Leaves 2 – 10 cm. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 0.3 – 1.5 cm, channelled. Pulvinus at base. Rachis often narrowly winged. Petiolule: 0.5 cm/sessile.
Lamina: Small. 1.5 – 6 × 0.3 – 0.9 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib beneath. Simple.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Dense axillary clusters, often appearing before the leaves. Flower small cream/yellow-green. Dioecious.
Fruit: Brown-red, ellipsoid. 1.5 cm long.
Ecology: Submontane and riverine forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA, LT, LV. Southern, Eastern and Central Tropical Africa, probably South Africa.
Notes: Leaves pink when young, borne on short spur shoots. A variable species occurring in a wide range of habitats and divided into three subspecies. The variant occurring in submontane forest in the Uluguru and Udzungwa mountains has a deep apical notch and may represent a further subspecies.
Uses: The wood is very hard and heavy. It is used for building poles, tool handles, pegs, firewood, charcoal and pestles. Fruits are sometimes eaten.
Haplocoelum inoploeum Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: H. trigonocarpum Radlk.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Scandent. Small. To 15 m.
Bark: Grey/grey-brown/black. Smooth/rough, fissured, flaking in patches.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even pinnate. 1 – 2 pairs. Lflt: Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: 1 – 1.1 cm. Rachis 0.4 – 3 cm, narrowly winged. Petiolule: 0.2 cm.
Lamina: Small. 0.5 – 11.5 × 1 – 5.7 cm. Oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Emarginate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Axillary fascicles. Flowers white/cream/green, fragrant, appearing before the leaves. Dioecious.
Fruit: Red/orange/yellow, ellipsoidal, 1.2 – 2 × 0.6 – 1.2 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Woodland. Thicket.
Distr: C. Coastal Kenya, Southern Somalia.
Notes: Leaves tufted in short shoots. Semideciduous or evergreen.
Uses: The hard wood is used for walking sticks and clubs.
Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Baker subsp. vaughaniae (Dunkley) Friis
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: L. vaughanii Dunkley
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mbwewe (S), Mkunguma (Sw).
Bole: Branched/straight/buttressed. Small/medium. To 21 m.
Bark: Pale brown/dark grey with darker scales. Rough.
Slash: Pale pink.
Leaf: Even-pinnate, 2 – 6 pairs of leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/subopposite.
Petiole: 1 – 6 cm. Rachis 2 – 15 cm. Petiolule: 0 – 0.3 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 15 × 2 – 4 cm. Lanceolate/oblong/elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: Sometimes sessile glands on leaf rachides (axes) and petiolules.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Loose axillary spike-like racemes. Flower yellow/green. Dioecious. Fruit: Capsule. Yellow/orange, pink when ripe, velvety, ovoid. 1.5 × 1.3 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland, riverine and groundwater forest. Thicket. Grassland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LT, LV. Eastern and East-central Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves pink when young, usually infected with brown galls. Seed enclosed by an aril. subsp. scassellatii (Chiov.) Friis occurs in Kenya and southern Somalia, subsp. fraxinifolius occurs in Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Uses: The wood is hard and used for building poles, domestic utensils, grain mortars, firewood and charcoal. The tree is used for shade. The bark is used as a soap substitute, for stimulating the flow of milk and to assist in purifying milk in the breast after rubbing into the breasts for about three days.
Lepisanthes senegalensis (Juss. ex Poir.) Leenh.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Aphania senegalensis (Juss. ex Poir.) Radlk.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Oleragai (M).
Bole: Small/medium. To 21 m.
Bark: Pale brown/grey. Flaking longitudinally/smooth.
Slash: Orange-brown. Minutely mottled.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 1 – 3 pairs leaflets, only 1 leaflet pair in eastern Tanzania. Alternate/sub-opposite. Lflt: Opposite/sub-opposite.
Petiole: 0 – 5 cm. Rachis 0 – 10 cm. Petiolule: 0 – 1 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 6.5 – 27 × 2 – 10 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate/Acute/emarginate/obtuse. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence terminal panicles, 5 – 20 cm long, with new flush of leaves. Flower small, green-white, unpleasant smelling. Monoecious.
Fruit: Red, fleshy, ellipsoid, 1 – 1.8 × 0.8 – 1.5 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland and dry submontane forest.
Distr: C, EA, N, LV. Tropical Africa, Madagascar, India and Malesia.
Notes: Base of midribs crimson when young. All material from eastern Tanzania has one pair of leaflets, whilst that from Lake Victoria region has 2 – 3 pairs of leaflets. Aril absent, seeds black.
Uses: The wood is medium hard and used for furniture, building poles, tool handles and spoons. The tree is used for shade. The leaves, fruits and flowers are poisonous to livestock. It is also used as fish poison. Fruits are edible.
Lychnodiscus cerospermus (Radlk.) var. mortehanii (De Wild.) Hauman
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/medium/large. To 20 m.
Bark: Smooth, greyish white with patches of orange.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. Leaflets in 6 or 7 pairs, opposite or alternate. Lflt: Petiolulate.
Petiole: To 10 cm.
Lamina: 6 – 15 × 3 – 5 cm. Oblong/elliptic/ovate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire/toothed at apex. Glabrous above/hairs on mibrib and veins beneath.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence terminal and axillary thyrses, 14 – 45 cm long. Monoecious.
Fruit: Capsule bright red, 1.6 – 2.0 cm wide.
Ecology: Swamp forest.
Distr: LV. Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan.
Notes: Var. cerospermus, with leaflets toothed throughout margin, has essentially the same distribution but has not been found in Tanzania.
Uses: NR.
Macphersonia gracilis O. Hoffm. var. hildebrandtii (O. Hoffm.) Capuron
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: M. hildebrandtii O. Hoffm.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Bipinnate. Rachides (axes) in 4 – 10 pairs, mostly opposite. Leaflets in 8 – 18 pairs. Lflt: Sessile.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.8 cm. primary rachis 6 – 20 cm.
Lamina: Small. 1 – 2.5 × 2.5 – 8 cm. Oblong. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Obtuse/emarginate/apiculate. Entire. Glabrous/hairs on margin and mibrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: NR.
Flower: Infloresence an unbranched thyrse, 4 – 13 cm long. Dioecious.
Fruit: Capsule red or purple, 1.1 – 1.5 cm wide.
Ecology: Riverine forest. Forest edges. Thicket.
Distr: C. Coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Madagascar and islands.
Notes: Leaves superficically legume-like, sometimes once pinnate in early development. Lateral nerves fern-like, closely set. Salt tolerant. The other three varieties of this species and the other six species in the genus are Madagascan.
Uses: NR.
Majidea fosteri (Sprague) Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Straight/buttressed. Medium/large. To 35 m.
Bark: Grey/grey-brown/yellowish. Smooth/flaking. Dense lenticels. Smells of thymol.
Slash: Creamy yellow/yellow-brown.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 5 – 9 pairs leaflets.
Petiole: Rachis 15 – 20 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 10.5 × 1.5 – 3 cm. Lanceolate/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Asymmetric Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence terminal panicle to 13 cm long, hairy. Flowers green, tinged pink. Monoecious.
Fruit: Dehiscent capsule, reddish outside, bright pink/scarlet inside. 3.5 – 4 × 5 cm.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: LV. Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Majidea zanguebarica Kirk ex Oliv. subsp. zanguebarica
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: Majidea zanguebarica Kirk ex Oliv.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mlanyuni (Sw).
Bole: Small/medium. To 22 m.
Bark: Rough/smooth. White-yellow.
Slash: Cream/pale orange.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 5 – 7 pairs leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite/alternate.
Petiole: Rachis 10 – 30 cm, 4-angled. Petiolule: 0.1 cm.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 7 × 2 – 3 cm. Elliptic/ovate-lanceolate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/hairy when young.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Terminal panicles, hairy, 8 – 15 cm long. Flowers yellow-green/red, fragrant. Monoecious.
Fruit: Hairy capsule, brown-yellow outside, bright pink inside, 3 – 3.5 × 3.5 – 4.5 cm.
Ecology: Dry lowland and riverine forest. Woodland.
Distr: C. Eastern Tropical Africa, Madagascar.
Notes: Leaflets drying bright green, drooping when young. Mature fruits and male flowers commonly occur together. Subsp. madagascariensis (Baill.) Capuron is restricted to Madagascar.
Uses: The wood is used for firewood, poles, handles, charcoal and spoons. The tree is sometimes cultivated.
Pancovia golungensis (Hiern) Exell & Mendonça
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 18 m.
Bark: Dark brown/pale grey. Flaking in scales/smooth.
Slash: Yellow/orange/pink with cream layers and purple edge. Wood white, satin.
Leaf: Even-pinnate, 2 – 5 leaflets. Alternate. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 2.5 – 15 cm, thickened at base. Rachis 6 – 12 cm.
Petiolule: 0.5 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5.5 – 27 × 1.7 – 7 cm. Oblong/elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/obtuse/emarginate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Present on undersurface of leave.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence axillary and on older wood, orange-brown hairs, male 2 – 20.5 cm long, female 2.5 – 7 cm long. Flowers cream, sweetly scented. Spikes or racemes on older wood.
Fruit: Orange-yellow when ripe, ellipsoid, berry-like, 1.5 – 2 × 1.1 – 1.5 cm.
Ecology: Lowland, and riverine forest.
Distr: C. EA (lower altitudes). Eastern and Southern Africa, disjunct to Angola.
Notes: Possibly a synonym of P. turbinata, see also P. holtzii notes.
Uses: The wood is hard, used for building poles, tool handles, firewood and charcoal.
Pancovia holtzii Gilg ex Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Branched. Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: Blackish.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 1 – 4 pairs leaflts. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 6 – 14 cm. Rachis 3.5 – 12 cm. Petiolule: 0.5 – 1.1 cm, thickened and wrinkled.
Lamina: Small/medium. 5 – 22 × 2 – 8 cm. Oblong/oblong-elliptic/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Very small obscure glands on leaf underside.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence with orange-brown hairs, axillary and on older wood. Flowers yellow-white. Dioecious.
Fruit: Green-yellow drupe, 3 × 2 cm, 3-lobed.
Ecology: Dry lowland, dry submontane and riverine forest. Thicket.
Distr: C, EA. Coastal Mozambique.
Notes: Leaves drying grey-green. Subsp. holtzii – leaflets acuminate, venation prominent beneath. Subsp. faulknerae Verdc. – leaflets not acuminate, venation beneath less prominent than above (NE Tanzania only). Differs from P. golungensis in male infloresence being condensed, otherwise rather similar.
Uses: NR.
Pancovia sp. B
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Brown. Smooth.
Slash: Pale brown, granular, slightly layered.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 1 – 2 pairs of leaflets. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: NR.
Lamina: Small. 5 – 14 × 1.3 – 3.8 cm. Elliptic-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Inflorescences axillary, 1.2 cm long.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Montane forest.
Distr: EA (Udz).
Notes: Differs from P. golungensis by having only 2 pairs of leaflets.
Uses: NR.
Pancovia turbinata Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 15 m.
Bark: Brown/red-brown. Smooth/horizontally striated.
Slash: Granular, pale brown, mottled with orange-brown.
Leaf: Even-pinnate/pseudo-trifoliolate. 1 – 3 pairs of leaflets. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 1.5 – 10 cm, dark brown. Rachis 1 – 5 cm. Petiolule: 0.2 – 1 cm, thickened.
Lamina: Small. 3.5 – 15 × 1.7 – 6.3 cm. Elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate/acute. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence axillary or ramiflorous, 0.3 – 5 cm long, dark-brown hairy. Flowers white/green-yellow.
Fruit: Ellipsoid, 1 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland and riverine forest.
Distr: LV. Uganda, Central and Western Tropical Africa.
Notes: Leaves drying grey-green.
Uses: NR.
Placodiscus amaniensis Radlk.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small. To 15 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 3 – 5 pairs of leaflets.
Petiole: 5 – 17 cm. Rachis 4 – 20 cm. Petiolule: 0.4 – 1 cm, swollen, channelled.
Lamina: Medium/small. 10 – 26 × 4 – 13 cm. Oblong-elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Acute/acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence simple, spike-like, 27 – 40 cm long, cauliflorous/ramiflorous.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane forest.
Distr: EA only (EUs, Udz).
Notes: Leaves drying brown.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for firewood, poles and tool handles.
Placodiscus pedicellatus F.G. Davies
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Medium. To 20 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Even-pinnate. 6 – 7 pairs of leaflets. Lflt: Alternate/opposite.
Petiole: 3.5 – 6 cm. Rachis 13 – 17 cm. Petiolule: 0.2 cm, swollen.
Lamina: Small/medium. 6 – 12 × 2 – 3 cm. Oblong-elliptic/lanceolate. Cuneate. Asymmetric. Acuminate. Entire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence branched, up to 27 cm long, cauliflorous.
Fruit: NR.
Ecology: Submontane and montane forest.
Distr: EA only (Udz).
Notes: Leaves drying brown. Differs from P. amaniensis in branched infloresence and more pairs of leaflets.
Uses: NR.
Stadmania oppositifolia Lam. subsp. oppositifolia
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 30 m.
Bark: Yellow/brown. Smooth/finely fissured/concentrically-flaking.
Slash: Pink.
Leaf: Pinnate. 2 – 4 pairs of leaflets. Lflt: Opposite.
Petiole: 3 – 7 cm. Rachis 4 – 10 cm. Petiolule: 0.1 – 0.7 cm.
Lamina: Small/medium. 4 – 15 × 2.5 – 6.5 cm. Elliptic. Cuneate. Asymmetrical. Emarginate/Obtuse. Entire. Glabrous/hairy on midrib.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Minute glands on both leaf surfaces.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Infloresence an axillary thryse, 4 – 12.5 cm long. Flowers yellow, scented.
Fruit: Globose, yellow, shortly hairy, 1 – 2.1 cm in diameter.
Ecology: Dry lowland forest. Thicket.
Distr: C. Coastal Kenya and Mozambique, Madagascar and islands.
Notes: Seeds globose, loosely covered in a red fleshy aril. subsp. rhodesica Exell from Zimbabwe has smaller leaflets (4 – 10 × 2 – 4 cm), shorter petioles and a more pronounced vein reticulum on the leaf undersurface than subsp. oppositifolia.
Uses: Wood is hard and used for construction.
Zanha golungensis Hiern
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkwanga (S).
Bole: Small/medium. To 24 m.
Bark: Grey-brown. Scaling in patches. Reddish warty lenticels.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: 4 – 6 pairs of leaflets.
Petiole: Rachis 15 – 25 cm, winged when young, terete. Petiolule: 0 – 0.2 cm.
Lamina: Small. 6 – 11 × 2 – 4 cm. Elliptic/ovate/oblong. Cuneate. Obtuse/acuminate. Entire/serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Absent.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Male in cymose clusters, female in cluster or short panicle. Flowering before leaves emerge. Dioecious.
Fruit: Drupe pink/yellow/orange, 1.4 – 2 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and submontane forest. Woodland.
Distr: C, EA, N, LT, LV. Tropical Africa.
Notes: Deciduous.
Uses: The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for building poles, grain mortars, beehives, firewood, animal traps and charcoal. Fruits are sometimes eaten. The bark is used as medicine for chronic coughs, as a soap substitute and for treating hernias.
Last Updated: 19 June 2017