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VIOLACEAE

Field Guide to the Moist Forest Trees of Tanzania

Jon C. Lovett, Chris K. Ruffo, Roy E. Gereau & James R.D. Taplin
Illustrations by Line Sørensen & Jilly Lovett

VIOLACEAE

Rinorea angustifolia (Thouars) Baill.
subsp. albersii (Engl.) Grey-Wilson
subsp. ardisiiflora (Welw. ex Oliv.) Grey-Wilson
subsp. engleriana (De Wild. & T. Durand) Grey-Wilson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: subsp. albersii: R. albersii Engl.; subsp. ardisiiflora: R. holtzii Engl.; subsp. engleriana: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Kibandu, Muandama (S).
Bole: Small To 10 m.
Bark: Grey brown.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.1 – 0.4 cm. Pubescent.
Lamina: Small/medium. 2 – 8 × 1 – 3 cm. Elliptic/ovate/oblong. Cuneate/rounded. Obtuse/acuminate. Serrate/subentire. Glabrous/slightly hairy.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/yellow-white. Fragrant. Axillary raceme.
Fruit: Subglobose capsule. 0.6 – 0.9 cm long.
Ecology: subsp. albersii: submontane and montane forest; subsp. ardisiiflora: Lowland, montane and upper montane forest; subsp. engleriana: submontane forest.
Distr: subsp. albersii: EA only (Us); subsp. ardisiiflora: C, EA. Eastern Tropical Africa, Angola, Zambia; subsp. engleriana: LV. Uganda, West and Central Africa.
Notes: subsp albersii: petiole glabrous; subsp. ardisiiflora: petiole pubescent, leaf shortly acuminate/acute; subsp engleriana: petiole pubescent, leaf long acuminate.
Uses: The wood is used for poles, whipsticks, tool handles and animal traps. The plant is suitable for ornamental planting.
Rinorea elliptica (Oliv.) Kuntze
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NC.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mshunduzi (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 12 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.7 – 1.0 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 3 – 13 × 2 – 7 cm. Elliptic/oblong. Rounded/cordate. Obtuse/acute. Serrate. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: White/pale pink. Lax axillary raceme.
Fruit: Reddish. Subglobose capsule 0.6 – 0.9 cm.
Ecology: Lowland and riverine forest.
Distr: C, EA. Coastal Kenya, Mozambique, Malawi.
Notes: NR.
Uses: An attractive ornamental shrub. The wood is used for firewood and tool handles.
Rinorea oblongifolia (C. H. Wright) Marquand ex Chipp
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: Small/medium. To 20 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 1.5 – 5.2 cm.
Lamina: Medium. 7.5 – 29.0 × 3.6 – 12.5 cm. Elliptic/oblong/oblong-lanceolate. Rounded/cuneate. Acuminate. Serrate-crenate/subentire. Glabrous.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Absent.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Yellow/orange/reddish. Broad terminal thyrse.
Fruit: 3-lobed capsule 1.5 – 2.2 cm.
Ecology: Swamp forest edges.
Distr: LV. Uganda, Western and Central Africa.
Notes: NR.
Uses: NR.
Rinorea sp. A.
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: NR.
Bole: “Tall tree” (height unknown – probably small).
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.3 – 0.5 cm.
Lamina: Small. 4.3 – 12.5 × 1.8 – 5 cm. Elliptic/elliptic-oblong. Cuneate. Acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous above/few hairs on midrib beneath.
Domatia: NR.
Glands: NR.
Stipules: NR.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Short axillary raceme.
Fruit: Shallowly lobed capsule, 1 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: EA only (Kimboza).
Notes: Related to the West-central Africa species R. beniensis Engl.
Uses: NR.
Rinorea welwitschii (Oliv.) Kuntze subsp. tanzanica Grey-Wilson
Syn. FTEA: NC.
Syn. TTCL: NR.
Syn. other: NR.
Local names: Mkandaa-mwitu, Mshunduzi (Sw).
Bole: Small. To 10 m.
Bark: NR.
Slash: NR.
Leaf: Simple. Alternate.
Petiole: 0.5 – 3 cm. Bristly pubescent.
Lamina: Medium. 7 – 18 × 3 – 7 cm. Ovate/oblong/oblong-lanceolate. Cuneate. Acuminate. Serrate. Glabrous above, slightly hairy beneath.
Domatia: Absent.
Glands: Brown dots underneath leaves.
Stipules: Present.
Thorns & Spines: Absent.
Flower: Slender terminal thyrse.
Fruit: Capsule 3-lobed. 0.1 – 1.7 cm long.
Ecology: Lowland forest.
Distr: C only.
Notes: Differs from subsp. welwitschii, which is from West and Central Africa, by being far less pubescent.
Uses: It is used for poles, firewood, tool handles, animal traps, shade and amenity.
Last Updated: 19 June 2017